Console Class

Represents the standard input, output, and error streams for console applications. This class cannot be inherited.

To browse the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source.

Namespace:  System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

public static class Console

The Console type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public propertyStatic memberBackgroundColorGets or sets the background color of the console.
Public propertyStatic memberBufferHeightGets or sets the height of the buffer area.
Public propertyStatic memberBufferWidthGets or sets the width of the buffer area.
Public propertyStatic memberCapsLockGets a value indicating whether the CAPS LOCK keyboard toggle is turned on or turned off.
Public propertyStatic memberCursorLeftGets or sets the column position of the cursor within the buffer area.
Public propertyStatic memberCursorSizeGets or sets the height of the cursor within a character cell.
Public propertyStatic memberCursorTopGets or sets the row position of the cursor within the buffer area.
Public propertyStatic memberCursorVisibleGets or sets a value indicating whether the cursor is visible.
Public propertyStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkErrorGets the standard error output stream.
Public propertyStatic memberForegroundColorGets or sets the foreground color of the console.
Public propertyStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkInGets the standard input stream.
Public propertyStatic memberInputEncodingGets or sets the encoding the console uses to read input.
Public propertyStatic memberIsErrorRedirectedGets a value that indicates whether the error output stream has been redirected from the standard error stream.
Public propertyStatic memberIsInputRedirectedGets a value that indicates whether input has been redirected from the standard input stream.
Public propertyStatic memberIsOutputRedirectedGets a value that indicates whether output has been redirected from the standard output stream.
Public propertyStatic memberKeyAvailableGets a value indicating whether a key press is available in the input stream.
Public propertyStatic memberLargestWindowHeightGets the largest possible number of console window rows, based on the current font and screen resolution.
Public propertyStatic memberLargestWindowWidthGets the largest possible number of console window columns, based on the current font and screen resolution.
Public propertyStatic memberNumberLockGets a value indicating whether the NUM LOCK keyboard toggle is turned on or turned off.
Public propertyStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkOutGets the standard output stream.
Public propertyStatic memberOutputEncodingGets or sets the encoding the console uses to write output.
Public propertyStatic memberTitleGets or sets the title to display in the console title bar.
Public propertyStatic memberTreatControlCAsInputGets or sets a value indicating whether the combination of the Control modifier key and C console key (Ctrl+C) is treated as ordinary input or as an interruption that is handled by the operating system.
Public propertyStatic memberWindowHeightGets or sets the height of the console window area.
Public propertyStatic memberWindowLeftGets or sets the leftmost position of the console window area relative to the screen buffer.
Public propertyStatic memberWindowTopGets or sets the top position of the console window area relative to the screen buffer.
Public propertyStatic memberWindowWidthGets or sets the width of the console window.
Top

