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TransactionScope Class

Makes a code block transactional. This class cannot be inherited.

Namespace:  System.Transactions
Assembly:  System.Transactions (in System.Transactions.dll)

public sealed class TransactionScope : IDisposable

The System.Transactions infrastructure provides both an explicit programming model based on the Transaction class, as well as an implicit programming model using the TransactionScope class, in which transactions are automatically managed by the infrastructure.

Important noteImportant Note:

It is recommended that you create implicit transactions using the TransactionScope class, so that the ambient transaction context is automatically managed for you. You should also use the TransactionScope and DependentTransaction class for applications that require the use of the same transaction across multiple function calls or multiple thread calls. For more information on this model, see the Implementing An Implicit Transaction Using Transaction Scope topic. For more information on writing a transactional application, see Writing A Transactional Application.

Upon instantiating a TransactionScope by the new statement, the transaction manager determines which transaction to participate in. Once determined, the scope always participates in that transaction. The decision is based on two factors: whether an ambient transaction is present and the value of the TransactionScopeOption parameter in the constructor. The ambient transaction is the transaction your code executes in. You can obtain a reference to the ambient transaction by calling the static Current property of the Transaction class. For more information on how this parameter is used, please see the "Transaction Flow Management" section of the Implementing An Implicit Transaction Using Transaction Scope topic.

If no exception occurs within the transaction scope (that is, between the initialization of the TransactionScope object and the calling of its Dispose method), then the transaction in which the scope participates is allowed to proceed. If an exception does occur within the transaction scope, the transaction in which it participates will be rolled back.

When your application completes all work it wants to perform in a transaction, you should call the Complete method only once to inform that transaction manager that it is acceptable to commit the transaction. Failing to call this method aborts the transaction.

A call to the Dispose method marks the end of the transaction scope. Exceptions that occur after calling this method may not affect the transaction.

If you modify the value of Current inside a scope, an exception is thrown when Dispose is called. However, at the end of the scope, the previous value is restored. In addition, if you call Dispose on Current inside a transaction scope that created the transaction, the transaction aborts at the end of the scope.

The following example demonstrates how to use the TransactionScope class to define a block of code to participate in a transaction.

// This function takes arguments for 2 connection strings and commands to create a transaction  
// involving two SQL Servers. It returns a value > 0 if the transaction is committed, 0 if the  
// transaction is rolled back. To test this code, you can connect to two different databases  
// on the same server by altering the connection string, or to another 3rd party RDBMS by  
// altering the code in the connection2 code block. 
static public int CreateTransactionScope(
    string connectString1, string connectString2,
    string commandText1, string commandText2)
{
    // Initialize the return value to zero and create a StringWriter to display results. 
    int returnValue = 0;
    System.IO.StringWriter writer = new System.IO.StringWriter();

    try
    {
        // Create the TransactionScope to execute the commands, guaranteeing 
        // that both commands can commit or roll back as a single unit of work. 
        using (TransactionScope scope = new TransactionScope())
        {
            using (SqlConnection connection1 = new SqlConnection(connectString1))
            {
                // Opening the connection automatically enlists it in the  
                // TransactionScope as a lightweight transaction.
                connection1.Open();

                // Create the SqlCommand object and execute the first command.
                SqlCommand command1 = new SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1);
                returnValue = command1.ExecuteNonQuery();
                writer.WriteLine("Rows to be affected by command1: {0}", returnValue);

                // If you get here, this means that command1 succeeded. By nesting 
                // the using block for connection2 inside that of connection1, you 
                // conserve server and network resources as connection2 is opened 
                // only when there is a chance that the transaction can commit.    
                using (SqlConnection connection2 = new SqlConnection(connectString2))
                {
                    // The transaction is escalated to a full distributed 
                    // transaction when connection2 is opened.
                    connection2.Open();

                    // Execute the second command in the second database.
                    returnValue = 0;
                    SqlCommand command2 = new SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2);
                    returnValue = command2.ExecuteNonQuery();
                    writer.WriteLine("Rows to be affected by command2: {0}", returnValue);
                }
            }

            // The Complete method commits the transaction. If an exception has been thrown, 
            // Complete is not  called and the transaction is rolled back.
            scope.Complete();

        }

    }
    catch (TransactionAbortedException ex)
    {
        writer.WriteLine("TransactionAbortedException Message: {0}", ex.Message);
    }
    catch (ApplicationException ex)
    {
        writer.WriteLine("ApplicationException Message: {0}", ex.Message);
    }

    // Display messages.
    Console.WriteLine(writer.ToString());

    return returnValue;
}
'  This function takes arguments for 2 connection strings and commands to create a transaction  
'  involving two SQL Servers. It returns a value > 0 if the transaction is committed, 0 if the  
'  transaction is rolled back. To test this code, you can connect to two different databases  
'  on the same server by altering the connection string, or to another 3rd party RDBMS   
'  by altering the code in the connection2 code block. 
Public Function CreateTransactionScope( _
  ByVal connectString1 As String, ByVal connectString2 As String, _
  ByVal commandText1 As String, ByVal commandText2 As String) As Integer 

    ' Initialize the return value to zero and create a StringWriter to display results. 
    Dim returnValue As Integer = 0
    Dim writer As System.IO.StringWriter = New System.IO.StringWriter

    Try 
    ' Create the TransactionScope to execute the commands, guaranteeing 
    '  that both commands can commit or roll back as a single unit of work. 
        Using scope As New TransactionScope()
            Using connection1 As New SqlConnection(connectString1)
                ' Opening the connection automatically enlists it in the  
                ' TransactionScope as a lightweight transaction.
                connection1.Open()

                ' Create the SqlCommand object and execute the first command. 
                Dim command1 As SqlCommand = New SqlCommand(commandText1, connection1)
                returnValue = command1.ExecuteNonQuery()
                writer.WriteLine("Rows to be affected by command1: {0}", returnValue)

                ' If you get here, this means that command1 succeeded. By nesting 
                ' the using block for connection2 inside that of connection1, you 
                ' conserve server and network resources as connection2 is opened 
                ' only when there is a chance that the transaction can commit.    
                Using connection2 As New SqlConnection(connectString2)
                    ' The transaction is escalated to a full distributed 
                    ' transaction when connection2 is opened.
                    connection2.Open()

                    ' Execute the second command in the second database.
                    returnValue = 0
                    Dim command2 As SqlCommand = New SqlCommand(commandText2, connection2)
                    returnValue = command2.ExecuteNonQuery()
                    writer.WriteLine("Rows to be affected by command2: {0}", returnValue)
                End Using 
            End Using 

        ' The Complete method commits the transaction. If an exception has been thrown, 
        ' Complete is called and the transaction is rolled back.
        scope.Complete()
        End Using 
    Catch ex As TransactionAbortedException
        writer.WriteLine("TransactionAbortedException Message: {0}", ex.Message)
    Catch ex As ApplicationException
        writer.WriteLine("ApplicationException Message: {0}", ex.Message)
    End Try 

    ' Display messages.
    Console.WriteLine(writer.ToString())

    Return returnValue
End Function

System.Object
  System.Transactions.TransactionScope

This type is thread safe.

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP Starter Edition, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows 98

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5, 3.0, 2.0

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