# Decimal Structure

**.NET Framework 4**

Represents a decimal number.

**Namespace:**System

**Assembly:**mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

The Decimal type exposes the following members.

Name | Description | |
---|---|---|

Decimal(Double) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified double-precision floating-point number. | |

Decimal(Int32) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit signed integer. | |

Decimal(Int32[]) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to a decimal value represented in binary and contained in a specified array. | |

Decimal(Int64) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit signed integer. | |

Decimal(Single) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified single-precision floating-point number. | |

Decimal(UInt32) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 32-bit unsigned integer. | |

Decimal(UInt64) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal to the value of the specified 64-bit unsigned integer. | |

Decimal(Int32, Int32, Int32, Boolean, Byte) | Initializes a new instance of Decimal from parameters specifying the instance's constituent parts. |

Name | Description | |
---|---|---|

Add | Adds two specified Decimal values. | |

Ceiling | Returns the smallest integral value that is greater than or equal to the specified decimal number. | |

Compare | Compares two specified Decimal values. | |

CompareTo(Decimal) | Compares this instance to a specified Decimal object. | |

CompareTo(Object) | Compares this instance to a specified Object. | |

Divide | Divides two specified Decimal values. | |

Equals(Decimal) | Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Decimal object represent the same value. | |

Equals(Object) | Returns a value indicating whether this instance and a specified Object represent the same type and value. (Overrides ValueType.Equals(Object).) | |

Equals(Decimal, Decimal) | Returns a value indicating whether two specified instances of Decimal represent the same value. | |

Finalize | Allows an object to try to free resources and perform other cleanup operations before it is reclaimed by garbage collection. (Inherited from Object.) | |

Floor | Rounds a specified Decimal number to the closest integer toward negative infinity. | |

FromOACurrency | Converts the specified 64-bit signed integer, which contains an OLE Automation Currency value, to the equivalent Decimal value. | |

GetBits | Converts the value of a specified instance of Decimal to its equivalent binary representation. | |

GetHashCode | Returns the hash code for this instance. (Overrides ValueType.GetHashCode().) | |

GetType | Gets the Type of the current instance. (Inherited from Object.) | |

GetTypeCode | Returns the TypeCode for value type Decimal. | |

MemberwiseClone | Creates a shallow copy of the current Object. (Inherited from Object.) | |

Multiply | Multiplies two specified Decimal values. | |

Negate | Returns the result of multiplying the specified Decimal value by negative one. | |

Parse(String) | Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent. | |

Parse(String, NumberStyles) | Converts the string representation of a number in a specified style to its Decimal equivalent. | |

Parse(String, IFormatProvider) | Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified culture-specific format information. | |

Parse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider) | Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format. | |

Remainder | Computes the remainder after dividing two Decimal values. | |

Round(Decimal) | Rounds a decimal value to the nearest integer. | |

Round(Decimal, Int32) | Rounds a Decimal value to a specified number of decimal places. | |

Round(Decimal, MidpointRounding) | Rounds a decimal value to the nearest integer. A parameter specifies how to round the value if it is midway between two other numbers. | |

Round(Decimal, Int32, MidpointRounding) | Rounds a decimal value to a specified precision. A parameter specifies how to round the value if it is midway between two other numbers. | |

Subtract | Subtracts one specified Decimal value from another. | |

ToByte | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit unsigned integer. | |

ToDouble | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent double-precision floating-point number. | |

ToInt16 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit signed integer. | |

ToInt32 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit signed integer. | |

ToInt64 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit signed integer. | |

ToOACurrency | Converts the specified Decimal value to the equivalent OLE Automation Currency value, which is contained in a 64-bit signed integer. | |

ToSByte | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 8-bit signed integer. | |

ToSingle | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent single-precision floating-point number. | |

ToString() | Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation. (Overrides ValueType.ToString().) | |

ToString(IFormatProvider) | Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified culture-specific format information. | |

ToString(String) | Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation, using the specified format. | |

