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GRANT Object Permissions (Transact-SQL)

Grants permissions on a table, view, table-valued function, stored procedure, extended stored procedure, scalar function, aggregate function, service queue, or synonym.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions


GRANT <permission> [ ,...n ] ON 
    [ OBJECT :: ][ schema_name ]. object_name [ ( column [ ,...n ] ) ]
    TO <database_principal> [ ,...n ] 
    [ WITH GRANT OPTION ]
    [ AS <database_principal> ]

<permission> ::=
    ALL [ PRIVILEGES ] | permission [ ( column [ ,...n ] ) ]

<database_principal> ::= 
        Database_user 
    | Database_role 
    | Application_role 
    | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User 
    | Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group 
    | Database_user_mapped_to_certificate 
    | Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key 
    | Database_user_with_no_login

permission

Specifies a permission that can be granted on a schema-contained object. For a list of the permissions, see the Remarks section later in this topic.

ALL

Granting ALL does not grant all possible permissions. Granting ALL is equivalent to granting all ANSI-92 permissions applicable to the specified object. The meaning of ALL varies as follows:

Scalar function permissions: EXECUTE, REFERENCES.

Table-valued function permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.

Stored procedure permissions: EXECUTE.

Table permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.

View permissions: DELETE, INSERT, REFERENCES, SELECT, UPDATE.

PRIVILEGES

Included for ANSI-92 compliance. Does not change the behavior of ALL.

column

Specifies the name of a column in a table, view, or table-valued function on which the permission is being granted. The parentheses ( ) are required. Only SELECT, REFERENCES, and UPDATE permissions can be granted on a column. column can be specified in the permissions clause or after the securable name.

ms188371.Caution(en-US,SQL.90).gifCaution:
In SQL Server 2005 a table-level DENY does not take precedence over a column-level GRANT. This inconsistency in the permissions hierarchy has been preserved for backward compatibility.

ON [ OBJECT :: ] [ schema_name ] . object_name

Specifies the object on which the permission is being granted. The OBJECT phrase is optional if schema_name is specified. If the OBJECT phrase is used, the scope qualifier (::) is required. If schema_name is not specified, the default schema is used. If schema_name is specified, the schema scope qualifier (.) is required.

TO <database_principal>

Specifies the principal to which the permission is being granted.

WITH GRANT OPTION

Indicates that the principal will also be given the ability to grant the specified permission to other principals.

AS <database_principal>

Specifies a principal from which the principal executing this query derives its right to grant the permission.

Database_user

Specifies a database user.

Database_role

Specifies a database role.

Application_role

Specifies an application role.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_User

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows user.

Database_user_mapped_to_Windows_Group

Specifies a database user mapped to a Windows group.

Database_user_mapped_to_certificate

Specifies a database user mapped to a certificate.

Database_user_mapped_to_asymmetric_key

Specifies a database user mapped to an asymmetric key.

Database_user_with_no_login

Specifies a database user with no corresponding server-level principal.

ms188371.note(en-US,SQL.90).gifImportant:
A combination of ALTER and REFERENCE permissions in some cases could allow the grantee to view data or execute unauthorized functions. For example: A user with ALTER permission on a table and REFERENCE permission on a function can create a computed column over a function and have it be executed. In this case the user would also need SELECT permission on the computed column.

Information about objects is visible in various catalog views. For more information, see Object Catalog Views (Transact-SQL).

An object is a schema-level securable contained by the schema that is its parent in the permissions hierarchy. The most specific and limited permissions that can be granted on an object are listed in the following table, together with the more general permissions that include them by implication.

Object permission Implied by object permission Implied by schema permission

ALTER

CONTROL

ALTER

CONTROL

CONTROL

CONTROL

DELETE

CONTROL

DELETE

EXECUTE

CONTROL

EXECUTE

INSERT

CONTROL

INSERT

RECEIVE

CONTROL

CONTROL

REFERENCES

CONTROL

REFERENCES

SELECT

RECEIVE

SELECT

TAKE OWNERSHIP

CONTROL

CONTROL

UPDATE

CONTROL

UPDATE

VIEW DEFINITION

CONTROL

VIEW DEFINITION

The grantor (or the principal specified with the AS option) must have either the permission itself with GRANT OPTION, or a higher permission that implies the permission being granted.

If you are using the AS option, the following additional requirements apply.

AS Additional permission required

Database user

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a Windows login

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a Windows Group

Membership in the Windows group, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to a certificate

Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user mapped to an asymmetric key

Membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database user not mapped to any server principal

IMPERSONATE permission on the user, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Database role

ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

Application role

ALTER permission on the role, membership in the db_securityadmin fixed database role, membership in the db_owner fixed database role, or membership in the sysadmin fixed server role.

A. Granting SELECT permission on a table

The following example grants SELECT permission to user RosaQdM on table Person.Address in the AdventureWorks database.

USE AdventureWorks;
GRANT SELECT ON OBJECT::Person.Address TO RosaQdM;
GO

B. Granting EXECUTE permission on a stored procedure

The following example grants EXECUTE permission on stored procedure HumanResources.uspUpdateEmployeeHireInfo to an application role called Recruiting11.

USE AdventureWorks; 
GRANT EXECUTE ON OBJECT::HumanResources.uspUpdateEmployeeHireInfo
    TO Recruiting11;
GO 

C. Granting REFERENCES permission on a view with GRANT OPTION

The following example grants REFERENCES permission on column EmployeeID in view HumanResources.vEmployee to user Wanida with GRANT OPTION.

USE AdventureWorks;
GRANT REFERENCES (EmployeeID) ON OBJECT::HumanResources.vEmployee 
    TO Wanida WITH GRANT OPTION;
GO

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