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CryptDeriveKey (Windows CE 5.0)

Windows CE 5.0
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This function generates cryptographic session keys derived from base data. This function guarantees that all keys generated from the same base data are identical, provided the same cryptographic service provider (CSP) and algorithms are used. The base data can be a password or any other user data.

This function is the same as the CryptGenKey function, except that the generated session keys are derived from base data instead of being random. The CryptDeriveKey function can only generate session keys and cannot be used to generate public/private key pairs.

A handle to the session key is returned in the phKey parameter. This handle can then be used with any CryptoAPI functions that require key handles.

BOOL CRYPTFUNC CryptDeriveKey( 
  HCRYPTPROV hProv, 
  ALG_ID Algid, 
  HCRYPTHASH hBaseData, 
  DWORD dwFlags, 
  HCRYPTKEY* phKey
);

Parameters

hProv
[in] HCRYPTPROV handle to a CSP created by a call to the CryptAcquireContext function.
Algid
[in] ALG_ID identifier of the algorithm for the generated key. The valid value for this parameter varies depending on the CSP. Common hash algorithm identifiers are: CALG_AES_128, CALG_AES_192, CALG_AES_256, CALG_RSA_SIGN, CALG_RSA_KEYX, CALG_RC2, CALG_RC4, CALG_RC5, CALG_DES, CALG_3DES_112, and CALG_3DES. See ALG_ID for definitions.
hBaseData
[in] HCRYPTHASH handle to a hash object that contains the exact base data.

To obtain this handle, an application must first create a hash object with the CryptCreateHash function and then add the base data to the hash object with the CryptHashData function. For more information about hashing and digital signatures, see the programmer's guide topics under Cryptography.

dwFlags
[in] Specifies the type of key generated. This parameter can be zero. The following table shows flags that you can specify. You can use the bitwise OR operator to combine flags.
ValueDescription
CRYPT_EXPORTABLEIf this flag is set, the session key can be transferred out of the CSP into a key BLOB through the CryptExportKey function. Because keys generally must be exportable, this flag should usually be set.

If this flag is not set, the session key will not be exportable. This means the key will be available only within the current session and only to the application that created it.

This flag does not apply to public/private key pairs.

CRYPT_CREATE_SALTTypically, when a session key is made from a hash value, there are a number of leftover bits. For example, if the hash value is 128 bits and the session key is 40 bits, there will be 88 bits left over.

If this flag is set, the key is assigned a salt value based on the unused hash value bits. You can retrieve this salt value by using the CryptGetKeyParam function with the dwParam parameter set to KP_SALT.

If CRYPT_CREATE_SALT is not set, the key will be given a salt value of zero.

When keys with nonzero salt values are exported using CryptExportKey, the salt value must also be obtained and kept with the key BLOB.

CRYPT_NO_SALTSpecifies that no salt value gets allocated for a 40-bit symmetric key.
CRYPT_USER_PROTECTEDIf this flag is set, the user is notified through a dialog box or another method when certain actions are attempted by using this key. The precise behavior is specified by the CSP being used.
CRYPT_UPDATE_KEYSome CSPs use session keys derived from multiple hash values, in which case CryptDeriveKey must be called multiple times.

If this flag is set, a new session key is not generated. Instead, the key specified by phKey is modified. The precise behavior of this flag is dependent on the type of key being generated and on the particular CSP being used.

The Microsoft Cryptographic Providers ignore this flag.

phKey
[out] Pointer to the HCRYPTKEY handle to the newly generated key.

Return Values

TRUE indicates success. FALSE indicates failure. To get extended error information, call the GetLastError function.

The following table shows the common values for the GetLastError function. The error values prefaced by NTE are generated by the particular CSP you are using.

ValueDescription
ERROR_INVALID_HANDLEOne of the parameters specifies an invalid handle.
ERROR_INVALID_PARAMETEROne of the parameters contains an invalid value. This is most often an illegal pointer.
NTE_BAD_ALGIDThe Algid parameter specifies an algorithm that this CSP does not support.
NTE_BAD_FLAGSThe dwFlags parameter contains an invalid value.
NTE_BAD_HASHThe hBaseData parameter does not contain a valid handle to a hash object.
NTE_BAD_HASH_STATEAn attempt was made to add data to a hash object that is already marked as finished.
NTE_BAD_UIDThe hProv parameter does not contain a valid context handle.
NTE_FAILThe function failed in some unexpected way.

Remarks

To generate a key for a symmetric encryption algorithm, use the Algid parameter to specify the algorithm. The algorithms available will most likely be different for each CSP.

When keys are generated for symmetric block ciphers, the key by default will be set up in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode with an initialization vector of zero. This cipher mode provides a good default method for bulk-encrypting data. To change these parameters, use the CryptSetKeyParam function.

After the CryptDeriveKey function has been called, no more data can be added to the hash object. The CryptDestroyHash function should be called at this point to destroy the hash object.

Example Code

#include <wincrypt.h>

HCRYPTPROV hProv = 0;
HCRYPTKEY hKey = 0;
HCRYPTHASH hHash = 0;
CHAR szPassword[ ] = "apple-camshaft";
DWORD dwLength;

// Get a handle to user default provider using CryptAcquireContext.
// For sample code, see CryptAcquireContext.
...

// Create a hash object.
if(!CryptCreateHash(hProv, CALG_MD5, 0, 0, &hHash)) {
 printf("Error %x during CryptCreateHash!\n", GetLastError());
 goto done;
}

// Hash the password string.
dwLength = strlen(szPassword);
if(!CryptHashData(hHash, (BYTE *)szPassword, dwLength, 0)) {
 printf("Error %x during CryptHashData!\n", GetLastError());
 goto done;
}

// Create a block cipher session key based on the hash of the password.
if(!CryptDeriveKey(hProv, CALG_RC2, hHash, CRYPT_EXPORTABLE, &hKey)) {
 printf("Error %x during CryptDeriveKey!\n", GetLastError());
 goto done;
}

// Use 'hKey' to encrypt or decrypt a message.
...

done:

// Destroy the hash object.
if(hHash != 0) CryptDestroyHash(hHash);

// Destroy the session key.
if(hKey != 0) CryptDestroyKey(hKey);

// Free the provider handle.
if(hProv != 0) CryptReleaseContext(hProv, 0);

Requirements

OS Versions: Windows CE 2.10 and later.
Header: Wincrypt.h.
Link Library: Coredll.lib.

See Also

CryptAcquireContext | CryptCreateHash | CryptDestroyHash | CryptDestroyKey | CryptExportKey | CryptGenKey | CryptGetKeyParam | CryptHashData | CryptSetKeyParam | ALG_ID | HCRYPTKEY | HCRYPTHASH | HCRYPTPROV


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