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Review sql queries for security vulnerabilities

TypeName

ReviewSqlQueriesForSecurityVulnerabilities

CheckId

CA2100

Category

Microsoft.Security

Breaking Change

NonBreaking

A method sets the System.Data.IDbCommand.CommandText property by using a string that is built from a string argument to the method.

This rule assumes that the string argument contains user input. A SQL command string built from user input is vulnerable to SQL injection attacks. In a SQL injection attack, a malicious user supplies input that alters the design of a query in an attempt to damage or gain unauthorized access to the underlying database. Typical techniques include injection of a single quotation mark or apostrophe, which is the SQL literal string delimiter; two dashes, which signifies a SQL comment; and a semicolon, which indicates that a new command follows. If user input must be part of the query, use one of the following, listed in order of effectiveness, to reduce the risk of attack.

  • Use a stored procedure.

  • Use a parameterized command string.

  • Validate the user input for both type and content before building the command string.

The following .NET Framework types implement the CommandText property or provide constructors that set the property using a string argument.

To fix a violation of this rule, use a parameterized query.

It is safe to exclude a warning from this rule if the command text does not contain any user input.

The following example shows a method, UnsafeQuery, that violates the rule and a method, SaferQuery, that satisfies the rule by using a parameterized command string.

using System;
using System.Data;
using System.Data.SqlClient;

namespace SecurityLibrary
{
   public class SqlQueries
   {
      public object UnsafeQuery(
         string connection, string name, string password)
      {
         SqlConnection someConnection = new SqlConnection(connection);
         SqlCommand someCommand = new SqlCommand();
         someCommand.Connection = someConnection;

         someCommand.CommandText = "SELECT AccountNumber FROM Users " +
            "WHERE Username='" + name + 
            "' AND Password='" + password + "'";

         someConnection.Open();
         object accountNumber = someCommand.ExecuteScalar();
         someConnection.Close();
         return accountNumber;
      }

      public object SaferQuery(
         string connection, string name, string password)
      {
         SqlConnection someConnection = new SqlConnection(connection);
         SqlCommand someCommand = new SqlCommand();
         someCommand.Connection = someConnection;

         someCommand.Parameters.Add(
            "@username", SqlDbType.NChar).Value = name;
         someCommand.Parameters.Add(
            "@password", SqlDbType.NChar).Value = password;
         someCommand.CommandText = "SELECT AccountNumber FROM Users " + 
            "WHERE Username=@username AND Password=@password";

         someConnection.Open();
         object accountNumber = someCommand.ExecuteScalar();
         someConnection.Close();
         return accountNumber;
      }
   }

   class MalaciousCode
   {
      static void Main(string[] args)
      {
         SqlQueries queries = new SqlQueries();
         queries.UnsafeQuery(args[0], "' OR 1=1 --", "anything");
         // Resultant query (which is always true): 
         // SELECT AccountNumber FROM Users WHERE Username='' OR 1=1

         queries.SaferQuery(args[0], "' OR 1 = 1 --", "anything");
         // Resultant query (notice the additional single quote character):
         // SELECT AccountNumber FROM Users WHERE Username=''' OR 1=1 --'
         //                                   AND Password='anything'
      }
   }
}

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