ToString(String, IFormatProvider) | Converts the numeric value of this instance to its equivalent string representation using the specified format and culture-specific format information. | |

ToUInt16 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 16-bit unsigned integer. | |

ToUInt32 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 32-bit unsigned integer. | |

ToUInt64 | Converts the value of the specified Decimal to the equivalent 64-bit unsigned integer. | |

Truncate | Returns the integral digits of the specified Decimal; any fractional digits are discarded. | |

TryParse(String, Decimal) | Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed. | |

TryParse(String, NumberStyles, IFormatProvider, Decimal) | Converts the string representation of a number to its Decimal equivalent using the specified style and culture-specific format. A return value indicates whether the conversion succeeded or failed. |

Name | Description | |
---|---|---|

Addition | Adds two specified Decimal values. | |

Decrement | Decrements the Decimal operand by one. | |

Division | Divides two specified Decimal values. | |

Equality | Returns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are equal. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Int16) | Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit signed integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Double) | Converts a Decimal to a double-precision floating-point number. | |

Explicit(Decimal to SByte) | Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit signed integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Char) | Converts a Decimal to a Unicode character. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Int64) | Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit signed integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Int32) | Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit signed integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to UInt64) | Converts a Decimal to a 64-bit unsigned integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to UInt16) | Converts a Decimal to a 16-bit unsigned integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Single) | Converts a Decimal to a single-precision floating-point number. | |

Explicit(Decimal to UInt32) | Converts a Decimal to a 32-bit unsigned integer. | |

Explicit(Decimal to Byte) | Converts a Decimal to an 8-bit unsigned integer. | |

Explicit(Double to Decimal) | Converts a double-precision floating-point number to a Decimal. | |

Explicit(Single to Decimal) | Converts a single-precision floating-point number to a Decimal. | |

GreaterThan | Returns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than another specified Decimal. | |

GreaterThanOrEqual | Returns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is greater than or equal to another specified Decimal. | |

Implicit(Byte to Decimal) | Converts an 8-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(Char to Decimal) | Converts a Unicode character to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(Int16 to Decimal) | Converts a 16-bit signed integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(Int32 to Decimal) | Converts a 32-bit signed integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(Int64 to Decimal) | Converts a 64-bit signed integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(SByte to Decimal) | Converts an 8-bit signed integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(UInt16 to Decimal) | Converts a 16-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(UInt32 to Decimal) | Converts a 32-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal. | |

Implicit(UInt64 to Decimal) | Converts a 64-bit unsigned integer to a Decimal. | |

Increment | Increments the Decimal operand by 1. | |

Inequality | Returns a value indicating whether two instances of Decimal are not equal. | |

LessThan | Returns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than another specified Decimal. | |

LessThanOrEqual | Returns a value indicating whether a specified Decimal is less than or equal to another specified Decimal. | |

Modulus | Returns the remainder resulting from dividing two specified Decimal values. | |

Multiply | Multiplies two specified Decimal values. | |

Subtraction | Subtracts two specified Decimal values. | |

UnaryNegation | Negates the value of the specified Decimal operand. | |

UnaryPlus | Returns the value of the Decimal operand (the sign of the operand is unchanged). |

Name | Description | |
---|---|---|

MaxValue | Represents the largest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only. | |

MinusOne | Represents the number negative one (-1). | |

MinValue | Represents the smallest possible value of Decimal. This field is constant and read-only. | |

One | Represents the number one (1). | |

Zero | Represents the number zero (0). |

Name | Description | |
---|---|---|

IConvertible.ToBoolean | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToBoolean. | |

IConvertible.ToByte | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToByte. | |

IConvertible.ToChar | Infrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException. | |

IConvertible.ToDateTime | Infrastructure. This conversion is not supported. Attempting to use this method throws an InvalidCastException. | |

IConvertible.ToDecimal | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDecimal. | |

IConvertible.ToDouble | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToDouble. | |

