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CA2218: Override GetHashCode on overriding Equals

TypeName

OverrideGetHashCodeOnOverridingEquals

CheckId

CA2218

Category

Microsoft.Usage

Breaking Change

Non Breaking

A public type overrides Object.Equals but does not override Object.GetHashCode.

GetHashCode returns a value, based on the current instance, that is suited for hashing algorithms and data structures such as a hash table. Two objects that are the same type and are equal must return the same hash code to ensure that instances of the following types work correctly:

To fix a violation of this rule, provide an implementation of GetHashCode. For a pair of objects of the same type, you must ensure that the implementation returns the same value if your implementation of Equals returns true for the pair.

Do not suppress a warning from this rule.

Description

The following example shows a class (reference type) that violates this rule.

Code


using System; 

namespace Samples
{    
    // Violates this rule    
    public class Point    
    {        
        private readonly int _X;        
        private readonly int _Y;         

        public Point(int x, int y)        
        {            
            _X = x;            
            _Y = y;        
        }         

        public int X        
        {            
            get { return _X; }        
        }         

        public int Y        
        {            
            get { return _Y; }        
        }               

        public override bool Equals(object obj)        
        {            
            if (obj == null)                
                return false;             

            if (GetType() != obj.GetType())                
                return false;             

            Point point = (Point)obj;             

            if (_X != point.X)                
                return false;             

            return _Y == point.Y;        
        }    
    }
}


Comments

The following example fixes the violation by overriding GetHashCode.

Code


using System; 

namespace Samples
{    
    public struct Point : IEquatable<Point>    
    {        
        private readonly int _X;        
        private readonly int _Y;         

        public Point(int x, int y)        
        {            
            _X = x;            
            _Y = y;        
        }         

        public int X        
        {            
            get { return _X; }        
        }         

        public int Y        
        {            
            get { return _Y; }        
        }         

        public override int GetHashCode()        
        {            
            return _X ^ _Y;        
        }         

        public override bool Equals(object obj)        
        {           
            if (!(obj is Point))                
                return false;             

            return Equals((Point)obj);        
        }         

        public bool Equals(Point other)        
        {            
            if (_X != other._X)                
                return false;             

            return _Y == other._Y;        
        }         

        public static bool operator ==(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return point1.Equals(point2);        
        }         

        public static bool operator !=(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return !point1.Equals(point2);        
        }    
    }
}


Description

The following example shows a structure (value type) that violates this rule.

Code


using System; 

namespace Samples
{    
    // Violates this rule    
    public struct Point : IEquatable<Point>    
    {        
        private readonly int _X;        
        private readonly int _Y;         

        public Point(int x, int y)        
        {            
            _X = x;            
            _Y = y;        
        }         

        public int X        
        {            
            get { return _X; }        
        }         

        public int Y        
        {            
            get { return _Y; }        
        }         

        public override bool Equals(object obj)        
        {           
            if (!(obj is Point))                
                return false;             

            return Equals((Point)obj);        
        }         

        public bool Equals(Point other)        
        {            
            if (_X != other._X)                
                return false;             

            return _Y == other._Y;        
        }         

        public static bool operator ==(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return point1.Equals(point2);        
        }         

        public static bool operator !=(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return !point1.Equals(point2);        
        }    
    }
}


Comments

The following example fixes the violation by overriding GetHashCode.

Code


using System; 

namespace Samples
{    
    public struct Point : IEquatable<Point>    
    {        
        private readonly int _X;        
        private readonly int _Y;         

        public Point(int x, int y)        
        {            
            _X = x;            
            _Y = y;        
        }         

        public int X        
        {            
            get { return _X; }        
        }         

        public int Y        
        {            
            get { return _Y; }        
        }         

        public override int GetHashCode()        
        {            
            return _X ^ _Y;        
        }         

        public override bool Equals(object obj)        
        {           
            if (!(obj is Point))                
                return false;             

            return Equals((Point)obj);        
        }         

        public bool Equals(Point other)        
        {            
            if (_X != other._X)                
                return false;             

            return _Y == other._Y;        
        }         

        public static bool operator ==(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return point1.Equals(point2);        
        }         

        public static bool operator !=(Point point1, Point point2)        
        {            
            return !point1.Equals(point2);        
        }    
    }
}


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