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SUM (Transact-SQL)

Returns the sum of all the values, or only the DISTINCT values, in the expression. SUM can be used with numeric columns only. Null values are ignored.

Applies to: SQL Server (SQL Server 2008 through current version), Azure SQL Database.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

SUM ( [ ALL | DISTINCT ] expression )
   OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause )  

ALL

Applies the aggregate function to all values. ALL is the default.

DISTINCT

Specifies that SUM return the sum of unique values.

expression

Is a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic, bitwise, and string operators. expression is an expression of the exact numeric or approximate numeric data type category, except for the bit data type. Aggregate functions and subqueries are not permitted. For more information, see Expressions (Transact-SQL).

OVER ( [ partition_by_clause ] order_by_clause)

partition_by_clause divides the result set produced by the FROM clause into partitions to which the function is applied. If not specified, the function treats all rows of the query result set as a single group. order_by_clause determines the logical order in which the operation is performed. order_by_clause is required. For more information, see OVER Clause (Transact-SQL).

Returns the summation of all expression values in the most precise expression data type.

Expression result

Return type

tinyint

int

smallint

int

int

int

bigint

bigint

decimal category (p, s)

decimal(38, s)

money and smallmoney category

money

float and real category

float

SUM is a deterministic function when used without the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. It is nondeterministic when specified with the OVER and ORDER BY clauses. For more information, see Deterministic and Nondeterministic Functions.

A. Using SUM to return summary data

The following examples shows using the SUM function to return summary data in the AdventureWorks2012 database.

SELECT Color, SUM(ListPrice), SUM(StandardCost)
FROM Production.Product
WHERE Color IS NOT NULL 
    AND ListPrice != 0.00 
    AND Name LIKE 'Mountain%'
GROUP BY Color
ORDER BY Color;
GO

Here is the result set.

Color

--------------- --------------------- ---------------------

Black           27404.84              5214.9616

Silver          26462.84              14665.6792

White           19.00                 6.7926

(3 row(s) affected)

B. Using the OVER clause

The following example uses the SUM function with the OVER clause to provide a cumulative total of yearly sales for each territory in the Sales.SalesPerson table in the AdventureWorks2012 database. The data is partitioned by TerritoryID and logically ordered by SalesYTD. This means that the SUM function is computed for each territory based on the sales year. Notice that for TerritoryID 1, there are two rows for sales year 2005 representing the two sales people with sales that year. The cumulative sales for these two rows is computed and then the third row representing sales for the year 2006 is included in the computation.

SELECT BusinessEntityID, TerritoryID 
   ,DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) AS SalesYear
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SalesYTD,1) AS  SalesYTD
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),AVG(SalesYTD) OVER (PARTITION BY TerritoryID 
                                            ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) 
                                           ),1) AS MovingAvg
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SUM(SalesYTD) OVER (PARTITION BY TerritoryID 
                                            ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) 
                                            ),1) AS CumulativeTotal
FROM Sales.SalesPerson
WHERE TerritoryID IS NULL OR TerritoryID < 5
ORDER BY TerritoryID,SalesYear;

Here is the result set.

BusinessEntityID TerritoryID SalesYear   SalesYTD             MovingAvg            CumulativeTotal
---------------- ----------- ----------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------
274              NULL        2005        559,697.56           559,697.56           559,697.56
287              NULL        2006        519,905.93           539,801.75           1,079,603.50
285              NULL        2007        172,524.45           417,375.98           1,252,127.95
283              1           2005        1,573,012.94         1,462,795.04         2,925,590.07
280              1           2005        1,352,577.13         1,462,795.04         2,925,590.07
284              1           2006        1,576,562.20         1,500,717.42         4,502,152.27
275              2           2005        3,763,178.18         3,763,178.18         3,763,178.18
277              3           2005        3,189,418.37         3,189,418.37         3,189,418.37
276              4           2005        4,251,368.55         3,354,952.08         6,709,904.17
281              4           2005        2,458,535.62         3,354,952.08         6,709,904.17

(10 row(s) affected)

In this example, the OVER clause does not include PARTITION BY. This means that the function will be applied to all rows returned by the query. The ORDER BY clause specified in the OVER clause determines the logical order to which the SUM function is applied. The query returns a cumulative total of sales by year for all sales territories specified in the WHERE clause. The ORDER BY clause specified in the SELECT statement determines the order in which the rows of the query are displayed.

SELECT BusinessEntityID, TerritoryID 
   ,DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) AS SalesYear
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SalesYTD,1) AS  SalesYTD
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),AVG(SalesYTD) OVER (ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) 
                                            ),1) AS MovingAvg
   ,CONVERT(varchar(20),SUM(SalesYTD) OVER (ORDER BY DATEPART(yy,ModifiedDate) 
                                            ),1) AS CumulativeTotal
FROM Sales.SalesPerson
WHERE TerritoryID IS NULL OR TerritoryID < 5
ORDER BY SalesYear;

Here is the result set.

BusinessEntityID TerritoryID SalesYear   SalesYTD             MovingAvg            CumulativeTotal
---------------- ----------- ----------- -------------------- -------------------- --------------------
274              NULL        2005        559,697.56           2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
275              2           2005        3,763,178.18         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
276              4           2005        4,251,368.55         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
277              3           2005        3,189,418.37         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
280              1           2005        1,352,577.13         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
281              4           2005        2,458,535.62         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
283              1           2005        1,573,012.94         2,449,684.05         17,147,788.35
284              1           2006        1,576,562.20         2,138,250.72         19,244,256.47
287              NULL        2006        519,905.93           2,138,250.72         19,244,256.47
285              NULL        2007        172,524.45           1,941,678.09         19,416,780.93
(10 row(s) affected)

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