ServiceInstaller Class

Installs a class that extends ServiceBase to implement a service. This class is called by the install utility when installing a service application.

Namespace:  System.ServiceProcess
Assembly:  System.ServiceProcess (in System.ServiceProcess.dll)

public class ServiceInstaller : ComponentInstaller

The ServiceInstaller type exposes the following members.

  NameDescription
Public methodServiceInstallerInitializes a new instance of the ServiceInstaller class.
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  NameDescription
Protected propertyCanRaiseEventsGets a value indicating whether the component can raise an event. (Inherited from Component.)
Public propertyContainerGets the IContainer that contains the Component. (Inherited from Component.)
Public propertyContextGets or sets information about the current installation. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public propertyDelayedAutoStartGets or sets a value that indicates whether the service should be delayed from starting until other automatically started services are running.
Public propertyDescriptionGets or sets the description for the service.
Protected propertyDesignModeGets a value that indicates whether the Component is currently in design mode. (Inherited from Component.)
Public propertyDisplayNameIndicates the friendly name that identifies the service to the user.
Protected propertyEventsGets the list of event handlers that are attached to this Component. (Inherited from Component.)
Public propertyHelpTextGets the help text for all the installers in the installer collection. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public propertyInstallersGets the collection of installers that this installer contains. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public propertyParentGets or sets the installer containing the collection that this installer belongs to. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public propertyServiceNameIndicates the name used by the system to identify this service. This property must be identical to the ServiceBase.ServiceName of the service you want to install.
Public propertyServicesDependedOnIndicates the services that must be running for this service to run.
Public propertySiteGets or sets the ISite of the Component. (Inherited from Component.)
Public propertyStartTypeIndicates how and when this service is started.
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  NameDescription
Public methodCommitWhen overridden in a derived class, completes the install transaction. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public methodCopyFromComponentCopies properties from an instance of ServiceBase to this installer. (Overrides ComponentInstaller.CopyFromComponent(IComponent).)
Public methodCreateObjRefCreates an object that contains all the relevant information required to generate a proxy used to communicate with a remote object. (Inherited from MarshalByRefObject.)
Public methodDispose()Releases all resources used by the Component. (Inherited from Component.)
Protected methodDispose(Boolean)Releases the unmanaged resources used by the Component and optionally releases the managed resources. (Inherited from Component.)
Public methodEquals(Object)Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object. (Inherited from Object.)
Protected methodFinalizeReleases unmanaged resources and performs other cleanup operations before the Component is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Component.)
Public methodGetHashCodeServes as the default hash function. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodGetLifetimeServiceRetrieves the current lifetime service object that controls the lifetime policy for this instance. (Inherited from MarshalByRefObject.)
Protected methodGetServiceReturns an object that represents a service provided by the Component or by its Container. (Inherited from Component.)
Public methodGetTypeGets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.)
Public methodInitializeLifetimeServiceObtains a lifetime service object to control the lifetime policy for this instance. (Inherited from MarshalByRefObject.)
Public methodInstallInstalls the service by writing service application information to the registry. This method is meant to be used by installation tools, which process the appropriate methods automatically. (Overrides Installer.Install(IDictionary).)
Public methodIsEquivalentInstallerIndicates whether two installers would install the same service. (Overrides ComponentInstaller.IsEquivalentInstaller(ComponentInstaller).)
Protected methodMemberwiseClone()Creates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.)
Protected methodMemberwiseClone(Boolean)Creates a shallow copy of the current MarshalByRefObject object. (Inherited from MarshalByRefObject.)
Protected methodOnAfterInstallRaises the AfterInstall event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnAfterRollbackRaises the AfterRollback event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnAfterUninstallRaises the AfterUninstall event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnBeforeInstallRaises the BeforeInstall event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnBeforeRollbackRaises the BeforeRollback event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnBeforeUninstallRaises the BeforeUninstall event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnCommittedRaises the Committed event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Protected methodOnCommittingRaises the Committing event. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public methodRollbackRolls back service application information written to the registry by the installation procedure. This method is meant to be used by installation tools, which process the appropriate methods automatically. (Overrides Installer.Rollback(IDictionary).)
Public methodToStringReturns a String containing the name of the Component, if any. This method should not be overridden. (Inherited from Component.)
Public methodUninstallUninstalls the service by removing information about it from the registry. (Overrides Installer.Uninstall(IDictionary).)
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  NameDescription
Public eventAfterInstallOccurs after the Install methods of all the installers in the Installers property have run. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventAfterRollbackOccurs after the installations of all the installers in the Installers property are rolled back. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventAfterUninstallOccurs after all the installers in the Installers property perform their uninstallation operations. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventBeforeInstallOccurs before the Install method of each installer in the installer collection has run. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventBeforeRollbackOccurs before the installers in the Installers property are rolled back. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventBeforeUninstallOccurs before the installers in the Installers property perform their uninstall operations. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventCommittedOccurs after all the installers in the Installers property have committed their installations. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventCommittingOccurs before the installers in the Installers property committ their installations. (Inherited from Installer.)
Public eventDisposedOccurs when the component is disposed by a call to the Dispose method. (Inherited from Component.)
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The ServiceInstaller does work specific to the service with which it is associated. It is used by the installation utility to write registry values associated with the service to a subkey within the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services registry key. The service is identified by its ServiceName within this subkey. The subkey also includes the name of the executable or .dll to which the service belongs.

