How to: Define a Windows Communication Foundation Service Contract

This is the first of six tasks required to create a basic Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) application. For an overview of all six of the tasks, see the Getting Started Tutorial topic.

When creating a WCF service, the first task is to define a service contract. The service contract specifies what operations the service supports. An operation can be thought of as a Web service method. Contracts are created by defining a C++, C#, or Visual Basic (VB) interface. Each method in the interface corresponds to a specific service operation. Each interface must have the ServiceContractAttribute applied to it and each operation must have the OperationContractAttribute attribute applied to it. If a method within an interface that has the ServiceContractAttribute attribute does not have the OperationContractAttribute attribute, that method is not exposed by the service.

The code used for this task is provided in the example following the procedure.

To define a service contract

  1. Open Visual Studio 2012 as an administrator by right-clicking the program in the Start menu and selecting Run as administrator.

  2. Create a WCF Service Library project by clicking the File menu and selecting New, Project. In the New Project dialog, on the left-hand side of the dialog expand Visual C# for a C# project or Other Languages and then Visual Basic for a Visual Basic project. Under the language selected select WCF and a list of project templates will be displayed on the center section of the dialog. Select WCF Service Library, and type GettingStartedLib in the Name textbox and GettingStarted in the Solution name textbox at the bottom of the dialog.

  3. Visual Studio will create the project which contains 3 files: IService1.cs (or IService1.vb), Service1.cs (or Service1.vb), and App.config. The IService1 file contains a default service contract. The Service1 file contains a default implementation of the service contract. The App.config file contains configuration needed to load the default service with the Visual Studio WCF Service Host. For more information about the WCF Service Host tool, see WCF Service Host (WcfSvcHost.exe)

  4. Open the IService1.cs or IService1.vb file and delete the code within the namespace declaration leaving the namespace declaration. Inside the namespace declaration define a new interface called ICalculator as shown in the code below.

    // IService.cs
    using System;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.ServiceModel;
    using System.Text;
    
    namespace GettingStartedLib
    {
            [ServiceContract(Namespace = "http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples")]
            public interface ICalculator
            {
                [OperationContract]
                double Add(double n1, double n2);
                [OperationContract]
                double Subtract(double n1, double n2);
                [OperationContract]
                double Multiply(double n1, double n2);
                [OperationContract]
                double Divide(double n1, double n2);
            }
    }
    
    
    
    ‘IService.vb
    Imports System
    Imports System.ServiceModel
    
    Namespace GettingStartedLib
    
        <ServiceContract(Namespace:="http://Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples")> _
        Public Interface ICalculator
    
            <OperationContract()> _
            Function Add(ByVal n1 As Double, ByVal n2 As Double) As Double
            <OperationContract()> _
            Function Subtract(ByVal n1 As Double, ByVal n2 As Double) As Double
            <OperationContract()> _
            Function Multiply(ByVal n1 As Double, ByVal n2 As Double) As Double
            <OperationContract()> _
            Function Divide(ByVal n1 As Double, ByVal n2 As Double) As Double
        End Interface
    End Namespace
    
    
    

    This contract defines an online calculator. Notice the ICalculator interface is marked with the ServiceContractAttribute attribute. This attribute defines a namespace that is used to disambiguate the contract name. Each calculator operation is marked with the OperationContractAttribute attribute.

    NoteNote

    When using attributes to annotate an interface, member, or class, you can drop the "Attribute" part from the attribute name. So ServiceContractAttribute becomes [ServiceContract] in C#, or <ServiceContract> in Visual Basic.

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