Information
The topic you requested is included in another documentation set. For convenience, it's displayed below. Choose Switch to see the topic in its original location.

CreateFileMapping function

Creates or opens a named or unnamed file mapping object for a specified file.

To specify the NUMA node for the physical memory, see CreateFileMappingNuma.

Syntax


HANDLE WINAPI CreateFileMapping(
  _In_      HANDLE hFile,
  _In_opt_  LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpAttributes,
  _In_      DWORD flProtect,
  _In_      DWORD dwMaximumSizeHigh,
  _In_      DWORD dwMaximumSizeLow,
  _In_opt_  LPCTSTR lpName
);

Parameters

hFile [in]

A handle to the file from which to create a file mapping object.

The file must be opened with access rights that are compatible with the protection flags that the flProtect parameter specifies. It is not required, but it is recommended that files you intend to map be opened for exclusive access. For more information, see File Security and Access Rights.

If hFile is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE, the calling process must also specify a size for the file mapping object in the dwMaximumSizeHigh and dwMaximumSizeLow parameters. In this scenario, CreateFileMapping creates a file mapping object of a specified size that is backed by the system paging file instead of by a file in the file system.

lpAttributes [in, optional]

A pointer to a SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES structure that determines whether a returned handle can be inherited by child processes. The lpSecurityDescriptor member of the SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES structure specifies a security descriptor for a new file mapping object.

If lpAttributes is NULL, the handle cannot be inherited and the file mapping object gets a default security descriptor. The access control lists (ACL) in the default security descriptor for a file mapping object come from the primary or impersonation token of the creator. For more information, see File Mapping Security and Access Rights.

flProtect [in]

Specifies the page protection of the file mapping object. All mapped views of the object must be compatible with this protection.

This parameter can be one of the following values.

ValueMeaning
PAGE_EXECUTE_READ
0x20

Allows views to be mapped for read-only, copy-on-write, or execute access.

The file handle specified by the hFile parameter must be created with the GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_EXECUTE access rights.

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  This value is not available until Windows XP with SP2 and Windows Server 2003 with SP1.

PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE
0x40

Allows views to be mapped for read-only, copy-on-write, read/write, or execute access.

The file handle that the hFile parameter specifies must be created with the GENERIC_READ, GENERIC_WRITE, and GENERIC_EXECUTE access rights.

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  This value is not available until Windows XP with SP2 and Windows Server 2003 with SP1.

PAGE_EXECUTE_WRITECOPY
0x80

Allows views to be mapped for read-only, copy-on-write, or execute access. This value is equivalent to PAGE_EXECUTE_READ.

The file handle that the hFile parameter specifies must be created with the GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_EXECUTE access rights.

Windows Vista:  This value is not available until Windows Vista with SP1.

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  This value is not supported.

PAGE_READONLY
0x02

Allows views to be mapped for read-only or copy-on-write access. An attempt to write to a specific region results in an access violation.

The file handle that the hFile parameter specifies must be created with the GENERIC_READ access right.

PAGE_READWRITE
0x04

Allows views to be mapped for read-only, copy-on-write, or read/write access.

The file handle that the hFile parameter specifies must be created with the GENERIC_READ and GENERIC_WRITE access rights.

PAGE_WRITECOPY
0x08

Allows views to be mapped for read-only or copy-on-write access. This value is equivalent to PAGE_READONLY.

The file handle that the hFile parameter specifies must be created with the GENERIC_READ access right.

 

An application can specify one or more of the following attributes for the file mapping object by combining them with one of the preceding page protection values.

ValueMeaning
SEC_COMMIT
0x8000000

If the file mapping object is backed by the operating system paging file (the hfile parameter is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE), specifies that when a view of the file is mapped into a process address space, the entire range of pages is committed rather than reserved. The system must have enough committable pages to hold the entire mapping. Otherwise, CreateFileMapping fails.

This attribute has no effect for file mapping objects that are backed by executable image files or data files (the hfile parameter is a handle to a file).

SEC_COMMIT cannot be combined with SEC_RESERVE.

If no attribute is specified, SEC_COMMIT is assumed.

SEC_IMAGE
0x1000000

Specifies that the file that the hFile parameter specifies is an executable image file.

The SEC_IMAGE attribute must be combined with a page protection value such as PAGE_READONLY. However, this page protection value has no effect on views of the executable image file. Page protection for views of an executable image file is determined by the executable file itself.

No other attributes are valid with SEC_IMAGE.