To install a service, create a project installer class that inherits from the Installer class, and set the RunInstallerAttribute attribute on the class to true. Within your project, create one ServiceProcessInstaller instance per service application, and one ServiceInstaller instance for each service in the application. Within your project installer class constructor, set the installation properties for the service using the ServiceProcessInstaller and ServiceInstaller instances, and add the instances to the Installers collection.

NoteNote

   It is recommended that you use the constructor for adding installer instances; however, if you need to add to the Installers collection in the Install method, be sure to perform the same additions to the collection in the Uninstall method.

For all classes deriving from the Installer class, the state of the Installers collection must be the same in the Install and Uninstall methods. However, you can avoid the maintenance of the collection across the Install and Uninstall methods if you add installer instances to the Installers collection in your custom installer class constructor.When the install utility is called, it looks for the RunInstallerAttribute attribute. If the attribute is true, the utility installs all the services that were added to the Installers collection that were associated with your project installer. If RunInstallerAttribute is false or does not exist, the install utility ignores the project installer.

The ServiceProcessInstaller associated with your project installation class installs information common to all ServiceInstaller instances in the project. If this service has anything that separates it from the other services in the installation project, that service-specific information is installed by this method.

NoteNote

It is crucial that the ServiceName be identical to the ServiceBase.ServiceName of the class you derived from ServiceBase. Normally, the value of the ServiceBase.ServiceName property for the service is set within the Main() function of the service application's executable. The Service Control Manager uses the ServiceInstaller.ServiceName property to locate the service within this executable.

You can modify other properties on the ServiceInstaller either before or after adding it to the Installers collection of your project installer. For example, a service's StartType may be set to start the service automatically at reboot or require a user to start the service manually.

Normally, you will not call the methods on ServiceInstaller within your code; they are generally called only by the install utility. The install utility automatically calls the ServiceProcessInstaller.Install and ServiceInstaller.Install methods during the installation process. It backs out failures, if necessary, by calling Rollback (or ServiceInstaller.Rollback) on all previously installed components.

The installation utility calls Uninstall to remove the object.

An application's install routine maintains information automatically about the components already installed, using the project installer's Installer.Context. This state information is continuously updated as the ServiceProcessInstaller instance, and each ServiceInstaller instance is installed by the utility. It is usually unnecessary for your code to modify state information explicitly.

When the installation is performed, it automatically creates an EventLogInstaller to install the event log source associated with the ServiceBase derived class. The Log property for this source is set by the ServiceInstaller constructor to the computer's Application log. When you set the ServiceName of the ServiceInstaller (which should be identical to the ServiceBase.ServiceName of the service), the Source is automatically set to the same value. In an installation failure, the source's installation is rolled-back along with previously installed services.

The Uninstall method tries to stop the service if it is running. Whether this succeeds or not, Uninstall undoes the changes made by Install. If a new source was created for event logging, the source is deleted.

The following example creates a project installer, called MyProjectInstaller, which inherits from Installer. It is assumed there is a service executable that contains two services, "Hello-World Service 1" and "Hello-World Service 2". Within the constructor for MyProjectInstaller (which would be called by the install utility), ServiceInstaller objects are created for each of these services, and a ServiceProcessInstaller is created for the executable. For the install utility to recognize MyProjectInstaller as a valid installer, the RunInstallerAttribute attribute is set to true.

Optional properties are set on the process installer and the service installers before the installers are added to the Installers collection. When the install utility accesses MyProjectInstaller, the objects added to the Installers collection through a call to InstallerCollection.Add will be installed in turn. During the process, the installer maintains state information indicating which objects have been installed, so each can be backed out in turn, if an installation failure occurs.

Normally, you would not create an instance of your project installer class explicitly. You would create it and add the RunInstallerAttribute attribute to the syntax, but it is the install utility that actually calls, and therefore instantiates, the class.

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Configuration.Install;
using System.ServiceProcess;
using System.ComponentModel;

[RunInstaller(true)]
public class MyProjectInstaller : Installer
{
    private ServiceInstaller serviceInstaller1;
    private ServiceInstaller serviceInstaller2;
    private ServiceProcessInstaller processInstaller;

    public MyProjectInstaller()
    {
        // Instantiate installers for process and services.
        processInstaller = new ServiceProcessInstaller();
        serviceInstaller1 = new ServiceInstaller();
        serviceInstaller2 = new ServiceInstaller();

        // The services run under the system account.
        processInstaller.Account = ServiceAccount.LocalSystem;

        // The services are started manually.
        serviceInstaller1.StartType = ServiceStartMode.Manual;
        serviceInstaller2.StartType = ServiceStartMode.Manual;

        // ServiceName must equal those on ServiceBase derived classes.
        serviceInstaller1.ServiceName = "Hello-World Service 1";
        serviceInstaller2.ServiceName = "Hello-World Service 2";

        // Add installers to collection. Order is not important.
        Installers.Add(serviceInstaller1);
        Installers.Add(serviceInstaller2);
        Installers.Add(processInstaller);
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Usage: InstallUtil.exe [<service>.exe]");
    }
}

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5.2, 4.5.1, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.
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