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LDIF Scripts

The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard that defines how to import and export directory data between directory servers that use LDAP service providers. Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 include a command-line utility, LDIFDE, which can be used to import directory objects into Active Directory Domain Services using LDIF files. LDIFDE enables you to set a filter to a specific string in order to search for and list directory objects in Active Directory Domain Services as LDIF files which can be easily read by schema administrators.

When importing a Unicode file, LDIFDE imports the file as Unicode if it contains the Unicode identifier at the beginning of the file. If you wish to import a file as Unicode when it does not contain the Unicode identifier at the beginning of the file, you can use the -u switch in order to force it to be imported as Unicode.

The default mode for exporting files is ANSI. If there are Unicode entries, they will be converted into base 64 format. To export a file into Unicode format, use the -u switch.

An LDIF file must apply schema changes when there are dependencies between the attributes that are added. For example, forward link attributes should be added before the corresponding back link attribute. You must also update the schema cache before adding classes that depend on attributes or classes added earlier in the LDIF script. For more information, see the following code example.

Be aware that for binary values, you must encode the values as base64. Base64 encoding is defined in IETF RFC 2045, Section 6.8.

For more information about the format of LDIF files, see The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) - Technical Specification (RFC 2849) on the Internet Engineering Task Force website.

NTDS-specific LDIF changetypes

It is better to use ntdsSchema* changetypes rather than calling ldifde -k. The -k option of ldifde ignores a larger set of LDAP errors. The complete list of ignored errors is as follows:

  • The object is already a member of the group.
  • An object class violation (meaning the specified object class does not exist), if the object being imported has no other attributes.
  • object already exists (LDAP_ALREADY_EXISTS)
  • constraint violation (LDAP_CONSTRAINT_VIOLATION)
  • attribute or value already exists (LDAP_ATTRIBUTE_OR_VALUE_EXISTS)
  • no such object (LDAP_NO_SUCH_OBJECT)

The following changetypes are designed specifically for schema upgrade operations.

ChangetypeDescription

ntdsSchemaAdd

ntdsSchemaAdd corresponds to add in an LDIF file. The only difference is that ntdsSchemaAdd would cause ldifde to skip an add operation if the object already exists in the schema. (LDAP_ALREADY_EXISTS is ignored.)

ntdsSchemaModify

ntdsSchemaModify corresponds to modify in an LDIF file. The only difference is that ntdsSchemaModify would cause ldifde to skip an modify operation if the object is not found in the schema. (LDAP_NO_SUCH_OBJECT is ignored.)

ntdsSchemaDelete

ntdsSchemaDelete corresponds to delete in an LDIF file. The only difference is that ntdsSchemaDelete would cause ldifde to skip an delete operation if the object is not found in the schema. (LDAP_NO_SUCH_OBJECT is ignored.)

ntdsSchemaModRdn

ntdsSchemaModRdn corresponds to modrdn in an LDIF file. The only difference is that ntdsSchemaModRdn would cause ldifde to skip a modify-relative-distinguished-name operation if the object is not found in the schema. (LDAP_NO_SUCH_OBJECT is ignored.)

 

Example

The following code example includes:

  • Myschemaext.ldf is an LDIF script that contains new attributes and classes. Be aware that this file is a modified version of the file generated from Lgetattcls.vbs. Also be aware that the My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL attribute was moved ahead of My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL because the back link (My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL) is dependent on the forward link (My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL). Furthermore, the schemaUpdateNow operational attribute is set in two places to trigger updates of the schema cache so that dependent attributes and classes will be available for adding the two classes in the script.

    Note  See the topic Obtaining a Link ID for information about the source of the ID in the linkID: statements.

  • Lgetattcls.vbs is a VBScript file that generates the LDIF script used as the starting point for the Myschemaext.ldf. Be aware that the current schema path is replaced by CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com. You can replace DC=myorg,DC=com to reflect the distinguished name (DN) to publish in the LDIF script— ensure that LSETATTCLS.VBS reflects the change in its sFromDN so that the correct DN is replaced when the LDIF script is applied. Also be aware that the script uses a prefix to find the classes and attributes—you should also define and use a prefix for all your classes and attributes. For more information, see Naming Attributes and Classes. In addition, the script outputs only the necessary attributes for the attributeSchema and classSchema objects to the LDIF file.
  • Lsetattcls.vbs is a VBScript file that uses the Myschemaext.ldf script to add the new attributes and classes in the script. Ensure that the schema master is able to be written to before running the script.