  NameDescription
Public methodStatic memberBeep()Plays the sound of a beep through the console speaker.
Public methodStatic memberBeep(Int32, Int32)Plays the sound of a beep of a specified frequency and duration through the console speaker.
Public methodStatic memberClearClears the console buffer and corresponding console window of display information.
Public methodStatic memberMoveBufferArea(Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32)Copies a specified source area of the screen buffer to a specified destination area.
Public methodStatic memberMoveBufferArea(Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Char, ConsoleColor, ConsoleColor)Copies a specified source area of the screen buffer to a specified destination area.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardError()Acquires the standard error stream.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardError(Int32)Acquires the standard error stream, which is set to a specified buffer size.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardInput()Acquires the standard input stream.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardInput(Int32)Acquires the standard input stream, which is set to a specified buffer size.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardOutput()Acquires the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberOpenStandardOutput(Int32)Acquires the standard output stream, which is set to a specified buffer size.
Public methodStatic memberReadReads the next character from the standard input stream.
Public methodStatic memberReadKey()Obtains the next character or function key pressed by the user. The pressed key is displayed in the console window.
Public methodStatic memberReadKey(Boolean)Obtains the next character or function key pressed by the user. The pressed key is optionally displayed in the console window.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkReadLineReads the next line of characters from the standard input stream.
Public methodStatic memberResetColorSets the foreground and background console colors to their defaults.
Public methodStatic memberSetBufferSizeSets the height and width of the screen buffer area to the specified values.
Public methodStatic memberSetCursorPositionSets the position of the cursor.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSetErrorSets the Error property to the specified TextWriter object.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSetInSets the In property to the specified TextReader object.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkSetOutSets the Out property to the specified TextWriter object.
Public methodStatic memberSetWindowPositionSets the position of the console window relative to the screen buffer.
Public methodStatic memberSetWindowSizeSets the height and width of the console window to the specified values.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(Boolean)Writes the text representation of the specified Boolean value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(Char)Writes the specified Unicode character value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(Char[])Writes the specified array of Unicode characters to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(Decimal)Writes the text representation of the specified Decimal value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(Double)Writes the text representation of the specified double-precision floating-point value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(Int32)Writes the text representation of the specified 32-bit signed integer value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(Int64)Writes the text representation of the specified 64-bit signed integer value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(Object)Writes the text representation of the specified object to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(Single)Writes the text representation of the specified single-precision floating-point value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(String)Writes the specified string value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(UInt32)Writes the text representation of the specified 32-bit unsigned integer value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(UInt64)Writes the text representation of the specified 64-bit unsigned integer value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(String, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified object to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(String, Object[])Writes the text representation of the specified array of objects to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(Char[], Int32, Int32)Writes the specified subarray of Unicode characters to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(String, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWrite(String, Object, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberWrite(String, Object, Object, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects and variable-length parameter list to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine()Writes the current line terminator to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Boolean)Writes the text representation of the specified Boolean value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(Char)Writes the specified Unicode character, followed by the current line terminator, value to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(Char[])Writes the specified array of Unicode characters, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Decimal)Writes the text representation of the specified Decimal value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Double)Writes the text representation of the specified double-precision floating-point value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(Int32)Writes the text representation of the specified 32-bit signed integer value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Int64)Writes the text representation of the specified 64-bit signed integer value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(Object)Writes the text representation of the specified object, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Single)Writes the text representation of the specified single-precision floating-point value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(String)Writes the specified string value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(UInt32)Writes the text representation of the specified 32-bit unsigned integer value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(UInt64)Writes the text representation of the specified 64-bit unsigned integer value, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(String, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified object, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(String, Object[])Writes the text representation of the specified array of objects, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(Char[], Int32, Int32)Writes the specified subarray of Unicode characters, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(String, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberSupported by the XNA FrameworkWriteLine(String, Object, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Public methodStatic memberWriteLine(String, Object, Object, Object, Object)Writes the text representation of the specified objects and variable-length parameter list, followed by the current line terminator, to the standard output stream using the specified format information.
Top

  NameDescription
Public eventStatic memberCancelKeyPressOccurs when the Control modifier key (Ctrl) and either the ConsoleKey.C console key (C) or the Break key are pressed simultaneously (Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Break).
Top

NoteNote

To view the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source. You can browse through the source code online, download the reference for offline viewing, and step through the sources (including patches and updates) during debugging; see instructions.

The console is an operating system window where users interact with the operating system or with a text-based console application by entering text input through the computer keyboard, and by reading text output from the computer terminal. For example, in the Windows operating system, the console is called the Command Prompt window and accepts MS-DOS commands. The Console class provides basic support for applications that read characters from, and write characters to, the console.

For information about developing with the Console class, see the following sections:

Console I/O Streams

When a console application starts, the operating system automatically associates three I/O streams with the console: standard input stream, standard output stream, and standard error output stream. Your application can read user input from the standard input stream; write normal data to the standard output stream; and write error data to the standard error output stream. These streams are presented to your application as the values of the Console.In, Console.Out, and Console.Error properties.

