Writing Manifest-based Events

Before you can write events to a trace session, you must register your provider. Registering a provider tells ETW that your provider is ready to write events to a trace session. A process can register up to 1,024 provider GUIDs; however, you should limit the number of providers that your process registers to one or two.

Prior to Windows Vista:  There is no limit to the number of providers that a process can register.

To register a manifest-based provider, call the EventRegister function. The function registers the provider's GUID and identifies an optional callback that ETW calls when a controller enables or disables the provider.

Before the provider exits, call the EventUnregister function to remove the provider's registration from ETW. The EventRegister function returns the registration handle that you pass to the EventUnregister function.

Manifest-based providers do not have to implement an EnableCallback function to receive notifications when a session enables or disables the provider. The callback is optional and is used for informational purposes; you do not need to specify or implement the callback when registering the provider. A manifest-based provider can simply write events and ETW will decide if the event gets logged to a trace session. If an event requires that you perform extensive work to generate the event's data, you may want to call the EventEnabled or EventProviderEnabled function first to verify that the event will be written to a session before performing the work.

Typically, you would implement the callback if your provider requires that the controller pass provider-defined filter data (see the FilterData parameter of EnableCallback) to the provider, or the provider uses the context information that it specified when it registered itself (see the CallbackContext parameter of EventRegister).

Manifest-based providers call the EventWrite or EventWriteString function to write events to a session. If your event data is a string, or if you do not define a manifest for your provider and your event data is a single string, call the EventWriteString function to write the event. For event data that contains numeric or complex data types, call the EventWrite function to log the event.

The following example shows how to prepare the event data to be written using the EventWrite function. The example references the events defined in Publishing Your Event Schema for a Manifest-based Provider.


#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <evntprov.h>
#include "provider.h"  // Generated from manifest

#define SUNDAY     0X1
#define MONDAY     0X2
#define TUESDAY    0X4
#define WEDNESDAY  0X8
#define THURSDAY   0X10
#define FRIDAY     0X20
#define SATURDAY   0X40

enum TRANSFER_TYPE {
  Download = 1,
  Upload,
  UploadReply
};

#define MAX_NAMEDVALUES          5  // Maximum array size
#define MAX_PAYLOAD_DESCRIPTORS  9 + (2 * MAX_NAMEDVALUES)

typedef struct _namedvalue {
  LPWSTR name;
  USHORT value;
} NAMEDVALUE, *PNAMEDVALUE;

void wmain(void)
{
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    REGHANDLE RegistrationHandle = NULL; 
    EVENT_DATA_DESCRIPTOR Descriptors[MAX_PAYLOAD_DESCRIPTORS]; 
    DWORD i = 0;

    // Data to load into event descriptors

    USHORT Scores[3] = {45, 63, 21};
    ULONG pImage = (ULONG)&Scores;
    DWORD TransferType = Upload;
    DWORD Day = MONDAY | TUESDAY;
    LPWSTR Path = L"c:\\path\\folder\\file.ext";
    BYTE Cert[11] = {0x2, 0x4, 0x8, 0x10, 0x20, 0x30, 0x40, 0x50, 0x60, 0x0, 0x1};
    PBYTE Guid = (PBYTE) &ProviderGuid;
    USHORT ArraySize = MAX_NAMEDVALUES;
    BOOL IsLocal = TRUE;
    NAMEDVALUE NamedValues[MAX_NAMEDVALUES] = { 
        {L"Bill", 1},
        {L"Bob", 2},
        {L"William", 3},
        {L"Robert", 4},
        {L"", 5}
        };

    status = EventRegister(
        &ProviderGuid,      // GUID that identifies the provider
        NULL,               // Callback not used
        NULL,               // Context noot used
        &RegistrationHandle // Used when calling EventWrite and EventUnregister
        );

    if (ERROR_SUCCESS != status)
    {
        wprintf(L"EventRegister failed with %lu\n", status);
        goto cleanup;
    }
  
    // Load the array of data descriptors for the TransferEvent event. 
    // Add the data to the array in the order of the <data> elements
    // defined in the event's template. 
   