MYSCHEMAEXT.LDF

dn: CN=My-Test-Attribute-CaseExactString,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Attribute-CaseExactString
attributeID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.65
attributeSyntax: 2.5.5.3
cn: My-Test-Attribute-CaseExactString
description: Test attribute of syntax CaseExactString used to show how to add a CaseExactString attribute.
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet: FALSE
isSingleValued: TRUE
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAttributeCaseExactString
distinguishedName: CN=My-Test-Attribute-CaseExactString,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectCategory: CN=Attribute-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectClass: attributeSchema
oMSyntax: 27
name: My-Test-Attribute-CaseExactString
schemaIDGUID:: 6ASznA3W0hGBpwDAT7mMGg==
searchFlags: 0
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL
attributeID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.614
attributeSyntax: 2.5.5.1
cn: My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL
description: Test forward link attribute of syntax DN used to show how to add a forward link attribute. Back link is My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL.
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet: FALSE
isSingleValued: TRUE
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAttributeDNFL
linkID: 1.2.840.113556.1.2.50
distinguishedName: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectCategory: CN=Attribute-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectClass: attributeSchema
oMObjectClass:: KwwCh3McAIVK
oMSyntax: 127
rangeLower: 0
rangeUpper: 257
name: My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL
schemaIDGUID:: YGLudffa0hGLEwDAT7mMGg==
searchFlags: 0
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL
attributeID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.615
attributeSyntax: 2.5.5.1
cn: My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL
description: Test back link attribute of syntax DN used to show how to add a back link attribute. Forward link is My-Test-Attribute-DN-FL.
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet: FALSE
isSingleValued: TRUE
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAttributeDNBL
linkID: 1.2.840.113556.6.1234
distinguishedName: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectCategory: CN=Attribute-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectClass: attributeSchema
oMObjectClass:: KwwCh3McAIVK
oMSyntax: 127
rangeLower: 0
rangeUpper: 257
name: My-Test-Attribute-DN-BL
schemaIDGUID:: jFfbhffa0hGLEwDAT7mMGg==
searchFlags: 0
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-Regular,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Attribute-DN-Regular
attributeID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.613
attributeSyntax: 2.5.5.12
cn: My-Test-Attribute-DN-Regular
description: Test attribute of syntax DN used to show how to add a DN attribute.
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet: FALSE
isSingleValued: TRUE
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAttributeDNRegular
distinguishedName: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DN-Regular,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectCategory: CN=Attribute-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectClass: attributeSchema
oMObjectClass:: KwwCh3McAIVK
oMSyntax: 64
rangeLower: 0
rangeUpper: 257
name: My-Test-Attribute-DN-Regular
schemaIDGUID:: 5QSznA3W0hGBpwDAT7mMGg==
searchFlags: 0
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DNString,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Attribute-DNString
attributeID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.611
attributeSyntax: 2.5.5.14
cn: My-Test-Attribute-DNString
description: Test attribute of syntax DNString used to show how to add a DNString attribute.
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet: FALSE
isSingleValued: TRUE
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAttributeDNString
distinguishedName: CN=My-Test-Attribute-DNString,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectCategory: CN=Attribute-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com
objectClass: attributeSchema
oMObjectClass:: KoZIhvcUAQEBDA==
oMSyntax: 127
rangeLower: 1
rangeUpper: 64
name: My-Test-Attribute-DNString
schemaIDGUID:: 5ASznA3W0hGBpwDAT7mMGg==
searchFlags: 0

DN:
changetype: modify
add: schemaUpdateNow
schemaUpdateNow: 1
-
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Auxiliary-Class1,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Fabrikam,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Auxiliary-Class1
description: Test class used to show how to add an auxiliary class.
objectCategory: CN=Class-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Fabrikam,DC=com
objectClass: classSchema
lDAPDisplayName: myTestAuxiliaryClass1
governsID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.611.11
instanceType: 4
objectClassCategory: 3
schemaIDGUID:: mmsxdsXb0hGL0AAA+HW2YA==
subClassOf: Top
mayContain: my-Test-Attribute-DNString
mustContain: description
 
DN:
changetype: modify
add: schemaUpdateNow
schemaUpdateNow: 1
-
 
dn: CN=My-Test-Structural-Class1,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Fabrikam,DC=com
changetype: add
adminDisplayName: My-Test-Structural-Class1
auxiliaryClass: myTestAuxiliaryClass1
defaultHidingValue: FALSE
defaultObjectCategory: CN=Organizational-Unit,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Fabrikam,DC=com
defaultSecurityDescriptor: D:(A;;RPWPCRCCDCLCLOLORCWOWDSDDTDTSW;;;DA)(A;;RPWPCRCCDCLCLORCWOWDSDDTSW;;;SY)(A;;RPLCLORC;;;AU)
admindescription: Test class used to show how to add a structure class.
objectCategory: CN=Class-Schema,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Fabrikam,DC=com
objectClass: classSchema
lDAPDisplayName: myTestStructuralClass1
governsID: 1.2.840.113556.1.4.7000.159.24.10.611.12
mayContain: myTestAttributeDNFL
mayContain: wWWHomePage
mustContain: url
instanceType: 4
objectClassCategory: 1
possSuperiors: organizationalUnit
rDNAttID: ou
schemaIDGUID:: 1HsnsL7b0hGL0AAA+HW2YA==
subClassOf: organizationalUnit
 
