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Message Security User Name

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This sample demonstrates how to implement an application that uses WS-Security with username authentication for the client and requires server authentication using the server's X.509v3 certificate. All application messages between the client and server are signed and encrypted. By default, the username and password supplied by the client are used to logon to a valid Windows account. This sample is based on the WSHttpBinding. This sample consists of a client console program (Client.exe) and a service library (Service.dll) hosted by Internet Information Services (IIS). The service implements a contract that defines a request-reply communication pattern.

NoteNote:

The setup procedure and build instructions for this sample are located at the end of this topic.

This sample also demonstrates:

  • The default mapping to Windows accounts so that additional authorization can be performed.

  • How to access the caller's identity information from the service code.

The service exposes a single endpoint for communicating with the service, which is defined using the configuration file Web.config. The endpoint consists of an address, a binding, and a contract. The binding is configured with a standard wsHttpBinding Element, which defaults to using message security. This sample sets the standard wsHttpBinding Element to use client username authentication. The behavior specifies that the user credentials are to be used for service authentication. The server certificate must contain the same value for the subject name as the findValue attribute in the serviceCredentials element.

<system.serviceModel>
  <services>
    <service name="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.CalculatorService"
             behaviorConfiguration="CalculatorServiceBehavior">
      <!-- This endpoint is exposed at the base address provided by host: http://localhost/servicemodelsamples/service.svc.  -->
      <endpoint address=""
                binding="wsHttpBinding"
                bindingConfiguration="Binding1" 
                contract="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.ICalculator" />
      <!-- The mex endpoint is exposed at http://localhost/servicemodelsamples/service.svc/mex. -->
      <endpoint address="mex"
                binding="mexHttpBinding"
                contract="IMetadataExchange" />
    </service>
  </services>

  <bindings>
    <wsHttpBinding>
      <!-- 
      This configuration defines the security mode as Message and 
      the clientCredentialType as Username.
      By default, Username authentication attempts to authenticate the provided
      username as a Windows machine or domain account.
      -->
      <binding name="Binding1">
        <security mode="Message">
          <message clientCredentialType="UserName"/>
        </security>
      </binding>
    </wsHttpBinding>
  </bindings>

  <!--For debugging purposes set the includeExceptionDetailInFaults attribute to true.-->
  <behaviors>
    <serviceBehaviors>
      <behavior name="CalculatorServiceBehavior">
        <!-- 
      The serviceCredentials behavior allows one to define a service certificate.
      A service certificate is used by the service to authenticate itself to the client and to provide message protection.
      This configuration references the "localhost" certificate installed during the setup instructions.
      -->
        <serviceCredentials>
          <serviceCertificate findValue="localhost" storeLocation="LocalMachine" storeName="My" x509FindType="FindBySubjectName" />
        </serviceCredentials>
        <serviceMetadata httpGetEnabled="True"/>
        <serviceDebug includeExceptionDetailInFaults="False" />
      </behavior>
    </serviceBehaviors>
  </behaviors>
</system.serviceModel>

The client endpoint configuration consists of an absolute address for the service endpoint, the binding, and the contract. The client binding is configured with the appropriate securityMode and authenticationMode. When running in a cross-machine scenario, the service endpoint address must be changed accordingly.

<system.serviceModel>
  <client>
    <endpoint address="http://localhost/servicemodelsamples/service.svc" 
              binding="wsHttpBinding" 
              bindingConfiguration="Binding1" 
              behaviorConfiguration="ClientCredentialsBehavior"
              contract="Microsoft.ServiceModel.Samples.ICalculator" />
  </client>

  <bindings>
    <wsHttpBinding>
      <!-- 
      This configuration defines the security mode as Message and 
      the clientCredentialType as Username.
      -->
      <binding name="Binding1">
        <security mode="Message">
          <message clientCredentialType="UserName"/>
        </security>
      </binding>
    </wsHttpBinding>
  </bindings>

  <!--For debugging purposes set the includeExceptionDetailInFaults attribute to true.-->
  <behaviors>
    <endpointBehaviors>
      <behavior name="ClientCredentialsBehavior">
        <!-- 
      Setting the certificateValidationMode to PeerOrChainTrust means that if the certificate 
      is in the user's Trusted People store, then it is trusted without performing a
      validation of the certificate's issuer chain. This setting is used here for convenience so that the 
      sample can be run without having to have certificates issued by a certificate authority (CA).
      This setting is less secure than the default, ChainTrust. The security implications of this 
      setting should be carefully considered before using PeerOrChainTrust in production code. 
      -->
        <clientCredentials>
          <serviceCertificate>
            <authentication certificateValidationMode="PeerOrChainTrust" />
          </serviceCertificate>
        </clientCredentials>
      </behavior>
    </endpointBehaviors>
  </behaviors>
</system.serviceModel>

The client implementation sets the user name and password to use.

// Create a client.
CalculatorClient client = new CalculatorClient();

// Configure client with valid machine or domain account (username,password).
client.ClientCredentials.UserName.UserName = username;
client.ClientCredentials.UserName.Password = password.ToString();

// Call GetCallerIdentity service operation.
Console.WriteLine(client.GetCallerIdentity());
...
//Closing the client gracefully closes the connection and cleans up resources.
client.Close();

When you run the sample, the operation requests and responses are displayed in the client console window. Press ENTER in the client window to shut down the client.