SEC_IMAGE_NO_EXECUTE
0x11000000

Specifies that the file that the hFile parameter specifies is an executable image file that will not be executed and the loaded image file will have no forced integrity checks run. Additionally, mapping a view of a file mapping object created with the SEC_IMAGE_NO_EXECUTE attribute will not invoke driver callbacks registered using the PsSetLoadImageNotifyRoutine kernel API.

The SEC_IMAGE_NO_EXECUTE attribute must be combined with the PAGE_READONLY page protection value. No other attributes are valid with SEC_IMAGE_NO_EXECUTE.

Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, and Windows XP:  This value is not supported before Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8.

SEC_LARGE_PAGES
0x80000000

Enables large pages to be used for file mapping objects that are backed by the operating system paging file (the hfile parameter is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE). This attribute is not supported for file mapping objects that are backed by executable image files or data files (the hFile parameter is a handle to an executable image or data file).

The maximum size of the file mapping object must be a multiple of the minimum size of a large page returned by the GetLargePageMinimum function. If it is not, CreateFileMapping fails. When mapping a view of a file mapping object created with SEC_LARGE_PAGES, the base address and view size must also be multiples of the minimum large page size.

SEC_LARGE_PAGES requires the SeLockMemoryPrivilege privilege to be enabled in the caller's token.

If SEC_LARGE_PAGES is specified, SEC_COMMIT must also be specified.

Windows Server 2003:  This value is not supported until Windows Server 2003 with SP1.

Windows XP:  This value is not supported.

SEC_NOCACHE
0x10000000

Sets all pages to be non-cachable.

Applications should not use this attribute except when explicitly required for a device. Using the interlocked functions with memory that is mapped with SEC_NOCACHE can result in an EXCEPTION_ILLEGAL_INSTRUCTION exception.

SEC_NOCACHE requires either the SEC_RESERVE or SEC_COMMIT attribute to be set.

SEC_RESERVE
0x4000000

If the file mapping object is backed by the operating system paging file (the hfile parameter is INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE), specifies that when a view of the file is mapped into a process address space, the entire range of pages is reserved for later use by the process rather than committed.

Reserved pages can be committed in subsequent calls to the VirtualAlloc function. After the pages are committed, they cannot be freed or decommitted with the VirtualFree function.

This attribute has no effect for file mapping objects that are backed by executable image files or data files (the hfile parameter is a handle to a file).

SEC_RESERVE cannot be combined with SEC_COMMIT.

SEC_WRITECOMBINE
0x40000000

Sets all pages to be write-combined.

Applications should not use this attribute except when explicitly required for a device. Using the interlocked functions with memory that is mapped with SEC_WRITECOMBINE can result in an EXCEPTION_ILLEGAL_INSTRUCTION exception.

SEC_WRITECOMBINE requires either the SEC_RESERVE or SEC_COMMIT attribute to be set.

Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP:  This flag is not supported until Windows Vista.

 

dwMaximumSizeHigh [in]

The high-order DWORD of the maximum size of the file mapping object.

dwMaximumSizeLow [in]

The low-order DWORD of the maximum size of the file mapping object.

If this parameter and dwMaximumSizeHigh are 0 (zero), the maximum size of the file mapping object is equal to the current size of the file that hFile identifies.

An attempt to map a file with a length of 0 (zero) fails with an error code of ERROR_FILE_INVALID. Applications should test for files with a length of 0 (zero) and reject those files.

lpName [in, optional]

The name of the file mapping object.

If this parameter matches the name of an existing mapping object, the function requests access to the object with the protection that flProtect specifies.

If this parameter is NULL, the file mapping object is created without a name.

If lpName matches the name of an existing event, semaphore, mutex, waitable timer, or job object, the function fails, and the GetLastError function returns ERROR_INVALID_HANDLE. This occurs because these objects share the same namespace.

The name can have a "Global\" or "Local\" prefix to explicitly create the object in the global or session namespace. The remainder of the name can contain any character except the backslash character (\). Creating a file mapping object in the global namespace from a session other than session zero requires the SeCreateGlobalPrivilege privilege. For more information, see Kernel Object Namespaces.

Fast user switching is implemented by using Terminal Services sessions. The first user to log on uses session 0 (zero), the next user to log on uses session 1 (one), and so on. Kernel object names must follow the guidelines that are outlined for Terminal Services so that applications can support multiple users.

Return value

If the function succeeds, the return value is a handle to the newly created file mapping object.

