Information
The topic you requested is included in another documentation set. For convenience, it's displayed below. Choose Switch to see the topic in its original location.

String.Normalize Method (NormalizationForm)

Returns a new string whose textual value is the same as this string, but whose binary representation is in the specified Unicode normalization form.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public string Normalize (
	NormalizationForm normalizationForm
)
public String Normalize (
	NormalizationForm normalizationForm
)
public function Normalize (
	normalizationForm : NormalizationForm
) : String
Not applicable.

Parameters

normalizationForm

A Unicode normalization form.

Return Value

A new string whose textual value is the same as this string, but whose binary representation is in the normalization form specified by the normalizationForm parameter.

Some Unicode characters have multiple equivalent binary representations consisting of sets of combining and/or composite Unicode characters. The existence of multiple representations for a single character complicates searching, sorting, matching, and other operations.

The Unicode standard defines a process called normalization that returns one binary representation when given any of the equivalent binary representations of a character. Normalization can be performed with several algorithms, called normalization forms, that obey different rules. The .NET Framework currently supports normalization forms C, D, KC, and KD.

For a description of supported Unicode normalization forms, see System.Text.NormalizationForm.

The following code example normalizes a string to each of four normalization forms, confirms the string was normalized to the specified normalization form, then lists the code points in the normalized string.

// This example demonstrates the String.Normalize method
//                       and the String.IsNormalized method

using System;
using System.Text;

class Sample 
{
    public static void Main() 
    {
// Character c; combining characters acute and cedilla; character 3/4
    string s1 = new String( new char[] {'\u0063', '\u0301', '\u0327', '\u00BE'});
    string s2 = null;
    string divider = new String('-', 80);
    divider = String.Concat(Environment.NewLine, divider, Environment.NewLine);

    try 
    {
    Show("s1", s1);
    Console.WriteLine();
    Console.WriteLine("U+0063 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C");
    Console.WriteLine("U+0301 = COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT");
    Console.WriteLine("U+0327 = COMBINING CEDILLA");
    Console.WriteLine("U+00BE = VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS");
    Console.WriteLine(divider);

    Console.WriteLine("A1) Is s1 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: {0}", 
                                 s1.IsNormalized());
    Console.WriteLine("A2) Is s1 normalized to Form C?:  {0}", 
                                 s1.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormC));
    Console.WriteLine("A3) Is s1 normalized to Form D?:  {0}", 
                                 s1.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormD));
    Console.WriteLine("A4) Is s1 normalized to Form KC?: {0}", 
                                 s1.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKC));
    Console.WriteLine("A5) Is s1 normalized to Form KD?: {0}", 
                                 s1.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKD));

    Console.WriteLine(divider);

    Console.WriteLine("Set string s2 to each normalized form of string s1.");
    Console.WriteLine();
    Console.WriteLine("U+1E09 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA AND ACUTE");
    Console.WriteLine("U+0033 = DIGIT THREE");
    Console.WriteLine("U+2044 = FRACTION SLASH");
    Console.WriteLine("U+0034 = DIGIT FOUR");
    Console.WriteLine(divider);

    s2 = s1.Normalize();
    Console.Write("B1) Is s2 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: ");
    Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized());
    Show("s2", s2);
    Console.WriteLine();

    s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormC);
    Console.Write("B2) Is s2 normalized to Form C?: ");
    Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormC));
    Show("s2", s2);
    Console.WriteLine();

    s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormD);
    Console.Write("B3) Is s2 normalized to Form D?: ");
    Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormD));
    Show("s2", s2);
    Console.WriteLine();

    s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormKC);
    Console.Write("B4) Is s2 normalized to Form KC?: ");
    Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKC));
    Show("s2", s2);
    Console.WriteLine();

    s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormKD);
    Console.Write("B5) Is s2 normalized to Form KD?: ");
    Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKD));
    Show("s2", s2);
    Console.WriteLine();
    }

    catch (Exception e) 
        {
        Console.WriteLine(e.Message);
        }
    }

    private static void Show(string title, string s)
    {
    Console.Write("Characters in string {0} = ", title);
    foreach(short x in s.ToCharArray())
        {
        Console.Write("{0:X4} ", x);
        }
    Console.WriteLine();
    }
}
/*
This example produces the following results:

Characters in string s1 = 0063 0301 0327 00BE

U+0063 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C
U+0301 = COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT
U+0327 = COMBINING CEDILLA
U+00BE = VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A1) Is s1 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: False
A2) Is s1 normalized to Form C?:  False
A3) Is s1 normalized to Form D?:  False
A4) Is s1 normalized to Form KC?: False
A5) Is s1 normalized to Form KD?: False

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Set string s2 to each normalized form of string s1.

