PerspectiveCamera Class

Represents a perspective projection camera.

Namespace:  System.Windows.Media.Media3D
Assembly:  PresentationCore (in PresentationCore.dll)
XMLNS for XAML: http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation, http://schemas.microsoft.com/netfx/2007/xaml/presentation

public sealed class PerspectiveCamera : ProjectionCamera
<PerspectiveCamera .../>

The PerspectiveCamera type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public methodPerspectiveCamera()Initializes a new instance of the PerspectiveCamera class.
Public methodPerspectiveCamera(Point3D, Vector3D, Vector3D, Double)Initializes a new instance of the PerspectiveCamera class using the specified position, direction, and field of view.
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  NameDescription
Public propertyCanFreezeGets a value that indicates whether the object can be made unmodifiable. (Inherited from Freezable.)
Public propertyDependencyObjectTypeGets the DependencyObjectType that wraps the CLR type of this instance.  (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public propertyDispatcherGets the Dispatcher this DispatcherObject is associated with. (Inherited from DispatcherObject.)
Public propertyFarPlaneDistanceGets or sets a value that specifies the distance from the camera of the camera's far clip plane. (Inherited from ProjectionCamera.)
Public propertyFieldOfView Gets or sets a value that represents the camera's horizontal field of view.
Public propertyHasAnimatedPropertiesGets a value that indicates whether one or more AnimationClock objects is associated with any of this object's dependency properties. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public propertyIsFrozenGets a value that indicates whether the object is currently modifiable. (Inherited from Freezable.)
Public propertyIsSealedGets a value that indicates whether this instance is currently sealed (read-only). (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public propertyLookDirectionGets or sets a Vector3D which defines the direction in which the camera is looking in world coordinates. (Inherited from ProjectionCamera.)
Public propertyNearPlaneDistanceGets or sets a value that specifies the distance from the camera of the camera's near clip plane. (Inherited from ProjectionCamera.)
Public propertyPosition Gets or sets the position of the camera in world coordinates. (Inherited from ProjectionCamera.)
Public propertyTransformGets or sets the Transform3D applied to the camera. (Inherited from Camera.)
Public propertyUpDirectionGets or sets a Vector3D which defines the upward direction of the camera. (Inherited from ProjectionCamera.)
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  NameDescription
Public methodApplyAnimationClock(DependencyProperty, AnimationClock)Applies an AnimationClock to the specified DependencyProperty. If the property is already animated, the SnapshotAndReplace handoff behavior is used. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public methodApplyAnimationClock(DependencyProperty, AnimationClock, HandoffBehavior)Applies an AnimationClock to the specified DependencyProperty. If the property is already animated, the specified HandoffBehavior is used. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public methodBeginAnimation(DependencyProperty, AnimationTimeline)Applies an animation to the specified DependencyProperty. The animation is started when the next frame is rendered. If the specified property is already animated, the SnapshotAndReplace handoff behavior is used. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public methodBeginAnimation(DependencyProperty, AnimationTimeline, HandoffBehavior)Applies an animation to the specified DependencyProperty. The animation is started when the next frame is rendered. If the specified property is already animated, the specified HandoffBehavior is used. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public methodCheckAccessDetermines whether the calling thread has access to this DispatcherObject. (Inherited from DispatcherObject.)
Public methodClearValue(DependencyProperty)Clears the local value of a property. The property to be cleared is specified by a DependencyProperty identifier. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodClearValue(DependencyPropertyKey)Clears the local value of a read-only property. The property to be cleared is specified by a DependencyPropertyKey. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodCloneCreates a modifiable clone of this PerspectiveCamera, making deep copies of this object's values. When copying dependency properties, this method copies resource references and data bindings (but they might no longer resolve) but not animations or their current values.