If the object exists before the function call, the function returns a handle to the existing object (with its current size, not the specified size), and GetLastError returns ERROR_ALREADY_EXISTS.

If the function fails, the return value is NULL. To get extended error information, call GetLastError.

Remarks

After a file mapping object is created, the size of the file must not exceed the size of the file mapping object; if it does, not all of the file contents are available for sharing.

If an application specifies a size for the file mapping object that is larger than the size of the actual named file on disk and if the page protection allows write access (that is, the flProtect parameter specifies PAGE_READWRITE or PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE), then the file on disk is increased to match the specified size of the file mapping object. If the file is extended, the contents of the file between the old end of the file and the new end of the file are not guaranteed to be zero; the behavior is defined by the file system. If the file on disk cannot be increased, CreateFileMapping fails and GetLastError returns ERROR_DISK_FULL.

The initial contents of the pages in a file mapping object backed by the operating system paging file are 0 (zero).

The handle that CreateFileMapping returns has full access to a new file mapping object, and can be used with any function that requires a handle to a file mapping object.

Multiple processes can share a view of the same file by either using a single shared file mapping object or creating separate file mapping objects backed by the same file. A single file mapping object can be shared by multiple processes through inheriting the handle at process creation, duplicating the handle, or opening the file mapping object by name. For more information, see the CreateProcess, DuplicateHandle and OpenFileMapping functions.

Creating a file mapping object does not actually map the view into a process address space. The MapViewOfFile and MapViewOfFileEx functions map a view of a file into a process address space.

With one important exception, file views derived from any file mapping object that is backed by the same file are coherent or identical at a specific time. Coherency is guaranteed for views within a process and for views that are mapped by different processes.

The exception is related to remote files. Although CreateFileMapping works with remote files, it does not keep them coherent. For example, if two computers both map a file as writable, and both change the same page, each computer only sees its own writes to the page. When the data gets updated on the disk, it is not merged.

A mapped file and a file that is accessed by using the input and output (I/O) functions (ReadFile and WriteFile) are not necessarily coherent.

Mapped views of a file mapping object maintain internal references to the object, and a file mapping object does not close until all references to it are released. Therefore, to fully close a file mapping object, an application must unmap all mapped views of the file mapping object by calling UnmapViewOfFile and close the file mapping object handle by calling CloseHandle. These functions can be called in any order.

When modifying a file through a mapped view, the last modification timestamp may not be updated automatically. If required, the caller should use SetFileTime to set the timestamp.

Creating a file mapping object in the global namespace from a session other than session zero requires the SeCreateGlobalPrivilege privilege. Note that this privilege check is limited to the creation of file mapping objects and does not apply to opening existing ones. For example, if a service or the system creates a file mapping object in the global namespace, any process running in any session can access that file mapping object provided that the caller has the required access rights.

Windows XP:  The requirement described in the previous paragraph was introduced with Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP with SP2

Use structured exception handling to protect any code that writes to or reads from a file view. For more information, see Reading and Writing From a File View.

To have a mapping with executable permissions, an application must call CreateFileMapping with either PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE or PAGE_EXECUTE_READ, and then call MapViewOfFile with FILE_MAP_EXECUTE | FILE_MAP_WRITE or FILE_MAP_EXECUTE | FILE_MAP_READ.

In Windows Server 2012, this function is supported by the following technologies.

TechnologySupported

Server Message Block (SMB) 3.0 protocol

Yes

SMB 3.0 Transparent Failover (TFO)

Yes

SMB 3.0 with Scale-out File Shares (SO)

Yes

Cluster Shared Volume File System (CsvFS)

Yes

Resilient File System (ReFS)

Yes

 

Examples

For an example, see Creating Named Shared Memory or Creating a File Mapping Using Large Pages.

Requirements

Minimum supported client

Windows XP [desktop apps only]

Minimum supported server

Windows Server 2003 [desktop apps only]

Header

WinBase.h (include Windows.h)

Library

Kernel32.lib

DLL

Kernel32.dll

Unicode and ANSI names

CreateFileMappingW (Unicode) and CreateFileMappingA (ANSI)

See also

Memory Management Functions
CloseHandle
CreateFileMappingNuma
Creating a File Mapping Object
DuplicateHandle
File Mapping Functions
MapViewOfFile
MapViewOfFileEx
OpenFileMapping
ReadFile
SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES
UnmapViewOfFile
VirtualAlloc
WriteFile

 

 

Community Additions

Show:
© 2014 Microsoft