IConvertible.ToInt16 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt16. | |

IConvertible.ToInt32 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32. | |

IConvertible.ToInt64 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64. | |

IConvertible.ToSByte | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSByte. | |

IConvertible.ToSingle | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToSingle. | |

IConvertible.ToType | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToType. | |

IConvertible.ToUInt16 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToUInt16. | |

IConvertible.ToUInt32 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt32. | |

IConvertible.ToUInt64 | Infrastructure. For a description of this member, see IConvertible.ToInt64. | |

IDeserializationCallback.OnDeserialization | Infrastructure. Runs when the deserialization of an object has been completed. |

The Decimal value type represents decimal numbers ranging from positive 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335 to negative 79,228,162,514,264,337,593,543,950,335. The Decimal value type is appropriate for financial calculations requiring large numbers of significant integral and fractional digits and no round-off errors. The Decimal type does not eliminate the need for rounding. Rather, it minimizes errors due to rounding. For example, the following code produces a result of 0.9999999999999999999999999999 rather than 1.

When the result of the division and multiplication is passed to the Round method, the result suffers no loss of precision as the following code shows.

A decimal number is a floating-point value that consists of a sign, a numeric value where each digit in the value ranges from 0 to 9, and a scaling factor that indicates the position of a floating decimal point that separates the integral and fractional parts of the numeric value.

The binary representation of a Decimal value consists of a 1-bit sign, a 96-bit integer number, and a scaling factor used to divide the 96-bit integer and specify what portion of it is a decimal fraction. The scaling factor is implicitly the number 10, raised to an exponent ranging from 0 to 28. Therefore, the binary representation of a Decimal value is of the form, ((-296 to 296) / 10(0 to 28)), where -296-1 is equal to MinValue, and 296-1 is equal to MaxValue.

The scaling factor also preserves any trailing zeroes in a Decimal number. Trailing zeroes do not affect the value of a Decimal number in arithmetic or comparison operations. However, trailing zeroes can be revealed by the ToString method if an appropriate format string is applied.

### Conversion Considerations

This type provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from SByte, Int16, Int32, Int64, Byte, UInt16, UInt32, and UInt64. Conversions from these integral types to Decimal are widening conversions that never lose information or throw exceptions.

Conversions from Decimal to any of the integral types are narrowing conversions that round the Decimal value to the nearest integer value toward zero. Some languages, such as C#, also support the conversion of Decimal values to Char values. If the result of these conversions cannot be represented in the destination type, an OverflowException is thrown.

The Decimal type also provides methods that convert Decimal values to and from Single and Double. Conversions from Decimal to Single or Double are narrowing conversions that might lose precision but not information about the magnitude of the converted value. The conversion will not throw an exception.

Conversions from Single or Double to Decimal throw an OverflowException if the result of the conversion cannot be represented as a Decimal.

The following code example demonstrates the use of Decimal.

/// <summary> /// Keeping my fortune in Decimals to avoid the round-off errors. /// </summary> class PiggyBank { protected decimal MyFortune; public void AddPenny() { MyFortune = Decimal.Add(MyFortune, .01m); } public decimal Capacity { get { return Decimal.MaxValue; } } public decimal Dollars { get { return Decimal.Floor(MyFortune); } } public decimal Cents { get { return Decimal.Subtract(MyFortune, Decimal.Floor(MyFortune)); } } public override string ToString() { return MyFortune.ToString("C")+" in piggy bank"; } }

Windows 7, Windows Vista SP1 or later, Windows XP SP3, Windows XP SP2 x64 Edition, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core supported with SP1 or later), Windows Server 2003 SP2

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

All members of this type are thread safe. Members that appear to modify instance state actually return a new instance initialized with the new value. As with any other type, reading and writing to a shared variable that contains an instance of this type must be protected by a lock to guarantee thread safety.

Caution |
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Assigning an instance of this type is not thread safe on all hardware platforms because the binary representation of that instance might be too large to assign in a single atomic operation. |