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &pImage, sizeof(ULONG));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], Scores, sizeof(Scores));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], Guid, sizeof(GUID));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], Cert, sizeof(Cert));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &IsLocal, sizeof(BOOL));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], Path, (ULONG)(wcslen(Path) + 1) * sizeof(WCHAR));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &ArraySize, sizeof(USHORT));

    // If your event contains a structure, you should write each member
    // of the structure separately. If the structure contained integral data types
    // such as DWORDs and the data types were aligned on an 8-byte boundary, you 
    // could use the following call to write the structure, however, you are 
    // encouraged to write the members separately.
    //
    // EventDataDescCreate(&EvtData, struct, sizeof(struct));
    //
    // Because the array of structures in this example contains both strings 
    // and numbers, you must write each member of the structure separately.

    for (int j = 0; j < MAX_NAMEDVALUES; j++)
    {
        EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], NamedValues[j].name, (ULONG)(wcslen(NamedValues[j].name)+1) * sizeof(WCHAR) );
        EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &(NamedValues[j].value), sizeof(USHORT) );
    }

    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &Day, sizeof(DWORD));
    EventDataDescCreate(&Descriptors[i++], &TransferType, sizeof(DWORD));

    // Write the event. You do not have to verify if your provider is enabled before
    // writing the event. ETW will write the event to any session that enabled
    // the provider. If no session enabled the provider, the event is not 
    // written. If you need to perform extra work to write an event that you
    // would not otherwise do, you may want to call the EventEnabled function
    // before performing the extra work. The EventEnabled function tells you if a
    // session has enabled your provider, so you know if you need to perform the 
    // extra work or not.

    status = EventWrite(
        RegistrationHandle,              // From EventRegister
        &TransferEvent,                  // EVENT_DESCRIPTOR generated from the manifest
        (ULONG)MAX_PAYLOAD_DESCRIPTORS,  // Size of the array of EVENT_DATA_DESCRIPTORs
        &Descriptors[0]                  // Array of descriptors that contain the event data
        );

    if (status != ERROR_SUCCESS) 
    {
        wprintf(L"EventWrite failed with 0x%x", status);
    }

cleanup:

    EventUnregister(RegistrationHandle);
}


When you compile the manifest (see Compiling an Instrumentation Manifest) that the example above uses, it creates the following header file (referenced in the example above).


//**********************************************************************`
//* This is an include file generated by Message Compiler.             *`
//*                                                                    *`
//* Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.          *`
//**********************************************************************`
#pragma once
//+
// Provider Microsoft-Windows-ETWProvider Event Count 1
//+
EXTERN_C __declspec(selectany) const GUID ProviderGuid = {0xd8909c24, 0x5be9, 0x4502, {0x98, 0xca, 0xab, 0x7b, 0xdc, 0x24, 0x89, 0x9d}};
//
// Keyword
//
#define READ_KEYWORD 0x1
#define WRITE_KEYWORD 0x2
#define LOCAL_KEYWORD 0x4
#define REMOTE_KEYWORD 0x8

//
// Event Descriptors
//
EXTERN_C __declspec(selectany) const EVENT_DESCRIPTOR TransferEvent = {0x1, 0x0, 0x0, 0x4, 0x0, 0x0, 0x5};
#define TransferEvent_value 0x1
#define MSG_Provider_Name                    0x90000001L
#define MSG_Event_WhenToTransfer             0xB0000001L
#define MSG_Map_Download                     0xD0000001L
#define MSG_Map_Upload                       0xD0000002L
#define MSG_Map_UploadReply                  0xD0000003L
#define MSG_Map_Sunday                       0xF0000001L
#define MSG_Map_Monday                       0xF0000002L
#define MSG_Map_Tuesday                      0xF0000003L
#define MSG_Map_Wednesday                    0xF0000004L
#define MSG_Map_Thursday                     0xF0000005L
#define MSG_Map_Friday                       0xF0000006L
#define MSG_Map_Saturday                     0xF0000007L


 

 

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