By default, the value of the In property is a System.IO.TextReader object, and the values of the Out and Error properties are System.IO.TextWriter objects. However, you can set these properties to streams that do not represent the console; for example, you can set these properties to streams that represent files. To redirect the standard input, standard output, or standard error stream, call the Console.SetIn, Console.SetOut, or Console.SetError method, respectively. I/O operations that use these streams are synchronized, which means that multiple threads can read from, or write to, the streams.

NoteNote

Do not use the Console class to display output in unattended applications, such as server applications. Calls to methods such as Console.Write and Console.WriteLine have no effect in GUI applications.

Console class members that work normally when the underlying stream is directed to a console might throw an exception if the stream is redirected, for example, to a file. Program your application to catch System.IO.IOException exceptions if you redirect a standard stream. You can also use the IsOutputRedirected, IsInputRedirected, and IsErrorRedirected properties to determine whether a standard stream is redirected before performing an operation that throws an System.IO.IOException exception.

It is sometimes useful to explicitly call the members of the stream objects represented by the In, Out, and Error properties. For example, by default, the Console.ReadLine method reads input from the standard input stream. Similarly, the Console.WriteLine method writes data to the standard output stream, and the data is followed by the default line termination string, which is a carriage return and line feed ("\r\n"). However, the Console class does not provide a corresponding method to write data to the standard error output stream, or a property to change the line termination string for data written to that stream.

You can solve this problem by setting the TextWriter.NewLine property of the Out or Error property to another line termination string. For example, the following C# statement sets the line termination string for the standard error output stream to two carriage return and line feed sequences:

Console.Error.NewLine = "\r\n\r\n";

You can then explicitly call the WriteLine method of the error output stream object, as in the following C# statement:

Console.Error.WriteLine();

Screen Buffer and Console Window

Two closely related features of the console are the screen buffer and the console window. Text is actually read from or written to streams owned by the console, but appear to be read from or written to an area owned by the console called the screen buffer. The screen buffer is an attribute of the console, and is organized as a rectangular grid of rows and columns where each grid intersection, or character cell, can contain a character. Each character has its own foreground color, and each character cell has its own background color.

The screen buffer is viewed through a rectangular region called the console window. The console window is another attribute of the console; it is not the console itself, which is an operating system window. The console window is arranged in rows and columns, is less than or equal to the size of the screen buffer, and can be moved to view different areas of the underlying screen buffer. If the screen buffer is larger than the console window, the console automatically displays scroll bars so the console window can be repositioned over the screen buffer area.

A cursor indicates the screen buffer position where text is currently read or written. The cursor can be hidden or made visible, and its height can be changed. If the cursor is visible, the console window position is moved automatically so the cursor is always in view.

The origin for character cell coordinates in the screen buffer is the upper left corner, and the positions of the cursor and the console window are measured relative to that origin. Use zero-based indexes to specify positions; that is, specify the topmost row as row 0, and the leftmost column as column 0. The maximum value for the row and column indexes is Int16.MaxValue.

Unicode Support for the Console

In general, the console reads input and writes output by using the current console code page, which the system locale defines by default. A code page can handle only a subset of available Unicode characters, so if you try to display characters that are not mapped by a particular code page, the console won't be able to display all characters or represent them accurately. The following example illustrates this problem. It tries to display the characters of the Cyrillic alphabet from U+0410 to U+044F to the console. If you run the example on a system that uses console code page 437, each character is replaced by a question mark (?), because Cyrillic characters do not map to the characters in code page 437.

using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      // Create a Char array for the modern Cyrillic alphabet,  
      // from U+0410 to U+044F. 
      int nChars = 0x044F - 0x0410 + 1;
      char[] chars = new char[nChars];
      ushort codePoint = 0x0410;
      for (int ctr = 0; ctr < chars.Length; ctr++) {
        chars[ctr] = Convert.ToChar(codePoint);
        codePoint++;
      }   

      Console.WriteLine("Current code page: {0}\n", 
                        Console.OutputEncoding.CodePage);
      // Display the characters. 
      foreach (var ch in chars) {
         Console.Write("{0}  ", ch);
         if (Console.CursorLeft >= 70) 
            Console.WriteLine();
      }
   }
}
// The example displays the following output: 
//    Current code page: 437 
//     
//    ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 
//    ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 
//    ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?  ?

