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BackgroundWorker Class

Executes an operation on a separate thread.

Namespace: System.ComponentModel
Assembly: System (in system.dll)

public class BackgroundWorker : Component
public class BackgroundWorker extends Component
public class BackgroundWorker extends Component
Not applicable.

The BackgroundWorker class allows you to run an operation on a separate, dedicated thread. Time-consuming operations like downloads and database transactions can cause your user interface (UI) to seem as though it has stopped responding while they are running. When you want a responsive UI and you are faced with long delays associated with such operations, the BackgroundWorker class provides a convenient solution.

To execute a time-consuming operation in the background, create a BackgroundWorker and listen for events that report the progress of your operation and signal when your operation is finished. You can create the BackgroundWorker programmatically or you can drag it onto your form from the Components tab of the Toolbox. If you create the BackgroundWorker in the Windows Forms Designer, it will appear in the Component Tray, and its properties will be displayed in the Properties window.

To set up for a background operation, add an event handler for the DoWork event. Call your time-consuming operation in this event handler. To start the operation, call RunWorkerAsync. To receive notifications of progress updates, handle the ProgressChanged event. To receive a notification when the operation is completed, handle the RunWorkerCompleted event.

NoteNote:

You must be careful not to manipulate any user-interface objects in your DoWork event handler. Instead, communicate to the user interface through the ProgressChanged and RunWorkerCompleted events.

BackgroundWorker events are not marshaled across AppDomain boundaries. Do not use a BackgroundWorker component to perform multithreaded operations in more than one AppDomain.

If your background operation requires a parameter, call RunWorkerAsync with your parameter. Inside the DoWork event handler, you can extract the parameter from the DoWorkEventArgs.Argument property.

For more information about BackgroundWorker, see How to: Run an Operation in the Background.

NoteNote:

The HostProtectionAttribute attribute applied to this class has the following Resources property value: SharedState. The HostProtectionAttribute does not affect desktop applications (which are typically started by double-clicking an icon, typing a command, or entering a URL in a browser). For more information, see the HostProtectionAttribute class or SQL Server Programming and Host Protection Attributes.

The following code example demonstrates the use of the BackgroundWorker class for executing a time-consuming operation asynchronously. The operation computes the selected Fibonacci number, reports progress updates as the calculation proceeds, and permits a pending calculation to be canceled.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Threading;
using System.Windows.Forms;

namespace BackgroundWorkerExample
{	
    public class FibonacciForm : System.Windows.Forms.Form
    {	
        private int numberToCompute = 0;
        private int highestPercentageReached = 0;

        private System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown numericUpDown1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button startAsyncButton;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Button cancelAsyncButton;
        private System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar progressBar1;
        private System.Windows.Forms.Label resultLabel;
        private System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;

        public FibonacciForm()
        {	
            InitializeComponent();

            InitializeBackgoundWorker();
        }

        // Set up the BackgroundWorker object by 
        // attaching event handlers. 
        private void InitializeBackgoundWorker()
        {
            backgroundWorker1.DoWork += 
                new DoWorkEventHandler(backgroundWorker1_DoWork);
            backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerCompleted += 
                new RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted);
            backgroundWorker1.ProgressChanged += 
                new ProgressChangedEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged);
        }
	
        private void startAsyncButton_Click(System.Object sender, 
            System.EventArgs e)
        {
            // Reset the text in the result label.
            resultLabel.Text = String.Empty;

            // Disable the UpDown control until 
            // the asynchronous operation is done.
            this.numericUpDown1.Enabled = false;

            // Disable the Start button until 
            // the asynchronous operation is done.
            this.startAsyncButton.Enabled = false;

            // Enable the Cancel button while 
            // the asynchronous operation runs.
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = true;

            // Get the value from the UpDown control.
            numberToCompute = (int)numericUpDown1.Value;

            // Reset the variable for percentage tracking.
            highestPercentageReached = 0;