MyMachine\TestAccount
Add(100,15.99) = 115.99
Subtract(145,76.54) = 68.46
Multiply(9,81.25) = 731.25
Divide(22,7) = 3.14285714285714
Press <ENTER> to terminate client.

The Setup.bat batch file included with the MessageSecurity samples enables you to configure the server with a relevant certificate to run a hosted application that requires certificate-based security. The batch file can be run in two modes. To run the batch file in the single-machine mode, type setup.bat at the command line. To run it in service mode type setup.bat service. You use this mode when running the sample across machines. See the setup procedure at the end of this topic for details.

The following provides a brief overview of the different sections of the batch files.

  • Creating the server certificate

    The following lines from the Setup.bat batch file create the server certificate to be used.

    echo ************
    echo Server cert setup starting
    echo %SERVER_NAME%
    echo ************
    echo making server cert
    echo ************
    makecert.exe -sr LocalMachine -ss MY -a sha1 -n CN=%SERVER_NAME% -sky exchange -pe
    

    The %SERVER_NAME% variable specifies the server name. The certificate is stored in the LocalMachine store. If the Setup.bat batch file is run with an argument of service (such as setup.bat service) the %SERVER_NAME% contains the fully-qualified domain name of the computer. Otherwise it defaults to localhost.

  • Installing the server certificate into the client's trusted certificate store

    The following line copies the server certificate into the client trusted people store. This step is required because certificates generated by Makecert.exe are not implicitly trusted by the client system. If you already have a certificate that is rooted in a client trusted root certificate—for example, a Microsoft-issued certificate—this step of populating the client certificate store with the server certificate is not required.

    certmgr.exe -add -r LocalMachine -s My -c -n %SERVER_NAME% -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople
    
    
  • Granting permissions on the certificate's private key

    The following lines in the Setup.bat batch file make the server certificate stored in the LocalMachine store accessible to the ASP.NET worker process account.

    echo ************
    echo setting privileges on server certificates
    echo ************
    for /F "delims=" %%i in ('"%ProgramFiles%\ServiceModelSampleTools\FindPrivateKey.exe" My LocalMachine -n CN^=%SERVER_NAME% -a') do set PRIVATE_KEY_FILE=%%i
    set WP_ACCOUNT=NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE
    (ver | findstr /C:"5.1") && set WP_ACCOUNT=%COMPUTERNAME%\ASPNET
    echo Y|cacls.exe "%PRIVATE_KEY_FILE%" /E /G "%WP_ACCOUNT%":R
    iisreset
    
    NoteNote:

    If you are using a non-U.S. English edition of Microsoft Windows you must edit the Setup.bat file and replace the NT AUTHORITY\NETWORK SERVICE account name with your regional equivalent.

To set up, build, and run the sample

  1. Ensure that you have performed the One-Time Setup Procedure for the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

  2. To build the C# or Visual Basic .NET edition of the solution, follow the instructions in Building the Windows Communication Foundation Samples.

To run the sample on the same machine

  1. Ensure that the path includes the folder where Makecert.exe and FindPrivateKey.exe are located.

  2. Run Setup.bat from the sample install folder. This installs all the certificates required for running the sample.

    NoteNote:

    The Setup.bat batch file is designed to be run from a Windows SDK Command Prompt. It requires that the MSSDK environment variable point to the directory where the SDK is installed. This environment variable is automatically set within a Windows SDK Command Prompt.

  3. Verify access to the service using a browser by entering the address http://localhost/servicemodelsamples/service.svc.

  4. Launch Client.exe from \client\bin. Client activity is displayed on the client console application.

  5. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips.

To run the sample across machines

  1. Create a directory on the service machine. Create a virtual application named servicemodelsamples for this directory using Internet Information Services management tool.

  2. Copy the service program files from \inetpub\wwwroot\servicemodelsamples to the virtual directory on the service machine. Ensure that you copy the files in the \bin subdirectory. Also copy the Setup.bat and Cleanup.bat files to the service machine.

  3. Create a directory on the client machine for the client binaries.

  4. Copy the client program files to the client directory on the client machine. Also copy the Setup.bat, Cleanup.bat, and ImportServiceCert.bat files to the client.

  5. On the server, run setup.bat service. Running setup.bat with the service argument creates a service certificate with the fully-qualified domain name of the machine and exports the service certificate to a file named Service.cer.

  6. Edit Web.config to reflect the new certificate name (in the findValue attribute in the serviceCertificate element) which is the same as the fully-qualified domain name of the machine.

  7. Copy the Service.cer file from the service directory to the client directory on the client machine.

  8. In the Client.exe.config file on the client machine, change the address value of the endpoint to match the new address of your service.

  9. On the client, run ImportServiceCert.bat. This imports the service certificate from the Service.cer file into the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store.

  10. On the client machine, launch Client.exe from a command prompt. If the client and service are not able to communicate, see Troubleshooting Tips.

To clean up after the sample

  • Run Cleanup.bat in the samples folder once you have finished running the sample.

    NoteNote:

    This script does not remove service certificates on a client when running this sample across machines. If you have run Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) samples that use certificates across machines, be sure to clear the service certificates that have been installed in the CurrentUser - TrustedPeople store. To do this, use the following command: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n <Fully Qualified Server Machine Name> For example: certmgr -del -r CurrentUser -s TrustedPeople -c -n server1.contoso.com.

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