Public methodCloneCurrentValueCreates a modifiable clone of this PerspectiveCamera object, making deep copies of this object's current values. Resource references, data bindings, and animations are not copied, but their current values are.
Public methodCoerceValueCoerces the value of the specified dependency property. This is accomplished by invoking any CoerceValueCallback function specified in property metadata for the dependency property as it exists on the calling DependencyObject. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodEqualsDetermines whether a provided DependencyObject is equivalent to the current DependencyObject. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodFreeze()Makes the current object unmodifiable and sets its IsFrozen property to true. (Inherited from Freezable.)
Public methodGetAnimationBaseValueReturns the non-animated value of the specified DependencyProperty. (Inherited from Animatable.)
Public methodGetAsFrozenCreates a frozen copy of the Freezable, using base (non-animated) property values. Because the copy is frozen, any frozen sub-objects are copied by reference. (Inherited from Freezable.)
Public methodGetCurrentValueAsFrozenCreates a frozen copy of the Freezable using current property values. Because the copy is frozen, any frozen sub-objects are copied by reference. (Inherited from Freezable.)
Public methodGetHashCodeGets a hash code for this DependencyObject. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodGetLocalValueEnumeratorCreates a specialized enumerator for determining which dependency properties have locally set values on this DependencyObject. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodGetTypeGets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodGetValueReturns the current effective value of a dependency property on this instance of a DependencyObject. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodInvalidatePropertyRe-evaluates the effective value for the specified dependency property (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodReadLocalValueReturns the local value of a dependency property, if it exists. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodSetCurrentValueSets the value of a dependency property without changing its value source. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodSetValue(DependencyProperty, Object)Sets the local value of a dependency property, specified by its dependency property identifier. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodSetValue(DependencyPropertyKey, Object)Sets the local value of a read-only dependency property, specified by the DependencyPropertyKey identifier of the dependency property. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Protected methodShouldSerializePropertyReturns a value that indicates whether serialization processes should serialize the value for the provided dependency property. (Inherited from DependencyObject.)
Public methodToString()Creates a string representation of this object based on the current culture settings. (Inherited from Camera.)
Public methodToString(IFormatProvider)Creates a string representation of the Camera. (Inherited from Camera.)
Public methodVerifyAccessEnforces that the calling thread has access to this DispatcherObject. (Inherited from DispatcherObject.)
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  NameDescription
Public eventChangedOccurs when the Freezable or an object it contains is modified. (Inherited from Freezable.)
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  NameDescription
Public fieldStatic memberFieldOfViewPropertyIdentifies the FieldOfView dependency property.
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  NameDescription
Explicit interface implemetationPrivate methodIFormattable.ToStringFormats the value of the current instance using the specified format. (Inherited from Camera.)
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PerspectiveCamera specifies a projection of a 3-D model to a 2-D visual surface. This projection includes perspective foreshortening. In other words, the PerspectiveCamera describes a frustrum whose sides converge toward a point on the horizon. Objects closer to the camera appear larger, and objects farther from the camera appear smaller.