            // Start the asynchronous operation.
            backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(numberToCompute);
        }

        private void cancelAsyncButton_Click(System.Object sender, 
            System.EventArgs e)
        {   
            // Cancel the asynchronous operation.
            this.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync();

            // Disable the Cancel button.
            cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
        }

        // This event handler is where the actual,
        // potentially time-consuming work is done.
        private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(object sender, 
            DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {   
            // Get the BackgroundWorker that raised this event.
            BackgroundWorker worker = sender as BackgroundWorker;

            // Assign the result of the computation
            // to the Result property of the DoWorkEventArgs
            // object. This is will be available to the 
            // RunWorkerCompleted eventhandler.
            e.Result = ComputeFibonacci((int)e.Argument, worker, e);
        }

        // This event handler deals with the results of the
        // background operation.
        private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(
            object sender, RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
        {
            // First, handle the case where an exception was thrown.
            if (e.Error != null)
            {
                MessageBox.Show(e.Error.Message);
            }
            else if (e.Cancelled)
            {
                // Next, handle the case where the user canceled 
                // the operation.
                // Note that due to a race condition in 
                // the DoWork event handler, the Cancelled
                // flag may not have been set, even though
                // CancelAsync was called.
                resultLabel.Text = "Canceled";
            }
            else
            {
                // Finally, handle the case where the operation 
                // succeeded.
                resultLabel.Text = e.Result.ToString();
            }

            // Enable the UpDown control.
            this.numericUpDown1.Enabled = true;

            // Enable the Start button.
            startAsyncButton.Enabled = true;

            // Disable the Cancel button.
            cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
        }

        // This event handler updates the progress bar.
        private void backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged(object sender,
            ProgressChangedEventArgs e)
        {
            this.progressBar1.Value = e.ProgressPercentage;
        }

        // This is the method that does the actual work. For this
        // example, it computes a Fibonacci number and
        // reports progress as it does its work.
        long ComputeFibonacci(int n, BackgroundWorker worker, DoWorkEventArgs e)
        {
            // The parameter n must be >= 0 and <= 91.
            // Fib(n), with n > 91, overflows a long.
            if ((n < 0) || (n > 91))
            {
                throw new ArgumentException(
                    "value must be >= 0 and <= 91", "n");
            }

            long result = 0;

            // Abort the operation if the user has canceled.
            // Note that a call to CancelAsync may have set 
            // CancellationPending to true just after the
            // last invocation of this method exits, so this 
            // code will not have the opportunity to set the 
            // DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel flag to true. This means
            // that RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Cancelled will
            // not be set to true in your RunWorkerCompleted
            // event handler. This is a race condition.

            if (worker.CancellationPending)
            {   
                e.Cancel = true;
            }
            else
            {   
                if (n < 2)
                {   
                    result = 1;
                }
                else
                {   
                    result = ComputeFibonacci(n - 1, worker, e) + 
                             ComputeFibonacci(n - 2, worker, e);
                }

                // Report progress as a percentage of the total task.
                int percentComplete = 
                    (int)((float)n / (float)numberToCompute * 100);
                if (percentComplete > highestPercentageReached)
                {
                    highestPercentageReached = percentComplete;
                    worker.ReportProgress(percentComplete);
                }
            }

