Schema Validation using XPathNavigator

Using the XmlDocument class, you can validate the XML content contained in an XmlDocument object in two ways. The first way is to validate the XML content using a validating XmlReader object and the second way is to use the Validate method of the XmlDocument class. You can also perform read-only validation of XML content using the XPathDocument class.

The XmlDocument class does not validate an XML document using either DTD or XML schema definition language (XSD) schema validation by default. It only verifies that the XML document is well formed.

The first way to validate an XML document is to validate the document as it is loaded into an XmlDocument object using a validating XmlReader object. The second way is to validate a previously untyped XML document using the Validate method of the XmlDocument class. In both cases, changes to the validated XML document can be revalidated using the Validate method of the XmlDocument class.

A validating XmlReader object is created by passing an XmlReaderSettings object to the Create method of the XmlReader class that takes an XmlReaderSettings object as a parameter. The XmlReaderSettings object passed as a parameter has a ValidationType property set to Schema and an XML Schema for the XML document contained in the XmlDocument object added to its Schemas property. The validating XmlReader object is then used to create the XmlDocument object.

The following example validates the contosoBooks.xml file as it is loaded into the XmlDocument object by creating the XmlDocument object using a validating XmlReader object. Because the XML document is valid according to its schema, no schema validation errors or warnings are generated.

using System;
using System.Xml;
using System.Xml.Schema;
using System.Xml.XPath;

class ValidatingReaderExample
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        try
        {
            XmlReaderSettings settings = new XmlReaderSettings();
            settings.Schemas.Add("http://www.contoso.com/books", "contosoBooks.xsd");
            settings.ValidationType = ValidationType.Schema;

            XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create("contosoBooks.xml", settings);

            XmlDocument document = new XmlDocument();
            document.Load(reader);
            XPathNavigator navigator = document.CreateNavigator();
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("ValidatingReaderExample.Exception: {0}", e.Message);
        }
    }

    static void SchemaValidationHandler(object sender, ValidationEventArgs e)
    {
        switch (e.Severity)
        {
            case XmlSeverityType.Error:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Error: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
            case XmlSeverityType.Warning:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Warning: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
        }
    }
}

The example takes the contosoBooks.xml file as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<bookstore xmlns="http://www.contoso.com/books">
    <book genre="autobiography" publicationdate="1981-03-22" ISBN="1-861003-11-0">
        <title>The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Benjamin</first-name>
            <last-name>Franklin</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>8.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="novel" publicationdate="1967-11-17" ISBN="0-201-63361-2">
        <title>The Confidence Man</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Herman</first-name>
            <last-name>Melville</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>11.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="philosophy" publicationdate="1991-02-15" ISBN="1-861001-57-6">
        <title>The Gorgias</title>
        <author>
            <name>Plato</name>
        </author>
        <price>9.99</price>
    </book>
</bookstore>

The example also takes the contosoBooks.xsd as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xs:schema attributeFormDefault="unqualified" elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.contoso.com/books" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
    <xs:element name="bookstore">
        <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
                <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="book">
                    <xs:complexType>
                        <xs:sequence>
                            <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string" />
                            <xs:element name="author">
                                <xs:complexType>
                                    <xs:sequence>
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="first-name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="last-name" type="xs:string" />
                                    </xs:sequence>
                                </xs:complexType>
                            </xs:element>
                            <xs:element name="price" type="xs:decimal" />
                        </xs:sequence>
                        <xs:attribute name="genre" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="publicationdate" type="xs:date" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="ISBN" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                    </xs:complexType>
                </xs:element>
            </xs:sequence>
        </xs:complexType>
    </xs:element>
</xs:schema>

In the above example, an XmlSchemaValidationException will be thrown when Load is called if any attribute or element type does not match the corresponding type specified in the validating schema. If a ValidationEventHandler is set on the validating XmlReader, the ValidationEventHandler will get called whenever an invalid type is encountered.

An XmlSchemaException will be thrown when an attribute or element with TypedValue set to invalid is accessed by the XPathNavigator.

The Validity property can be used to determine whether or not an individual attribute or element is valid when accessing attributes or elements with the XPathNavigator.