In addition to supporting code pages, the Console class supports UTF-8 encoding with the UTF8Encoding class. Beginning with the .NET Framework 4.5, the Console class also supports UTF-16 encoding with the UnicodeEncoding class. To display Unicode characters to the console. you set the OutputEncoding property to either UTF8Encoding or UnicodeEncoding.

Support for Unicode characters requires the encoder to recognize a particular Unicode character, and also requires a font that has the glyphs needed to render that character. To successfully display Unicode characters to the console, the console font must be set to a non-raster or TrueType font such as Consolas or Lucida Console. The following example shows how you can programmatically change the font from a raster font to Lucida Console.

using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

public class Example
{
   [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
   static extern IntPtr GetStdHandle(int nStdHandle);

   [DllImport("kernel32.dll", CharSet = CharSet.Unicode, SetLastError = true)]
   static extern bool GetCurrentConsoleFontEx(
          IntPtr consoleOutput, 
          bool maximumWindow,
          ref CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX lpConsoleCurrentFontEx);

   [DllImport("kernel32.dll", SetLastError = true)]
   static extern bool SetCurrentConsoleFontEx(
          IntPtr consoleOutput, 
          bool maximumWindow,
          CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX consoleCurrentFontEx);

   private const int STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE = -11;
   private const int TMPF_TRUETYPE = 4;
   private const int LF_FACESIZE = 32;
   private static IntPtr INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE = new IntPtr(-1);

   public static unsafe void Main()
   {
      string fontName = "Lucida Console";
      IntPtr hnd = GetStdHandle(STD_OUTPUT_HANDLE);
      if (hnd != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE) {
         CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX info = new CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX();
         info.cbSize = (uint) Marshal.SizeOf(info);
         bool tt = false;
         // First determine whether there's already a TrueType font. 
         if (GetCurrentConsoleFontEx(hnd, false, ref info)) {
            tt = (info.FontFamily & TMPF_TRUETYPE) == TMPF_TRUETYPE;
            if (tt) {
               Console.WriteLine("The console already is using a TrueType font.");
               return;
            }
            // Set console font to Lucida Console.
            CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX newInfo = new CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX();
            newInfo.cbSize = (uint) Marshal.SizeOf(newInfo);          
            newInfo.FontFamily = TMPF_TRUETYPE;
            IntPtr ptr = new IntPtr(newInfo.FaceName);
            Marshal.Copy(fontName.ToCharArray(), 0, ptr, fontName.Length);
            // Get some settings from current font.
            newInfo.dwFontSize = new COORD(info.dwFontSize.X, info.dwFontSize.Y);
            newInfo.FontWeight = info.FontWeight;
            SetCurrentConsoleFontEx(hnd, false, newInfo);
         }
      }    
    }

   [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
   internal struct COORD
   {
      internal short X;
      internal short Y;

      internal COORD(short x, short y)
      {
         X = x;
         Y = y;
      }
   }

   [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
   internal unsafe struct CONSOLE_FONT_INFO_EX 
   {
      internal uint cbSize;
      internal uint nFont;
      internal COORD dwFontSize;
      internal int FontFamily;
      internal int FontWeight;
      internal fixed char FaceName[LF_FACESIZE];
   } 
}

However, TrueType fonts can display only a subset of glyphs. For example, the Lucida Console font displays only 643 of the approximately 64,000 available characters from U+0021 to U+FB02. To see which characters a particular font supports, open the Fonts applet in Control Panel, choose the Find a character option, and choose the font whose character set you'd like to examine in the Font list of the Character Map window.