DN:
changetype: modify
add: schemaUpdateNow
schemaUpdateNow: 1
-

LGETATTCLS.VBS


On Error Resume Next
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to the rootDSE
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sPrefix = "LDAP://"
Set root= GetObject(sPrefix & "rootDSE")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method"
End If
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Get the DN for the Schema
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sSchema = root.Get("schemaNamingContext")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Get method"
End If
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to the Schema container
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set Schema= GetObject(sPrefix & sSchema )
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method to bind to Schema"
End If
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Read the fsmoRoleOwner attribute to see which server is the schema master.
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sMaster = Schema.Get("fsmoRoleOwner")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on IADs::Get method for fsmoRoleOwner"
End If
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' fsmoRoleOwner attribute returns the nTDSDSA object.
' The parent is the server object.
' Bind to NTDSDSA object and get parent
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set NTDS = GetObject(sPrefix & sMaster)
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method for NTDS"
End If
sServer = NTDS.Parent
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on IADs::get_Parent method"
End If
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to server object and get the
' reference to the computer object.
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set Server = GetObject(sServer)
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method for " & sServer
End If
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Display the DN for the computer object.
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sComputerDNSName = Server.Get("DNSHostName")
strText = "Schema Master has the following DNS Name: "& sComputerDNSName
WScript.echo strText
 
sFile = "myschemaext1.ldf"
sFromDN = sSchema
sToDN = "CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com"
sAttrPrefix = "My-Test"
sFilter = "(&((cn=" & sAttrPrefix & "*)(|(objectCategory=classSchema)_
(objectCategory=attributeSchema))))"
sRetAttr = "dn,adminDescription,adminDisplayName,governsID,cn,mayContain,_
mustContain,systemMayContain,systemMustContain,lDAPDisplayName,_
objectClassCategory,distinguishedName,objectCategory,objectClass,_
possSuperiors,systemPossSuperiors,subClassOf,defaultObjectCategory,_
name,schemaIDGUID,auxiliaryClass,auxiliaryClass,systemAuxiliaryClass,_
description,defaultHidingValue,rDNAttId,defaultSecurityDescriptor,_
attributeID,attributeSecurityGUID,attributeSyntax,_
isMemberOfPartialAttributeSet,isSingleValued,mAPIID,oMSyntax,rangeLower,_
rangeUpper,searchFlags,oMObjectClass,linkID"
 
' Add flag rootDN.
sCommand = "ldifde -d " & sSchema 
sCommand = sCommand & " -c " & sFromDN & " " & sToDN
' Add flag schema master.
sCommand = sCommand & " -s " & sComputerDNSName
' Add flag filename.
sCommand = sCommand & " -f " & sFile
' Add flag filter to search for attributes.
sCommand = sCommand & " -r " & sFilter
' Add flag for attributes to return.
sCommand = sCommand & " -l " & sRetAttr
 
WScript.echo sCommand
Set WshShell = Wscript.CreateObject("Wscript.Shell")
WshShell.Run (sCommand)
 
 
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Display subroutines
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
 
Sub BailOnFailure(ErrNum, ErrText) strText = "Error 0x"_
 & Hex(ErrNum) & " " & ErrText
    MsgBox strText, vbInformation, "ADSI Error"
    WScript.Quit
End Sub

LSETATTCLS.VBS


On Error Resume Next
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to the rootDSE
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sPrefix = "LDAP://"
Set root= GetObject(sPrefix & "rootDSE")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method"
End If
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Get the DN for the Schema
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sSchema = root.Get("schemaNamingContext")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on Get method"
End If
 
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to the Schema container
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set Schema= GetObject(sPrefix & sSchema )
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method to bind to Schema"
End If
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Read the fsmoRoleOwner attribute to see which server is the schema master.
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sMaster = Schema.Get("fsmoRoleOwner")
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on IADs::Get method for fsmoRoleOwner"
End If
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' fsmoRoleOwner attribute returns the nTDSDSA object.
' The parent is the server object.
' Bind to NTDSDSA object and get parent
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set NTDS = GetObject(sPrefix & sMaster)
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method for NTDS"
End If
sServer = NTDS.Parent
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on IADs::get_Parent method"
End If
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Bind to server object
' and get the reference to the computer object.
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
Set Server = GetObject(sServer)
If (Err.Number <> 0) Then
   BailOnFailure Err.Number, "on GetObject method for " & sServer
End If
sComputer = Server.Get("serverReference")
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Display the DN for the computer object.
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
sComputerDNSName = Server.Get("DNSHostName")
' strText = "Schema Master has the following DN: "& sComputer
strText = "Schema Master has the following DNS Name: "& sComputerDNSName
WScript.echo strText
 
sFile = "myschemaext.ldf"
sFromDN = "CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=myorg,DC=com"
sToDN = sSchema
' Add flag replace fromDN with ToDN.
sCommand = "ldifde -i -k -c " & sFromDN & " " & sToDN
' Add flag schema master.
sCommand = sCommand & " -s " & sComputerDNSName
'Add flag filename.
sCommand = sCommand & " -f " & sFile
' Add flag filter to search for my attributes.
 
WScript.echo sCommand
Set WshShell = Wscript.CreateObject("Wscript.Shell")
WshShell.Run (sCommand)
 
 
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
' Display subroutines
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
 
Sub BailOnFailure(ErrNum, ErrText)    strText = "Error 0x" & Hex(ErrNum) & " " & ErrText
    MsgBox strText, vbInformation, "ADSI Error"
    WScript.Quit
End Sub

 

 

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