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SocketAsyncEventArgs Class

Represents an asynchronous socket operation.

Namespace:  System.Net.Sockets
Assembly:  System (in System.dll)

public class SocketAsyncEventArgs extends EventArgs implements IDisposable

The SocketAsyncEventArgs class is part of a set of enhancements to the System.Net.Sockets.Socket class that provide an alternative asynchronous pattern that can be used by specialized high-performance socket applications. This class was specifically designed for network server applications that require high performance. An application can use the enhanced asynchronous pattern exclusively or only in targeted hot areas (for example, when receiving large amounts of data).

The main feature of these enhancements is the avoidance of the repeated allocation and synchronization of objects during high-volume asynchronous socket I/O. The Begin/End design pattern currently implemented by the System.Net.Sockets.Socket class requires a System.IAsyncResult object be allocated for each asynchronous socket operation.

In the new System.Net.Sockets.Socket class enhancements, asynchronous socket operations are described by reusable SocketAsyncEventArgs objects allocated and maintained by the application. High-performance socket applications know best the amount of overlapped socket operations that must be sustained. The application can create as many of the SocketAsyncEventArgs objects that it needs. For example, if a server application needs to have 15 socket accept operations outstanding at all times to support incoming client connection rates, it can allocate 15 reusable SocketAsyncEventArgs objects for that purpose.

The pattern for performing an asynchronous socket operation with this class consists of the following steps:

  1. Allocate a new SocketAsyncEventArgs context object, or get a free one from an application pool.

  2. Set properties on the context object to the operation about to be performed (the completion callback method, the data buffer, the offset into the buffer, and the maximum amount of data to transfer, for example).

  3. Call the appropriate socket method (xxxAsync) to initiate the asynchronous operation.

  4. If the asynchronous socket method (xxxAsync) returns true, in the callback, query the context properties for completion status.

  5. If the asynchronous socket method (xxxAsync) returns false, the operation completed synchronously. The context properties may be queried for the operation result.

  6. Reuse the context for another operation, put it back in the pool, or discard it.

The lifetime of the new asynchronous socket operation context object is determined by references by the application code and asynchronous I/O references. It is not necessary for the application to retain a reference to an asynchronous socket operation context object after it is submitted as a parameter to one of the asynchronous socket operation methods. It will remain referenced until the completion callback returns. However it is advantageous for the application to retain the reference to the context so that it can be reused for a future asynchronous socket operation.

The following code example implements the connection logic for the socket server that uses the SocketAsyncEventArgs class. After accepting a connection, all data read from the client is sent back to the client. The read and echo back to the client pattern is continued until the client disconnects. The BufferManager class that is used by this example is displayed in the code example for the SetBuffer(Byte[], Int32, Int32) method. The SocketAsyncEventArgsPool class that is used in this example is displayed in the code example for the SocketAsyncEventArgs constructor.

// Implements the connection logic for the socket server.   
// After accepting a connection, all data read from the client  
// is sent back to the client. The read and echo back to the client pattern  
// is continued until the client disconnects. 
class Server
{
    private int m_numConnections;   // the maximum number of connections the sample is designed to handle simultaneously  
    private int m_receiveBufferSize;// buffer size to use for each socket I/O operation 
    BufferManager m_bufferManager;  // represents a large reusable set of buffers for all socket operations 
    const int opsToPreAlloc = 2;    // read, write (don't alloc buffer space for accepts)
    Socket listenSocket;            // the socket used to listen for incoming connection requests 
    // pool of reusable SocketAsyncEventArgs objects for write, read and accept socket operations
    SocketAsyncEventArgsPool m_readWritePool;
    int m_totalBytesRead;           // counter of the total # bytes received by the server 
    int m_numConnectedSockets;      // the total number of clients connected to the server 
    Semaphore m_maxNumberAcceptedClients;