            return result;
        }


		#region Windows Form Designer generated code
		
        private void InitializeComponent()
        {
            this.numericUpDown1 = new System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown();
            this.startAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.cancelAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
            this.resultLabel = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
            this.progressBar1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar();
            this.backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
            ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).BeginInit();
            this.SuspendLayout();
            // 
            // numericUpDown1
            // 
            this.numericUpDown1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 16);
            this.numericUpDown1.Maximum = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            91,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            this.numericUpDown1.Minimum = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            1,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            this.numericUpDown1.Name = "numericUpDown1";
            this.numericUpDown1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(80, 20);
            this.numericUpDown1.TabIndex = 0;
            this.numericUpDown1.Value = new System.Decimal(new int[] {
            1,
            0,
            0,
            0});
            // 
            // startAsyncButton
            // 
            this.startAsyncButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(16, 72);
            this.startAsyncButton.Name = "startAsyncButton";
            this.startAsyncButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(120, 23);
            this.startAsyncButton.TabIndex = 1;
            this.startAsyncButton.Text = "Start Async";
            this.startAsyncButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.startAsyncButton_Click);
            // 
            // cancelAsyncButton
            // 
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Enabled = false;
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(153, 72);
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Name = "cancelAsyncButton";
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(119, 23);
            this.cancelAsyncButton.TabIndex = 2;
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Text = "Cancel Async";
            this.cancelAsyncButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.cancelAsyncButton_Click);
            // 
            // resultLabel
            // 
            this.resultLabel.BorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.Fixed3D;
            this.resultLabel.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(112, 16);
            this.resultLabel.Name = "resultLabel";
            this.resultLabel.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(160, 23);
            this.resultLabel.TabIndex = 3;
            this.resultLabel.Text = "(no result)";
            this.resultLabel.TextAlign = System.Drawing.ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter;
            // 
            // progressBar1
            // 
            this.progressBar1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(18, 48);
            this.progressBar1.Name = "progressBar1";
            this.progressBar1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(256, 8);
            this.progressBar1.Step = 2;
            this.progressBar1.TabIndex = 4;
            // 
            // backgroundWorker1
            // 
            this.backgroundWorker1.WorkerReportsProgress = true;
            this.backgroundWorker1.WorkerSupportsCancellation = true;
            // 
            // FibonacciForm
            // 
            this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(292, 118);
            this.Controls.Add(this.progressBar1);
            this.Controls.Add(this.resultLabel);
            this.Controls.Add(this.cancelAsyncButton);
            this.Controls.Add(this.startAsyncButton);
            this.Controls.Add(this.numericUpDown1);
            this.Name = "FibonacciForm";
            this.Text = "Fibonacci Calculator";
            ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).EndInit();
            this.ResumeLayout(false);

        }
		#endregion

        [STAThread]
        static void Main()
        {
            Application.Run(new FibonacciForm());
        }
    }
}


import System.* ;
import System.Collections.* ;
import System.ComponentModel.* ;
import System.Drawing.* ;
import System.Threading.* ;
import System.Windows.Forms.* ;

public class FibonacciForm extends System.Windows.Forms.Form
{
    private int numberToCompute = 0;
    private int highestPercentageReached = 0;

    private System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown numericUpDown1;
    private System.Windows.Forms.Button startAsyncButton;
    private System.Windows.Forms.Button cancelAsyncButton;
    private System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar progressBar1;
    private System.Windows.Forms.Label resultLabel;
    private System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker backgroundWorker1;

    public FibonacciForm()
    {
        InitializeComponent();
        InitializeBackgoundWorker();
    } //FibonacciForm

    // Set up the BackgroundWorker object by 
    // attaching event handlers. 
    private void InitializeBackgoundWorker()
    {
        backgroundWorker1.add_DoWork(new DoWorkEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_DoWork));
        backgroundWorker1.add_RunWorkerCompleted(
            new RunWorkerCompletedEventHandler(
            backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted));
        backgroundWorker1.add_ProgressChanged(
            new ProgressChangedEventHandler(backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged));
    } //InitializeBackgoundWorker

    private void startAsyncButton_Click(Object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        // Reset the text in the result label.
        resultLabel.set_Text(String.Empty);

        // Disable the UpDown control until 
        // the asynchronous operation is done.
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Enabled(false);

        // Disable the Start button until 
        // the asynchronous operation is done.
        this.startAsyncButton.set_Enabled(false);

        // Enable the Cancel button while 
        // the asynchronous operation runs.
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Enabled(true);

        // Get the value from the UpDown control.
        numberToCompute = System.Convert.ToInt32((numericUpDown1.get_Value()));