NoteNote

When an XML document is loaded into an XmlDocument object with an associated schema that defines default values, the XmlDocument object treats these defaults as if they appeared in the XML document. This means that the IsEmptyElement property always returns false for an element that was defaulted from the schema, even if in the XML document it was written as an empty element.

The Validate method of the XmlDocument class validates the XML document contained in an XmlDocument object against the schemas specified in the XmlDocument object's Schemas property and performs infoset augmentation. The result is a previously untyped XML document in the XmlDocument object replaced with a typed document.

The XmlDocument object reports schema validation errors and warnings using the ValidationEventHandler delegate passed as a parameter to the Validate method.

The following example validates the contosoBooks.xml file contained in the XmlDocument object against the contosoBooks.xsd schema contained in the XmlDocument object's Schemas property.

using System;
using System.Xml;
using System.Xml.Schema;
using System.Xml.XPath;

class ValidateExample
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        XmlDocument document = new XmlDocument();
        document.Load("contosoBooks.xml");
        XPathNavigator navigator = document.CreateNavigator();

        document.Schemas.Add("http://www.contoso.com/books", "contosoBooks.xsd");
        ValidationEventHandler validation = new ValidationEventHandler(SchemaValidationHandler);

        document.Validate(validation);
    }

    static void SchemaValidationHandler(object sender, ValidationEventArgs e)
    {
        switch (e.Severity)
        {
            case XmlSeverityType.Error:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Error: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
            case XmlSeverityType.Warning:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Warning: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
        }
    }
}

The example takes the contosoBooks.xml file as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<bookstore xmlns="http://www.contoso.com/books">
    <book genre="autobiography" publicationdate="1981-03-22" ISBN="1-861003-11-0">
        <title>The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Benjamin</first-name>
            <last-name>Franklin</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>8.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="novel" publicationdate="1967-11-17" ISBN="0-201-63361-2">
        <title>The Confidence Man</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Herman</first-name>
            <last-name>Melville</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>11.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="philosophy" publicationdate="1991-02-15" ISBN="1-861001-57-6">
        <title>The Gorgias</title>
        <author>
            <name>Plato</name>
        </author>
        <price>9.99</price>
    </book>
</bookstore>

The example also takes the contosoBooks.xsd as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xs:schema attributeFormDefault="unqualified" elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.contoso.com/books" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
    <xs:element name="bookstore">
        <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
                <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="book">
                    <xs:complexType>
                        <xs:sequence>
                            <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string" />
                            <xs:element name="author">
                                <xs:complexType>
                                    <xs:sequence>
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="first-name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="last-name" type="xs:string" />
                                    </xs:sequence>
                                </xs:complexType>
                            </xs:element>
                            <xs:element name="price" type="xs:decimal" />
                        </xs:sequence>
                        <xs:attribute name="genre" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="publicationdate" type="xs:date" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="ISBN" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                    </xs:complexType>
                </xs:element>
            </xs:sequence>
        </xs:complexType>
    </xs:element>
</xs:schema>

After modifications are made to an XML document, you can validate the modifications against the schema for the XML document using the Validate method of the XmlDocument class.

The following example validates the contosoBooks.xml file as it is loaded into the XmlDocument object by creating the XmlDocument object using a validating XmlReader object. The XML document is validated successfully as it is loaded without generating any schema validation errors or warnings. The example then makes two modifications to the XML document that are invalid according to the contosoBooks.xsd schema. The first modification inserts an invalid child element resulting in a schema validation error, and the second modification sets the value of a typed node to a value that is invalid according to the type of the node resulting in an exception.

using System;
using System.Xml;
using System.Xml.Schema;
using System.Xml.XPath;

class ValidatingReaderExample
{
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
        try
        {
            XmlReaderSettings settings = new XmlReaderSettings();
            settings.Schemas.Add("http://www.contoso.com/books", "contosoBooks.xsd");
            settings.ValidationType = ValidationType.Schema;

            XmlReader reader = XmlReader.Create("contosoBooks.xml", settings);

            XmlDocument document = new XmlDocument();
            document.Load(reader);
            XPathNavigator navigator = document.CreateNavigator();