    // Create an uninitialized server instance.   
    // To start the server listening for connection requests 
    // call the Init method followed by Start method  
    // 
    // <param name="numConnections">the maximum number of connections the sample is designed to handle simultaneously</param>
    // <param name="receiveBufferSize">buffer size to use for each socket I/O operation</param>
    public Server(int numConnections, int receiveBufferSize)
    {
        m_totalBytesRead = 0;
        m_numConnectedSockets = 0;
        m_numConnections = numConnections;
        m_receiveBufferSize = receiveBufferSize;
        // allocate buffers such that the maximum number of sockets can have one outstanding read and  
        //write posted to the socket simultaneously  
        m_bufferManager = new BufferManager(receiveBufferSize * numConnections * opsToPreAlloc,
            receiveBufferSize);

        m_readWritePool = new SocketAsyncEventArgsPool(numConnections);
        m_maxNumberAcceptedClients = new Semaphore(numConnections, numConnections); 
    }

    // Initializes the server by preallocating reusable buffers and  
    // context objects.  These objects do not need to be preallocated  
    // or reused, but it is done this way to illustrate how the API can  
    // easily be used to create reusable objects to increase server performance. 
    // 
    public void Init()
    {
        // Allocates one large byte buffer which all I/O operations use a piece of.  This gaurds  
        // against memory fragmentation
        m_bufferManager.InitBuffer();

        // preallocate pool of SocketAsyncEventArgs objects
        SocketAsyncEventArgs readWriteEventArg;

        for (int i = 0; i < m_numConnections; i++)
        {
            //Pre-allocate a set of reusable SocketAsyncEventArgs
            readWriteEventArg = new SocketAsyncEventArgs();
            readWriteEventArg.Completed += new EventHandler<SocketAsyncEventArgs>(IO_Completed);
            readWriteEventArg.UserToken = new AsyncUserToken();

            // assign a byte buffer from the buffer pool to the SocketAsyncEventArg object
            m_bufferManager.SetBuffer(readWriteEventArg);

            // add SocketAsyncEventArg to the pool
            m_readWritePool.Push(readWriteEventArg);
        }

    }

    // Starts the server such that it is listening for  
    // incoming connection requests.     
    // 
    // <param name="localEndPoint">The endpoint which the server will listening 
    // for connection requests on</param> 
    public void Start(IPEndPoint localEndPoint)
    {
        // create the socket which listens for incoming connections
        listenSocket = new Socket(localEndPoint.AddressFamily, SocketType.Stream, ProtocolType.Tcp);
        listenSocket.Bind(localEndPoint);
        // start the server with a listen backlog of 100 connections
        listenSocket.Listen(100);

        // post accepts on the listening socket
        StartAccept(null);            

        //Console.WriteLine("{0} connected sockets with one outstanding receive posted to each....press any key", m_outstandingReadCount);
        Console.WriteLine("Press any key to terminate the server process....");
        Console.ReadKey();
    }


    // Begins an operation to accept a connection request from the client  
    // 
    // <param name="acceptEventArg">The context object to use when issuing 
    // the accept operation on the server's listening socket</param> 
    public void StartAccept(SocketAsyncEventArgs acceptEventArg)
    {
        if (acceptEventArg == null)
        {
            acceptEventArg = new SocketAsyncEventArgs();
            acceptEventArg.Completed += new EventHandler<SocketAsyncEventArgs>(AcceptEventArg_Completed);
        }
        else
        {
            // socket must be cleared since the context object is being reused
            acceptEventArg.AcceptSocket = null;
        }

        m_maxNumberAcceptedClients.WaitOne();
        bool willRaiseEvent = listenSocket.AcceptAsync(acceptEventArg);
        if (!willRaiseEvent)
        {
            ProcessAccept(acceptEventArg);
        }
    }