        // Reset the variable for percentage tracking.
        highestPercentageReached = 0;

        // Start the asynchronous operation.
        backgroundWorker1.RunWorkerAsync(System.Convert.ToString
            (numberToCompute));
    }
    
    private void cancelAsyncButton_Click(Object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {   
        // Cancel the asynchronous operation.
        this.backgroundWorker1.CancelAsync();

        // Disable the Cancel button.
        cancelAsyncButton.set_Enabled(false);
    }


    // This event handler is where the actual,
    // potentially time-consuming work is done.
    private void backgroundWorker1_DoWork(Object sender, DoWorkEventArgs e)
    {
        // Get the BackgroundWorker that raised this event.
        BackgroundWorker worker = (BackgroundWorker)sender;

        // Assign the result of the computation
        // to the Result property of the DoWorkEventArgs
        // object. This is will be available to the 
        // RunWorkerCompleted eventhandler.
        e.set_Result(new Long(ComputeFibonacci(System.Convert.ToInt32
            (e.get_Argument()), worker, e)));
        //e.Result = ComputeFibonacci((int)e.Argument, worker, e); 
    } //backgroundWorker1_DoWork

    // This event handler deals with the results of the
    // background operation.
    private void backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted(Object sender,
        RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs e)
    {
        // First, handle the case where an exception was thrown.
        if (e.get_Error() != null) {
        
            MessageBox.Show(e.get_Error().get_Message());
        }
        else {
        
            if (e.get_Cancelled()) {
            
                // Next, handle the case where the user cancelled 
                // the operation.
                // Note that due to a race condition in 
                // the DoWork event handler, the Cancelled
                // flag may not have been set, even though
                // CancelAsync was called.
                resultLabel.set_Text("Cancelled");
            }
            else {
            
                // Finally, handle the case where the operation 
                // succeeded.
                resultLabel.set_Text(e.get_Result().ToString());
            }
        }

        // Enable the UpDown control.
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Enabled(true);

        // Enable the Start button.
        startAsyncButton.set_Enabled(true);

        // Disable the Cancel button.
        cancelAsyncButton.set_Enabled(false);
    } //backgroundWorker1_RunWorkerCompleted

    // This event handler updates the progress bar.
    private void backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged(Object sender,
        ProgressChangedEventArgs e)
    {
        this.progressBar1.set_Value(e.get_ProgressPercentage());
    } //backgroundWorker1_ProgressChanged

    // This is the method that does the actual work. For this
    // example, it computes a Fibonacci number and
    // reports progress as it does its work.
    long ComputeFibonacci(int n, BackgroundWorker worker, DoWorkEventArgs e)
    {
        // The parameter n must be >= 0 and <= 91.
        // Fib(n), with n > 91, overflows a long.
        if (n < 0 || n > 91) {
            throw new ArgumentException("value must be >= 0 and <= 91", "n");
        }

        long result = 0;

        // Abort the operation if the user has cancelled.
        // Note that a call to CancelAsync may have set 
        // CancellationPending to true just after the
        // last invocation of this method exits, so this 
        // code will not have the opportunity to set the 
        // DoWorkEventArgs.Cancel flag to true. This means
        // that RunWorkerCompletedEventArgs.Cancelled will
        // not be set to true in your RunWorkerCompleted
        // event handler. This is a race condition.
        if (worker.get_CancellationPending()) {
        
            e.set_Cancel(true);
        }
        else {
        
            if (n < 2) {
            
                result = 1;
            }
            else {
            
                result = ComputeFibonacci(n - 1, worker, e) 
                    + ComputeFibonacci(n - 2, worker, e);
            }