            ValidationEventHandler validation = new ValidationEventHandler(SchemaValidationHandler);

            navigator.MoveToChild("bookstore", "http://www.contoso.com/books");
            navigator.MoveToChild("book", "http://www.contoso.com/books");
            navigator.MoveToChild("author", "http://www.contoso.com/books");

            navigator.AppendChild("<title>Book Title</title>");
            
            document.Validate(validation);

            navigator.MoveToParent();
            navigator.MoveToChild("price", "http://www.contoso.com/books");
            navigator.SetTypedValue(DateTime.Now);
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            Console.WriteLine("ValidatingReaderExample.Exception: {0}", e.Message);
        }
    }

    static void SchemaValidationHandler(object sender, ValidationEventArgs e)
    {
        switch (e.Severity)
        {
            case XmlSeverityType.Error:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Error: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
            case XmlSeverityType.Warning:
                Console.WriteLine("Schema Validation Warning: {0}", e.Message);
                break;
        }
    }
}

The example takes the contosoBooks.xml file as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<bookstore xmlns="http://www.contoso.com/books">
    <book genre="autobiography" publicationdate="1981-03-22" ISBN="1-861003-11-0">
        <title>The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Benjamin</first-name>
            <last-name>Franklin</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>8.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="novel" publicationdate="1967-11-17" ISBN="0-201-63361-2">
        <title>The Confidence Man</title>
        <author>
            <first-name>Herman</first-name>
            <last-name>Melville</last-name>
        </author>
        <price>11.99</price>
    </book>
    <book genre="philosophy" publicationdate="1991-02-15" ISBN="1-861001-57-6">
        <title>The Gorgias</title>
        <author>
            <name>Plato</name>
        </author>
        <price>9.99</price>
    </book>
</bookstore>

The example also takes the contosoBooks.xsd as an input.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<xs:schema attributeFormDefault="unqualified" elementFormDefault="qualified" targetNamespace="http://www.contoso.com/books" xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">
    <xs:element name="bookstore">
        <xs:complexType>
            <xs:sequence>
                <xs:element maxOccurs="unbounded" name="book">
                    <xs:complexType>
                        <xs:sequence>
                            <xs:element name="title" type="xs:string" />
                            <xs:element name="author">
                                <xs:complexType>
                                    <xs:sequence>
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="first-name" type="xs:string" />
                                        <xs:element minOccurs="0" name="last-name" type="xs:string" />
                                    </xs:sequence>
                                </xs:complexType>
                            </xs:element>
                            <xs:element name="price" type="xs:decimal" />
                        </xs:sequence>
                        <xs:attribute name="genre" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="publicationdate" type="xs:date" use="required" />
                        <xs:attribute name="ISBN" type="xs:string" use="required" />
                    </xs:complexType>
                </xs:element>
            </xs:sequence>
        </xs:complexType>
    </xs:element>
</xs:schema>

In the example above, two modifications are made to the XML document contained in the XmlDocument object. As the XML document was loaded, any schema validation errors encountered would have been handled by the validation event handler method and written to the console.

In this example, the validation errors were introduced after the XML document was loaded and were found using the Validate method of the XmlDocument class.

Modifications made using the SetTypedValue method of the XPathNavigator class resulted in an InvalidCastException because the new value was invalid according to the schema type of the node.

For more information about modifying values using the SetTypedValue method, see the Modify XML Data using XPathNavigator topic.

The XPathDocument class is a read-only, in-memory representation of an XML document. Both the XPathDocument class and the XmlDocument class create XPathNavigator objects to navigate and edit XML documents. Because the XPathDocument class is a read-only class, XPathNavigator object's returned from XPathDocument objects cannot edit the XML document contained in the XPathDocument object.

In the case of validation, you can create an XPathDocument object just like you create an XmlDocument object using a validating XmlReader object as described earlier in this topic. The XPathDocument object validates the XML document as it is loaded, but because you cannot edit the XML data in the XPathDocument object, you cannot revalidate the XML document.

For more information about read-only and editable XPathNavigator objects, see the Reading XML Data using XPathDocument and XmlDocument topic.

Was this page helpful?
(1500 characters remaining)
Thank you for your feedback
Show:
© 2014 Microsoft