Windows uses font linking to display glyphs that are not available in a particular font. For information about font linking to display additional character sets, see Globalization Step-by-Step: Fonts. Linked fonts are defined in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\FontLink\SystemLink subkey of the registry. Each entry associated with this subkey corresponds to the name of a base font, and its value is a string array that defines the font files and the fonts that are linked to the base font. Each member of the array defines a linked font and takes the form font-file-name,font-name. The following example illustrates how you can programmatically define a linked font named SimSun found in a font file named simsun.ttc that displays Simplified Han characters.

using Microsoft.Win32;
using System;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      string valueName = "Lucida Console";
      string newFont = "simsun.ttc,SimSun";
      string[] fonts = null;
      RegistryValueKind kind = 0; 
      bool toAdd;

      RegistryKey key = Registry.LocalMachine.OpenSubKey( 
                 @"Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\FontLink\SystemLink", 
                 true);
      if (key == null) {
         Console.WriteLine("Font linking is not enabled.");
      }
      else {
         // Determine if the font is a base font. 
         string[] names = key.GetValueNames();
         if (Array.Exists(names, s => s.Equals(valueName, 
                                      StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase))) {
            // Get the value's type.
            kind = key.GetValueKind(valueName);

            // Type should be RegistryValueKind.MultiString, but we can't be sure. 
            switch (kind) {
               case RegistryValueKind.String:
                  fonts = new string[] { (string) key.GetValue(valueName) };
                  break;   
               case RegistryValueKind.MultiString:
                  fonts = (string[]) key.GetValue(valueName);
                  break;
               case RegistryValueKind.None:
                  // Do nothing.
                  fonts = new string[] { };
                  break;
            } 
            // Determine whether SimSun is a linked font. 
            if (Array.FindIndex(fonts, s =>s.IndexOf("SimSun", 
                                       StringComparison.OrdinalIgnoreCase) >=0) >= 0) {
               Console.WriteLine("Font is already linked.");
               toAdd = false;
            }
            else {
               // Font is not a linked font.
               toAdd = true;
            }
         }
         else {
            // Font is not a base font.
            toAdd = true;
            fonts = new string[] { };
         }

         if (toAdd) {  
            Array.Resize(ref fonts, fonts.Length + 1);
            fonts[fonts.GetUpperBound(0)] = newFont;
            // Change REG_SZ to REG_MULTI_SZ. 
            if (kind == RegistryValueKind.String)
               key.DeleteValue(valueName, false);

            key.SetValue(valueName, fonts, RegistryValueKind.MultiString);
            Console.WriteLine("SimSun added to the list of linked fonts.");
         }                     
      }

      if (key != null) key.Close();
   }
}

Unicode support for the console has the following limitations:

  • UTF-32 encoding is not supported. The only supported Unicode encodings are UTF-8 and UTF-16, which are represented by the UTF8Encoding and UnicodeEncoding classes, respectively.

  • Bidirectional output is not supported.

  • Display of characters outside the Basic Multilingual Plane (that is, of surrogate pairs) is not supported, even if they are defined in a linked font file.

  • Display of characters in complex scripts is not supported.

  • Combining character sequences (that is, characters that consist of a base character and one or more combining characters) are displayed as separate characters. To work around this limitation, you can normalize the string to be displayed by calling the String.Normalize method before sending output to the console. In the following example, a string that contains the combining character sequence U+0061 U+0308 is displayed to the console as two characters before the output string is normalized, and as a single character after the String.Normalize method is called.

    using System;
    using System.IO;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          char[] chars = { '\u0061', '\u0308' };
    
          string combining = new String(chars);
          Console.WriteLine(combining);
    
          combining = combining.Normalize();
          Console.WriteLine(combining);
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output: 
    //       a" 
    //       ä
    

    Note that normalization is a viable solution only if the Unicode standard for the character includes a pre-composed form that corresponds to a particular combining character sequence.

  • If a font provides a glyph for a code point in the private use area, that glyph will be displayed. However, because characters in the private use area are application-specific, this may not be the expected glyph.

