Enumerable.Except(Of TSource) Method (IEnumerable(Of TSource), IEnumerable(Of TSource), IEqualityComparer(Of TSource))

Produces the set difference of two sequences by using the specified IEqualityComparer(Of T) to compare values.

Namespace:  System.Linq
Assembly:  System.Core (in System.Core.dll)

'Declaration
<ExtensionAttribute> _
Public Shared Function Except(Of TSource) ( _
	first As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
	second As IEnumerable(Of TSource), _
	comparer As IEqualityComparer(Of TSource) _
) As IEnumerable(Of TSource)

Type Parameters

TSource

The type of the elements of the input sequences.

Parameters

first
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable(Of TSource)

An IEnumerable(Of T) whose elements that are not also in second will be returned.

second
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable(Of TSource)

An IEnumerable(Of T) whose elements that also occur in the first sequence will cause those elements to be removed from the returned sequence.

comparer
Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEqualityComparer(Of TSource)

An IEqualityComparer(Of T) to compare values.

Return Value

Type: System.Collections.Generic.IEnumerable(Of TSource)
A sequence that contains the set difference of the elements of two sequences.

Usage Note

In Visual Basic and C#, you can call this method as an instance method on any object of type IEnumerable(Of TSource). When you use instance method syntax to call this method, omit the first parameter. For more information, see Extension Methods (Visual Basic) or Extension Methods (C# Programming Guide).

ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

first or second is Nothing.

If comparer is Nothing, the default equality comparer, Default, is used to compare values.

The following example shows how to implement an equality comparer that can be used in the Except method.

Public Class Product
    Public Property Name As String 
    Public Property Code As Integer 
End Class 

' Custom comparer for the Product class 
Public Class ProductComparer
    Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product)

    Public Function Equals1(
        ByVal x As Product, 
        ByVal y As Product
        ) As Boolean Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).Equals

        ' Check whether the compared objects reference the same data. 
        If x Is y Then Return True 

        'Check whether any of the compared objects is null. 
        If x Is Nothing OrElse y Is Nothing Then Return False 

        ' Check whether the products' properties are equal. 
        Return (x.Code = y.Code) AndAlso (x.Name = y.Name)
    End Function 

    Public Function GetHashCode1(
        ByVal product As Product
        ) As Integer Implements IEqualityComparer(Of Product).GetHashCode

        ' Check whether the object is null. 
        If product Is Nothing Then Return 0

        ' Get hash code for the Name field if it is not null. 
        Dim hashProductName = 
            If(product.Name Is Nothing, 0, product.Name.GetHashCode())

        ' Get hash code for the Code field. 
        Dim hashProductCode = product.Code.GetHashCode()

        ' Calculate the hash code for the product. 
        Return hashProductName Xor hashProductCode
    End Function 
End Class

After you implement this comparer, you can use sequences of Product objects in the Except method, as shown in the following example.

        Dim fruits1() As Product = 
            {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}, 
             New Product With {.Name = "orange", .Code = 4}, 
             New Product With {.Name = "lemon", .Code = 12}}

        Dim fruits2() As Product = 
            {New Product With {.Name = "apple", .Code = 9}}

        ' Get all the elements from the first array 
        ' except for the elements from the second array. 

        Dim except = fruits1.Except(fruits2, New ProductComparer())

        For Each product In except
            Console.WriteLine(product.Name & " " & product.Code)
        Next 

        ' This code produces the following output: 
        
        ' orange 4 
        ' lemon 12

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5, 4, 3.5

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8.1, Windows Phone Silverlight 8

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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