The following diagram shows the difference between orthographic and perspective-foreshortened camera projections.

Orthographic and perspective projection

<Page xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
  xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" >
  <DockPanel>
    <Viewbox>
      <Canvas Width="321" Height="201">

        <!-- The Viewport3D provides a rendering surface for 3-D visual content. -->
        <Viewport3D ClipToBounds="True" Width="150" Height="150" Canvas.Left="0" Canvas.Top="10">

          <!-- Defines the camera used to view the 3D object. -->
          <Viewport3D.Camera>
            <PerspectiveCamera Position="0,0,2" LookDirection="0,0,-1" FieldOfView="60" />
          </Viewport3D.Camera>

          <!-- The ModelVisual3D children contain the 3D models -->
          <Viewport3D.Children>

            <!-- This ModelVisual3D defines the light cast in the scene. Without light, the 3D 
                 object cannot be seen. Also, the direction of the lights affect shadowing. If desired,
                 you can create multiple lights with different colors that shine from different directions. -->
            <ModelVisual3D>
              <ModelVisual3D.Content>
                <DirectionalLight Color="#FFFFFF" Direction="-0.612372,-0.5,-0.612372" />
              </ModelVisual3D.Content>
            </ModelVisual3D>
            <ModelVisual3D>
              <ModelVisual3D.Content>
                <GeometryModel3D>

                  <!-- The geometry specifes the shape of the 3D plane. In this sample, a flat sheet is created. -->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Geometry>
                    <MeshGeometry3D
                     TriangleIndices="0,1,2 3,4,5 "
                     Normals="0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 0,0,1 "
                     TextureCoordinates="0,0 1,0 1,1 1,1 0,1 0,0 "
                     Positions="-0.5,-0.5,0.5 0.5,-0.5,0.5 0.5,0.5,0.5 0.5,0.5,0.5 -0.5,0.5,0.5 -0.5,-0.5,0.5 " />
                  </GeometryModel3D.Geometry>
                  <!-- The material specifies the material applied to the 3D object. In this sample a tiled drawing   
                       covers the surface of the 3D object.-->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Material>
                    <DiffuseMaterial>
                      <DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
                        <DrawingBrush Viewport="0,0,0.1,0.1" TileMode="Tile">
                          <DrawingBrush.Drawing>
                            <DrawingGroup>
                              <DrawingGroup.Children>
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0,0.1 L0.1,0 1,0.9, 0.9,1z"
                                  Brush="Gray" />
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0.9,0 L1,0.1 0.1,1 0,0.9z"
                                  Brush="Gray" />
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0.25,0.25 L0.5,0.125 0.75,0.25 0.5,0.5z"
                                  Brush="#FFFF00" />
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0.25,0.75 L0.5,0.875 0.75,0.75 0.5,0.5z"
                                  Brush="Black" />
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0.25,0.75 L0.125,0.5 0.25,0.25 0.5,0.5z"
                                  Brush="#FF0000" />
                                <GeometryDrawing Geometry="M0.75,0.25 L0.875,0.5 0.75,0.75 0.5,0.5z"
                                  Brush="MediumBlue" />
                              </DrawingGroup.Children>
                            </DrawingGroup>
                          </DrawingBrush.Drawing>
                        </DrawingBrush>
                      </DiffuseMaterial.Brush>
                    </DiffuseMaterial>
                  </GeometryModel3D.Material>
                  <!-- Apply a transform to the object. In this sample, a rotation transform is applied, rendering the 
                       3D object rotated. -->
                  <GeometryModel3D.Transform>
                    <RotateTransform3D>
                      <RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                        <AxisAngleRotation3D Axis="0,3,0" Angle="40" />
                      </RotateTransform3D.Rotation>
                    </RotateTransform3D>
                  </GeometryModel3D.Transform>
                </GeometryModel3D>
              </ModelVisual3D.Content>
            </ModelVisual3D>
          </Viewport3D.Children>
        </Viewport3D>
      </Canvas>
    </Viewbox>
  </DockPanel>
</Page>

More Code

How to: Create a 3-D SceneThis example shows how to create a 3-D object that looks like a flat sheet of paper which has been rotated. A Viewport3D along with the following components are used to create this simple 3-D scene:
How to: Animate Camera Position and Direction in a 3D SceneThe following example shows how to animate the position of a camera and animate the direction it is pointing in a 3D scene. This is done by using Point3DAnimation and Vector3DAnimation to animate the Position and LookDirection properties respectively of the PerspectiveCamera. You might use an animation like this to change the onlooker's view of a scene in response to an event.
How to: Animate Camera Position and Direction Using Key FramesIn the following example, Point3DAnimationUsingKeyFrames is used to animate the position of a PerspectiveCamera in a 3D scene. In addition, Vector3DAnimationUsingKeyFrames is used to animate the direction the camera is pointing in the 3D scene. Both of these animations use several key frames which create a series of animation effects:

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.
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