The following example displays a range of Unicode characters to the console. The example accepts three command-line parameters: the start of the range to display, the end of the range to display, and whether to use the current console encoding (false) or UTF-16 encoding (true). It assumes that the console is using a TrueType font.

using System;
using System.IO;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Text;

public static class DisplayChars
{
   private static void Main(string[] args)
   {
      uint rangeStart = 0;
      uint rangeEnd = 0;
      bool setOutputEncodingToUnicode = true;
      // Get the current encoding so we can restore it.
      Encoding originalOutputEncoding = Console.OutputEncoding;

   	try
   	{
         switch(args.Length)
         {
            case 2:
               rangeStart = uint.Parse(args[0], NumberStyles.HexNumber);
               rangeEnd = uint.Parse(args[1], NumberStyles.HexNumber);
               setOutputEncodingToUnicode = true;
               break;
            case 3:
               if (! uint.TryParse(args[0], NumberStyles.HexNumber, null, out rangeStart))
                  throw new ArgumentException(String.Format("{0} is not a valid hexadecimal number.", args[0]));

               if (!uint.TryParse(args[1], NumberStyles.HexNumber, null, out rangeEnd))
                  throw new ArgumentException(String.Format("{0} is not a valid hexadecimal number.", args[1]));

               bool.TryParse(args[2], out setOutputEncodingToUnicode);
               break;
            default:
               Console.WriteLine("Usage: {0} <{1}> <{2}> [{3}]", 
                                 Environment.GetCommandLineArgs()[0], 
                                 "startingCodePointInHex", 
                                 "endingCodePointInHex", 
                                 "<setOutputEncodingToUnicode?{true|false, default:false}>");
               return;
         }

         if (setOutputEncodingToUnicode) {
            // This won't work before .NET Framework 4.5. 
            try {
               // Set encoding using endianness of this system. 
               // We're interested in displaying individual Char objects, so  
               // we don't want a Unicode BOM or exceptions to be thrown on 
               // invalid Char values.
               Console.OutputEncoding = new UnicodeEncoding(! BitConverter.IsLittleEndian, false); 
               Console.WriteLine("\nOutput encoding set to UTF-16");
            }
            catch (IOException) {
               Console.OutputEncoding = new UTF8Encoding();
               Console.WriteLine("Output encoding set to UTF-8");
            }
         }
         else {
            Console.WriteLine("The console encoding is {0} (code page {1})", 
                              Console.OutputEncoding.EncodingName,
                              Console.OutputEncoding.CodePage);
         }
         DisplayRange(rangeStart, rangeEnd);
      }
      catch (ArgumentException ex) {
         Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
      }
      finally {
         // Restore console environment.
         Console.OutputEncoding = originalOutputEncoding;
      }
   }

   public static void DisplayRange(uint start, uint end)
   {
      const uint upperRange = 0x10FFFF;
      const uint surrogateStart = 0xD800;
      const uint surrogateEnd = 0xDFFF;

      if (end <= start) {
         uint t = start;
         start = end;
         end = t;
      }

      // Check whether the start or end range is outside of last plane. 
      if (start > upperRange)
         throw new ArgumentException(String.Format("0x{0:X5} is outside the upper range of Unicode code points (0x{1:X5})",
                                                   start, upperRange));                                   
      if (end > upperRange)
         throw new ArgumentException(String.Format("0x{0:X5} is outside the upper range of Unicode code points (0x{0:X5})",
                                                   end, upperRange));

