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Double Structure

Represents a double-precision floating-point number.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

[SerializableAttribute] 
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)] 
public struct Double : IComparable, IFormattable, IConvertible, 
	IComparable<double>, IEquatable<double>
/** @attribute SerializableAttribute() */ 
/** @attribute ComVisibleAttribute(true) */ 
public final class Double extends ValueType implements IComparable, IFormattable, 
	IConvertible, IComparable<double>, IEquatable<double>
Not applicable.

The Double value type represents a double-precision 64-bit number with values ranging from negative 1.79769313486232e308 to positive 1.79769313486232e308, as well as positive or negative zero, PositiveInfinity, NegativeInfinity, and Not-a-Number (NaN).

Double complies with the IEC 60559:1989 (IEEE 754) standard for binary floating-point arithmetic.

Double provides methods to compare instances of this type, convert the value of an instance to its string representation, and convert the string representation of a number to an instance of this type. For information about how format specification codes control the string representation of value types, see Formatting Overview, Standard Numeric Format Strings, and Custom Numeric Format Strings.

Using Floating-Point Numbers

When performing binary operations, if one of the operands is a Double, then the other operand is required to be an integral type or a floating-point type (Double or Single). Prior to performing the operation, if the other operand is not a Double, it is converted to Double, and the operation is performed using at least Double range and precision. If the operation produces a numeric result, the type of the result is Double.

The floating-point operators, including the assignment operators, do not throw exceptions. Instead, in exceptional situations the result of a floating-point operation is zero, infinity, or NaN, as described below:

  • If the result of a floating-point operation is too small for the destination format, the result of the operation is zero.

  • If the magnitude of the result of a floating-point operation is too large for the destination format, the result of the operation is PositiveInfinity or NegativeInfinity, as appropriate for the sign of the result.

  • If a floating-point operation is invalid, the result of the operation is NaN.

  • If one or both operands of a floating-point operation are NaN, the result of the operation is NaN.

Remember that a floating-point number can only approximate a decimal number, and that the precision of a floating-point number determines how accurately that number approximates a decimal number. By default, a Double value contains 15 decimal digits of precision, although a maximum of 17 digits is maintained internally. The precision of a floating-point number has several consequences:

  • Two floating-point numbers that appear equal for a particular precision might not compare equal because their least significant digits are different.

  • A mathematical or comparison operation that uses a floating-point number might not yield the same result if a decimal number is used because the floating-point number might not exactly approximate the decimal number.

  • A value might not roundtrip if a floating-point number is involved. A value is said to roundtrip if an operation converts an original floating-point number to another form, an inverse operation transforms the converted form back to a floating-point number, and the final floating-point number is equal to the original floating-point number. The roundtrip might fail because one or more least significant digits are lost or changed in a conversion.

Interface Implementations

This type implements the interfaces IComparable, IComparable, IFormattable, and IConvertible. Use the Convert class for conversions instead of this type's explicit interface member implementation of IConvertible.

The following code example illustrates the use of Double:

/// <summary>
/// Temperature class stores the value as Double
/// and delegates most of the functionality 
/// to the Double implementation.
/// </summary>
public class Temperature : IComparable, IFormattable {
    /// <summary>
    /// IComparable.CompareTo implementation.
    /// </summary>
    public int CompareTo(object obj) {
        if(obj is Temperature) {
            Temperature temp = (Temperature) obj;

            return m_value.CompareTo(temp.m_value);
        }
        
        throw new ArgumentException("object is not a Temperature");    
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// IFormattable.ToString implementation.
    /// </summary>
    public string ToString(string format, IFormatProvider provider) {
        if( format != null ) {
            if( format.Equals("F") ) {
                return String.Format("{0}'F", this.Value.ToString());
            }
            if( format.Equals("C") ) {
                return String.Format("{0}'C", this.Celsius.ToString());
            }
        }

        return m_value.ToString(format, provider);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Parses the temperature from a string in form
    /// [ws][sign]digits['F|'C][ws]
    /// </summary>
    public static Temperature Parse(string s, NumberStyles styles, IFormatProvider provider) {
        Temperature temp = new Temperature();

        if( s.TrimEnd(null).EndsWith("'F") ) {
            temp.Value = Double.Parse( s.Remove(s.LastIndexOf('\''), 2), styles, provider);
        }
        else if( s.TrimEnd(null).EndsWith("'C") ) {
            temp.Celsius = Double.Parse( s.Remove(s.LastIndexOf('\''), 2), styles, provider);
        }
        else {
            temp.Value = Double.Parse(s, styles, provider);
        }

        return temp;
    }

    // The value holder
    protected double m_value;

    public double Value {
        get {
            return m_value;
        }
        set {
            m_value = value;
        }
    }

    public double Celsius {
        get {
            return (m_value-32.0)/1.8;
        }
        set {
            m_value = 1.8*value+32.0;
        }
    }
}

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

Caution noteCaution:

Assigning an instance of this type is not thread safe on all hardware platforms because the binary representation of that instance might be too large to assign in a single atomic operation.

Windows 98, Windows Server 2000 SP4, Windows CE, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The Microsoft .NET Framework 3.0 is supported on Windows Vista, Microsoft Windows XP SP2, and Windows Server 2003 SP1.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 3.0, 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0

XNA Framework

Supported in: 1.0
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