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Type.MakeByRefType Method

Returns a Type object that represents the current type when passed as a ref parameter (ByRef parameter in Visual Basic).

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public virtual Type MakeByRefType ()
public Type MakeByRefType ()
public function MakeByRefType () : Type
Not applicable.

Return Value

A Type object that represents the current type when passed as a ref parameter (ByRef parameter in Visual Basic).

Exception typeCondition

NotSupportedException

The invoked method is not supported in the base class.

The MakeByRefType method provides a way to generate ref types (ByRef in Visual Basic) for parameter lists.

Using the syntax of Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), if the current Type object represents Int32, this method returns a Type object representing Int32&.

The following code example creates array, ref (ByRef in Visual Basic), and pointer types for the Test class.

using System;
using System.Reflection;

public class Example
{
    public static void Main()
    {
        // Create a Type object that represents a one-dimensional
        // array of Example objects.
        Type t = typeof(Example).MakeArrayType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nArray of Example: {0}", t);

        // Create a Type object that represents a two-dimensional
        // array of Example objects.
        t = typeof(Example).MakeArrayType(2);
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nTwo-dimensional array of Example: {0}", t);

        // Demonstrate an exception when an invalid array rank is
        // specified.
        try
        {
            t = typeof(Example).MakeArrayType(-1);
        }
        catch(Exception ex)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\n{0}", ex);
        }

        // Create a Type object that represents a ByRef parameter
        // of type Example.
        t = typeof(Example).MakeByRefType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nByRef Example: {0}", t);

        // Get a Type object representing the Example class, a
        // MethodInfo representing the "Test" method, a ParameterInfo
        // representing the parameter of type Example, and finally
        // a Type object representing the type of this ByRef parameter.
        // Compare this Type object with the Type object created using
        // MakeByRefType.
        Type t2 = typeof(Example);
        MethodInfo mi = t2.GetMethod("Test");
        ParameterInfo pi = mi.GetParameters()[0];
        Type pt = pi.ParameterType;
        Console.WriteLine("Are the ByRef types equal? {0}", (t == pt));

        // Create a Type object that represents a pointer to an
        // Example object.
        t = typeof(Example).MakePointerType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nPointer to Example: {0}", t);
    }

    // A sample method with a ByRef parameter.
    //
    public void Test(ref Example e)
    {
    }
}

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Array of Example: Example[]

Two-dimensional array of Example: Example[,]

System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
   at System.RuntimeType.MakeArrayType(Int32 rank) in c:\vbl\ndp\clr\src\BCL\System\RtType.cs:line 2999
   at Example.Main()

ByRef Example: Example&
Are the ByRef types equal? True

Pointer to Example: Example*

 */

import System.*;
import System.Reflection.*;

public class Example
{
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Create a Type object that represents a one-dimensional
        // array of Example objects.
        Type t = Example.class.ToType().MakeArrayType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nArray of Example: {0}", t);
        // Create a Type object that represents a two-dimensional
        // array of Example objects.
        t = Example.class.ToType().MakeArrayType(2);
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nTwo-dimensional array of Example: {0}", t);
        // Demonstrate an exception when an invalid array rank is
        // specified.
        try {
            t = Example.class.ToType().MakeArrayType(-1);
        }
        catch (System.Exception ex) {
            Console.WriteLine("\r\n{0}", ex);
        }
        // Create a Type object that represents a ByRef parameter
        // of type Example.
        t = Example.class.ToType().MakeByRefType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nByRef Example: {0}", t);
        // Get a Type object representing the Example class, a
        // MethodInfo representing the "Test" method, a ParameterInfo
        // representing the parameter of type Example, and finally
        // a Type object representing the type of this ByRef parameter.
        // Compare this Type object with the Type object created using
        // MakeByRefType.
        Type t2 = Example.class.ToType();
        MethodInfo mi = t2.GetMethod("Test");
        ParameterInfo pi = mi.GetParameters()[0];
        Type pt = pi.get_ParameterType();
        Console.WriteLine("Are the ByRef types equal? {0}", new 
            Boolean(t == pt));
        // Create a Type object that represents a pointer to an
        // Example object.
        t = Example.class.ToType().MakePointerType();
        Console.WriteLine("\r\nPointer to Example: {0}", t);
    } //main

    // A sample method with a ByRef parameter.
    //
    public void Test(Example e)
    {
    } //Test
} //Example

/* This example produces output similar to the following:

Array of Example: Example[]

Two-dimensional array of Example: Example[,]

System.IndexOutOfRangeException: Index was outside the bounds of the array.
   at System.RuntimeType.MakeArrayType(Int32 rank) in c:\vbl\ndp\clr\src\BCL\
   System\RtType.jsl:line 2999
   at Example.main()

ByRef Example: Example&
Are the ByRef types equal? false

Pointer to Example: Example*

 */

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0
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