U+1E09 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA AND ACUTE
U+0033 = DIGIT THREE
U+2044 = FRACTION SLASH
U+0034 = DIGIT FOUR

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B1) Is s2 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 00BE

B2) Is s2 normalized to Form C?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 00BE

B3) Is s2 normalized to Form D?: True
Characters in string s2 = 0063 0327 0301 00BE

B4) Is s2 normalized to Form KC?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 0033 2044 0034

B5) Is s2 normalized to Form KD?: True
Characters in string s2 = 0063 0327 0301 0033 2044 0034

*/

// This example demonstrates the String.Normalize method
//                       and the String.IsNormalized method
import System.*;
import System.Text.*;

class Sample
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Character c; combining characters acute and cedilla; character 3/4
        String s1 = new String(new char[] { '\u0063', '\u0301', '\u0327', 
            '\u00BE' });
        String s2 = null;
        String divider = new String('-', 80);
        divider = String.Concat(Environment.get_NewLine(), divider, 
            Environment.get_NewLine());

        try {
            Show("s1", s1);
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("U+0063 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C");
            Console.WriteLine("U+0301 = COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT");
            Console.WriteLine("U+0327 = COMBINING CEDILLA");
            Console.WriteLine("U+00BE = VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS");
            Console.WriteLine(divider);

            Console.WriteLine("A1) Is s1 normalized to the default form " 
                + "(Form C)?: {0}", System.Convert.ToString(s1.IsNormalized()));
            Console.WriteLine("A2) Is s1 normalized to Form C?:  {0}", 
                System.Convert.ToString(s1.
                IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormC)));
            Console.WriteLine("A3) Is s1 normalized to Form D?:  {0}", 
                System.Convert.ToString(s1.
                IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormD)));
            Console.WriteLine("A4) Is s1 normalized to Form KC?: {0}", 
                System.Convert.ToString(s1.
                IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKC)));
            Console.WriteLine("A5) Is s1 normalized to Form KD?: {0}", 
                System.Convert.ToString(s1.
                IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKD)));

            Console.WriteLine(divider);

            Console.WriteLine("Set string s2 to each normalized form of " 
                + "string s1.");
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine("U+1E09 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA " 
                + "AND ACUTE");
            Console.WriteLine("U+0033 = DIGIT THREE");
            Console.WriteLine("U+2044 = FRACTION SLASH");
            Console.WriteLine("U+0034 = DIGIT FOUR");
            Console.WriteLine(divider);

            s2 = s1.Normalize();
            Console.Write("B1) Is s2 normalized to the default form " 
                + "(Form C)?: ");
            Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized());
            Show("s2", s2);
            Console.WriteLine();

            s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormC);
            Console.Write("B2) Is s2 normalized to Form C?: ");
            Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormC));
            Show("s2", s2);
            Console.WriteLine();

            s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormD);
            Console.Write("B3) Is s2 normalized to Form D?: ");
            Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormD));
            Show("s2", s2);
            Console.WriteLine();

            s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormKC);
            Console.Write("B4) Is s2 normalized to Form KC?: ");
            Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKC));
            Show("s2", s2);
            Console.WriteLine();

            s2 = s1.Normalize(NormalizationForm.FormKD);
            Console.Write("B5) Is s2 normalized to Form KD?: ");
            Console.WriteLine(s2.IsNormalized(NormalizationForm.FormKD));
            Show("s2", s2);
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
        catch (System.Exception e) {
            Console.WriteLine(e.get_Message());
        }
    } //main

    private static void Show(String title, String s)
    {
        Console.Write("Characters in string {0} = ", title);
        char myCharArray[] = s.ToCharArray();
        for (int iCtr = 0; iCtr < myCharArray.length; iCtr++) {
            char c = myCharArray[iCtr];
            Console.Write(((System.Int32)c).ToString("X4") + " ");
        }
        Console.WriteLine();
    } //Show
} //Sample
/*
This example produces the following results:

Characters in string s1 = 0063 0301 0327 00BE

U+0063 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C
U+0301 = COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT
U+0327 = COMBINING CEDILLA
U+00BE = VULGAR FRACTION THREE QUARTERS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A1) Is s1 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: False
A2) Is s1 normalized to Form C?:  False
A3) Is s1 normalized to Form D?:  False
A4) Is s1 normalized to Form KC?: False
A5) Is s1 normalized to Form KD?: False

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Set string s2 to each normalized form of string s1.

U+1E09 = LATIN SMALL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA AND ACUTE
U+0033 = DIGIT THREE
U+2044 = FRACTION SLASH
U+0034 = DIGIT FOUR

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

B1) Is s2 normalized to the default form (Form C)?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 00BE

B2) Is s2 normalized to Form C?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 00BE

B3) Is s2 normalized to Form D?: True
Characters in string s2 = 0063 0327 0301 00BE

B4) Is s2 normalized to Form KC?: True
Characters in string s2 = 1E09 0033 2044 0034

B5) Is s2 normalized to Form KD?: True
Characters in string s2 = 0063 0327 0301 0033 2044 0034

*/

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0

Community Additions

Show:
© 2014 Microsoft