    // This method is the callback method associated with Socket.AcceptAsync  
    // operations and is invoked when an accept operation is complete 
    // 
    void AcceptEventArg_Completed(object sender, SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        ProcessAccept(e);
    }

    private void ProcessAccept(SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        Interlocked.Increment(ref m_numConnectedSockets);
        Console.WriteLine("Client connection accepted. There are {0} clients connected to the server",
            m_numConnectedSockets);

        // Get the socket for the accepted client connection and put it into the  
        //ReadEventArg object user token
        SocketAsyncEventArgs readEventArgs = m_readWritePool.Pop();
        ((AsyncUserToken)readEventArgs.UserToken).Socket = e.AcceptSocket;

        // As soon as the client is connected, post a receive to the connection 
        bool willRaiseEvent = e.AcceptSocket.ReceiveAsync(readEventArgs);
        if(!willRaiseEvent){
            ProcessReceive(readEventArgs);
        }

        // Accept the next connection request
        StartAccept(e);
    }

    // This method is called whenever a receive or send operation is completed on a socket  
    // 
    // <param name="e">SocketAsyncEventArg associated with the completed receive operation</param>
    void IO_Completed(object sender, SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        // determine which type of operation just completed and call the associated handler 
        switch (e.LastOperation)
        {
            case SocketAsyncOperation.Receive:
                ProcessReceive(e);
                break;
            case SocketAsyncOperation.Send:
                ProcessSend(e);
                break;
            default:
                throw new ArgumentException("The last operation completed on the socket was not a receive or send");
        }       

    }

    // This method is invoked when an asynchronous receive operation completes.  
    // If the remote host closed the connection, then the socket is closed.   
    // If data was received then the data is echoed back to the client. 
    // 
    private void ProcessReceive(SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        // check if the remote host closed the connection
        AsyncUserToken token = (AsyncUserToken)e.UserToken;
        if (e.BytesTransferred > 0 && e.SocketError == SocketError.Success)
        {
            //increment the count of the total bytes receive by the server
            Interlocked.Add(ref m_totalBytesRead, e.BytesTransferred);
            Console.WriteLine("The server has read a total of {0} bytes", m_totalBytesRead);

            //echo the data received back to the client
            e.SetBuffer(e.Offset, e.BytesTransferred);
            bool willRaiseEvent = token.Socket.SendAsync(e);
            if (!willRaiseEvent)
            {
                ProcessSend(e);
            }

        }
        else
        {
            CloseClientSocket(e);
        }
    }

    // This method is invoked when an asynchronous send operation completes.   
    // The method issues another receive on the socket to read any additional  
    // data sent from the client 
    // 
    // <param name="e"></param>
    private void ProcessSend(SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        if (e.SocketError == SocketError.Success)
        {
            // done echoing data back to the client
            AsyncUserToken token = (AsyncUserToken)e.UserToken;
            // read the next block of data send from the client 
            bool willRaiseEvent = token.Socket.ReceiveAsync(e);
            if (!willRaiseEvent)
            {
                ProcessReceive(e);
            }
        }
        else
        {
            CloseClientSocket(e);
        }
    }

    private void CloseClientSocket(SocketAsyncEventArgs e)
    {
        AsyncUserToken token = e.UserToken as AsyncUserToken;

        // close the socket associated with the client 
        try
        {
            token.Socket.Shutdown(SocketShutdown.Send);
        }
        // throws if client process has already closed 
        catch (Exception) { }
        token.Socket.Close();

        // decrement the counter keeping track of the total number of clients connected to the server
        Interlocked.Decrement(ref m_numConnectedSockets);
        m_maxNumberAcceptedClients.Release();
        Console.WriteLine("A client has been disconnected from the server. There are {0} clients connected to the server", m_numConnectedSockets);

        // Free the SocketAsyncEventArg so they can be reused by another client
        m_readWritePool.Push(e);
    }

}    

System.Object
  System.EventArgs
    System.Net.Sockets.SocketAsyncEventArgs

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP SP2, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003

The .NET Framework and .NET Compact Framework do not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.5 SP1, 3.0 SP1, 2.0 SP1

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