      // Since we're using 21-bit code points, we can't use U+D800 to U+DFFF. 
      if ((start < surrogateStart & end > surrogateStart) || (start >= surrogateStart & start <= surrogateEnd ))
         throw new ArgumentException(String.Format("0x{0:X5}-0x{1:X5} includes the surrogate pair range 0x{2:X5}-0x{3:X5}", 
                                                   start, end, surrogateStart, surrogateEnd));         
      uint last = RoundUpToMultipleOf(0x10, end);
      uint first = RoundDownToMultipleOf(0x10, start);

      uint rows = (last - first) / 0x10;

      for (uint r = 0; r < rows; ++r) {
         // Display the row header.
         Console.Write("{0:x5} ", first + 0x10 * r);

         for (uint c = 0; c < 0x10; ++c) {
            uint cur = (first + 0x10 * r + c);
            if (cur  < start) {
               Console.Write(" {0} ", Convert.ToChar(0x20));
            }
            else if (end < cur) {
               Console.Write(" {0} ", Convert.ToChar(0x20));
            }
            else {
               // the cast to int is safe, since we know that val <= upperRange.
               String chars = Char.ConvertFromUtf32( (int) cur);
               // Display a space for code points that are not valid characters. 
               if (CharUnicodeInfo.GetUnicodeCategory(chars[0]) == 
                                               UnicodeCategory.OtherNotAssigned)
                  Console.Write(" {0} ", Convert.ToChar(0x20));
               // Display a space for code points in the private use area. 
               else if (CharUnicodeInfo.GetUnicodeCategory(chars[0]) ==
                                              UnicodeCategory.PrivateUse)
                 Console.Write(" {0} ", Convert.ToChar(0x20));
               // Is surrogate pair a valid character? 
               // Note that the console will interpret the high and low surrogate 
               // as separate (and unrecognizable) characters. 
               else if (chars.Length > 1 && CharUnicodeInfo.GetUnicodeCategory(chars, 0) == 
                                            UnicodeCategory.OtherNotAssigned)
                  Console.Write(" {0} ", Convert.ToChar(0x20));
               else
                  Console.Write(" {0} ", chars); 
            }

            switch (c) {
               case 3: case 11:
                  Console.Write("-");
                  break;
               case 7:
                  Console.Write("--");
                  break;
            }
         }

         Console.WriteLine();
         if (0 < r && r % 0x10 == 0)
            Console.WriteLine();
      }
   }

   private static uint RoundUpToMultipleOf(uint b, uint u)
   {
      return RoundDownToMultipleOf(b, u) + b;
   }

   private static uint RoundDownToMultipleOf(uint b, uint u)
   {
      return u - (u % b);
   }
}
// If the example is run with the command line 
//       DisplayChars 0400 04FF true 
// the example displays the Cyrillic character set as follows: 
//       Output encoding set to UTF-16 
//       00400  Ѐ  Ё  Ђ  Ѓ - Є  Ѕ  І  Ї -- Ј  Љ  Њ  Ћ - Ќ  Ѝ  Ў  Џ 
//       00410  А  Б  В  Г - Д  Е  Ж  З -- И  Й  К  Л - М  Н  О  П 
//       00420  Р  С  Т  У - Ф  Х  Ц  Ч -- Ш  Щ  Ъ  Ы - Ь  Э  Ю  Я 
//       00430  а  б  в  г - д  е  ж  з -- и  й  к  л - м  н  о  п 
//       00440  р  с  т  у - ф  х  ц  ч -- ш  щ  ъ  ы - ь  э  ю  я 
//       00450  ѐ  ё  ђ  ѓ - є  ѕ  і  ї -- ј  љ  њ  ћ - ќ  ѝ  ў  џ 
//       00460  Ѡ  ѡ  Ѣ  ѣ - Ѥ  ѥ  Ѧ  ѧ -- Ѩ  ѩ  Ѫ  ѫ - Ѭ  ѭ  Ѯ  ѯ 
//       00470  Ѱ  ѱ  Ѳ  ѳ - Ѵ  ѵ  Ѷ  ѷ -- Ѹ  ѹ  Ѻ  ѻ - Ѽ  ѽ  Ѿ  ѿ 
//       00480  Ҁ  ҁ  ҂  ҃ - ҄  ҅  ҆  ҇ -- ҈  ҉  Ҋ  ҋ - Ҍ  ҍ  Ҏ  ҏ 
//       00490  Ґ  ґ  Ғ  ғ - Ҕ  ҕ  Җ  җ -- Ҙ  ҙ  Қ  қ - Ҝ  ҝ  Ҟ  ҟ 
//       004a0  Ҡ  ҡ  Ң  ң - Ҥ  ҥ  Ҧ  ҧ -- Ҩ  ҩ  Ҫ  ҫ - Ҭ  ҭ  Ү  ү 
//       004b0  Ұ  ұ  Ҳ  ҳ - Ҵ  ҵ  Ҷ  ҷ -- Ҹ  ҹ  Һ  һ - Ҽ  ҽ  Ҿ  ҿ 
//       004c0  Ӏ  Ӂ  ӂ  Ӄ - ӄ  Ӆ  ӆ  Ӈ -- ӈ  Ӊ  ӊ  Ӌ - ӌ  Ӎ  ӎ  ӏ 
//       004d0  Ӑ  ӑ  Ӓ  ӓ - Ӕ  ӕ  Ӗ  ӗ -- Ә  ә  Ӛ  ӛ - Ӝ  ӝ  Ӟ  ӟ 
//       004e0  Ӡ  ӡ  Ӣ  ӣ - Ӥ  ӥ  Ӧ  ӧ -- Ө  ө  Ӫ  ӫ - Ӭ  ӭ  Ӯ  ӯ 
//       004f0  Ӱ  ӱ  Ӳ  ӳ - Ӵ  ӵ  Ӷ  ӷ -- Ӹ  ӹ  Ӻ  ӻ - Ӽ  ӽ  Ӿ  ӿ