            // Report progress as a percentage of the total task.
            int percentComplete=(int)((float)(n)/(float)(numberToCompute)* 100);

            if (percentComplete > highestPercentageReached) {            
                highestPercentageReached = percentComplete;
                worker.ReportProgress(percentComplete);
            }
        }

        return result;
    } 

    #region Windows Form Designer generated code
    private void InitializeComponent()
    {
        this.numericUpDown1 = new System.Windows.Forms.NumericUpDown();
        this.startAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
        this.cancelAsyncButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
        this.resultLabel = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
        this.progressBar1 = new System.Windows.Forms.ProgressBar();
        this.backgroundWorker1 = new System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker();
        ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).
            BeginInit();
        this.SuspendLayout();

        // 
        // numericUpDown1
        // 
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Location(new System.Drawing.Point(16, 16));
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Maximum(new System.Decimal(
            new int[] { 91, 0, 0, 0 }));
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Minimum(new System.Decimal(
            new int[] { 1, 0, 0, 0 }));
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Name("numericUpDown1");
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Size(new System.Drawing.Size(80, 20));
        this.numericUpDown1.set_TabIndex(0);
        this.numericUpDown1.set_Value(new System.Decimal(
            new int[] { 1, 0, 0, 0 }));

        // 
        // startAsyncButton
        // 
        this.startAsyncButton.set_Location(new System.Drawing.Point(16, 72));
        this.startAsyncButton.set_Name("startAsyncButton");
        this.startAsyncButton.set_Size(new System.Drawing.Size(120, 23));
        this.startAsyncButton.set_TabIndex(1);
        this.startAsyncButton.set_Text("Start Async");
        this.startAsyncButton.add_Click(
            new System.EventHandler(this.startAsyncButton_Click));

        // 
        // cancelAsyncButton
        // 
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Enabled(false);
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Location(new System.Drawing.Point(153, 72));
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Name("cancelAsyncButton");
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Size(new System.Drawing.Size(119, 23));
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_TabIndex(2);
        this.cancelAsyncButton.set_Text("Cancel Async");
        this.cancelAsyncButton.add_Click(
            new System.EventHandler(this.cancelAsyncButton_Click));

        // 
        // resultLabel
        // 
        this.resultLabel.set_BorderStyle(System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.Fixed3D);
        this.resultLabel.set_Location(new System.Drawing.Point(112, 16));
        this.resultLabel.set_Name("resultLabel");
        this.resultLabel.set_Size(new System.Drawing.Size(160, 23));
        this.resultLabel.set_TabIndex(3);
        this.resultLabel.set_Text("(no result)");
        this.resultLabel.set_TextAlign(System.Drawing.ContentAlignment.MiddleCenter);

        // 
        // progressBar1
        // 
        this.progressBar1.set_Location(new System.Drawing.Point(18, 48));
        this.progressBar1.set_Name("progressBar1");
        this.progressBar1.set_Size(new System.Drawing.Size(256, 8));
        this.progressBar1.set_Step(2);
        this.progressBar1.set_TabIndex(4);

        // 
        // backgroundWorker1
        // 
        this.backgroundWorker1.set_WorkerReportsProgress(true);
        this.backgroundWorker1.set_WorkerSupportsCancellation(true);

        // 
        // FibonacciForm
        // 
        this.set_ClientSize(new System.Drawing.Size(292, 118));
        this.get_Controls().Add(this.progressBar1);
        this.get_Controls().Add(this.resultLabel);
        this.get_Controls().Add(this.cancelAsyncButton);
        this.get_Controls().Add(this.startAsyncButton);
        this.get_Controls().Add(this.numericUpDown1);
        this.set_Name("FibonacciForm");
        this.set_Text("Fibonacci Calculator");
        ((System.ComponentModel.ISupportInitialize)(this.numericUpDown1)).
            EndInit();
        this.ResumeLayout(false);
    } //InitializeComponent
    #endregion

    /** @attribute STAThread()
     */
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        Application.Run(new FibonacciForm());
    } //main
} //FibonacciForm
   

System.Object
   System.MarshalByRefObject
     System.ComponentModel.Component
      System.ComponentModel.BackgroundWorker

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0

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