Common Operations

The Console class contains the following methods for reading console input and writing console output:

  • The overloads of the ReadKey method read an individual character.

  • The ReadLine method reads an entire line of input.

  • The Write method overloads convert an instance of a value type, an array of characters, or a set of objects to a formatted or unformatted string, and then write that string to the console.

  • A parallel set of WriteLine method overloads output the same string as the Write overloads but also add a line termination string.

The Console class also contains methods and properties to perform the following operations:

  • Get or set the size of the screen buffer. The BufferHeight and BufferWidth properties let you get or set the buffer height and width, respectively, and the SetBufferSize method lets you set the buffer size in a single method call.

  • Get or set the size of the console window. The WindowHeight and WindowWidth properties let you get or set the window height and width, respectively, and the SetWindowSize method lets you set the window size in a single method call.

  • Get or set the size of the cursor. The CursorSize property specifies the height of the cursor in a character cell.

  • Get or set the position of the console window relative to the screen buffer. The WindowTop and WindowLeft properties let you get or set the top row and leftmost column of the screen buffer that appears in the console window, and the SetWindowPosition method lets you set these values in a single method call.

  • Get or set the position of the cursor by getting or setting the CursorTop and CursorLeft properties, or set the position of the cursor by calling the SetCursorPosition method.

  • Move or clear data in the screen buffer by calling the MoveBufferArea or Clear method.

  • Get or set the foreground and background colors by using the ForegroundColor and BackgroundColor properties, or reset the background and foreground to their default colors by calling the ResetColor method.

  • Play the sound of a beep through the console speaker by calling the Beep method.

The following example demonstrates how to read data from, and write data to, the standard input and output streams. Note that these streams can be redirected by using the SetIn and SetOut methods.

using System;

public class Example {
    public static void Main() 
    {
        Console.Write("Hello ");
        Console.WriteLine("World!");
        Console.Write("Enter your name: ");
        String name = Console.ReadLine();
        Console.Write("Good day, ");
        Console.Write(name);
        Console.WriteLine("!");
    }
}
// The example displays output similar to the following: 
//       Hello World! 
//       Enter your name: James 
//       Good day, James!

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

This type is thread safe.

Was this page helpful?
(1500 characters remaining)
Thank you for your feedback
Show:
© 2014 Microsoft