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RESTORE Arguments (Transact-SQL)

This topic documents the arguments that are described in the Syntax sections of the RESTORE {DATABASE|LOG} statement and of the associated set of auxiliary statements: RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, RESTORE REWINDONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY. Most of the arguments are supported by only a subset of these six statements. The support for each argument is indicated in the description of the argument.

Topic link icon Transact-SQL Syntax Conventions

DATABASE

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies the target database. If a list of files and filegroups is specified, only those files and filegroups are restored.

For a database using the full or bulk-logged recovery model, SQL Server requires in most cases that you back up the tail of the log before restoring the database. Restoring a database without first backing up the tail of the log results in an error, unless the RESTORE DATABASE statement contains either the WITH REPLACE or the WITH STOPAT clause, which must specify a time or transaction that occurred after the end of the data backup. For more information about tail-log backups, see Tail-Log Backups (SQL Server).

LOG

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies that a transaction log backup is to be applied to this database. Transaction logs must be applied in sequential order. SQL Server checks the backed up transaction log to ensure that the transactions are being loaded into the correct database and in the correct sequence. To apply multiple transaction logs, use the NORECOVERY option on all restore operations except the last.

Note Note

Typically, the last log restored is the tail-log backup. A tail-log backup is a log backup taken right before restoring a database, typically after a failure on the database. Taking a tail-log backup from the possibly damaged database prevents work loss by capturing the log that has not yet been backed up (the tail of the log). For more information, see Tail-Log Backups (SQL Server).

For more information, see Apply Transaction Log Backups (SQL Server).

{ database_name | @database_name_var}

Supported by:  RESTORE

Is the database that the log or complete database is restored into. If supplied as a variable (@database_name_var), this name can be specified either as a string constant (@database_name_var = database_name) or as a variable of character string data type, except for the ntext or text data types.

<file_or_filegroup_or_page> [ ,...n ]

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies the name of a logical file or filegroup or page to include in a RESTORE DATABASE or RESTORE LOG statement. You can specify a list of files or filegroups.

For a database that uses the simple recovery model, the FILE and FILEGROUP options are allowed only if the target files or filegroups are read only, or if this is a PARTIAL restore (which results in a defunct filegroup).

For a database that uses the full or bulk-logged recovery model, after using RESTORE DATABASE to restore one or more files, filegroups, and/or pages, typically, you must apply the transaction log to the files containing the restored data; applying the log makes those files consistent with the rest of the database. The exceptions to this are as follows:

  • If the files being restored were read-only before they were last backed up—then a transaction log does not have to be applied, and the RESTORE statement informs you of this situation

  • If the backup contains the primary filegroup and a partial restore is being performed. In this case, the restore log is not needed because the log is restored automatically from the backup set.

FILE = { logical_file_name_in_backup| @logical_file_name_in_backup_var}

Names a file to include in the database restore.

FILEGROUP = { logical_filegroup_name | @logical_filegroup_name_var }

Names a filegroup to include in the database restore.

Note   FILEGROUP is allowed in simple recovery model only if the specified filegroup is read-only and this is a partial restore (that is, if WITH PARTIAL is used). Any unrestored read-write filegroups are marked as defunct and cannot subsequently be restored into the resulting database.

READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS

Selects all read-write filegroups. This option is particularly useful when you have read-only filegroups that you want to restore after read-write filegroups before the read-only filegroups.

PAGE = 'file:page [ ,...n ]'

Specifies a list of one or more pages for a page restore (which is supported only for databases using the full or bulk-logged recovery models). The values are as follows:

PAGE

Indicates a list of one or more files and pages.

file

Is the file ID of the file containing a specific page to be restored.

page

Is the page ID of the page to be restored in the file.

n

Is a placeholder indicating that multiple pages can be specified.

The maximum number of pages that can be restored into any single file in a restore sequence is 1000. However, if you have more than a small number of damaged pages in a file, consider restoring the whole file instead of the pages.

Note Note

Page restores are never recovered.

For more information about page restore, see Restore Pages (SQL Server).

[ ,...n ]

Is a placeholder indicating that multiple files and filegroups and pages can be specified in a comma-separated list. The number is unlimited.

FROM { <backup_device> [ ,...n ]| <database_snapshot> }

Typically, specifies the backup devices from which to restore the backup. Alternatively, in a RESTORE DATABASE statement, the FROM clause can specify the name of a database snapshot to which you are reverting the database, in which case, no WITH clause is permitted.

If the FROM clause is omitted, the restore of a backup does not take place. Instead, the database is recovered. This allows you to recover a database that has been restored with the NORECOVERY option or to switch over to a standby server. If the FROM clause is omitted, NORECOVERY, RECOVERY, or STANDBY must be specified in the WITH clause.

<backup_device> [ ,...n ]

Specifies the logical or physical backup devices to use for the restore operation.

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, RESTORE REWINDONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

<backup_device>::=

Specifies a logical or physical backup device to use for the backup operation, as follows:

{ logical_backup_device_name | @logical_backup_device_name_var }

Is the logical name, which must follow the rules for identifiers, of the backup device(s) created by sp_addumpdevice from which the database is restored. If supplied as a variable (@logical_backup_device_name_var), the backup device name can be specified either as a string constant (@logical_backup_device_name_var = logical_backup_device_name) or as a variable of character string data type, except for the ntext or text data types.

{DISK | TAPE } = { 'physical_backup_device_name' | @physical_backup_device_name_var }

Allows backups to be restored from the named disk or tape device. The device types of disk and tape should be specified with the actual name (for example, complete path and file name) of the device: DISK = 'Z:\SQLServerBackups\AdventureWorks.bak' or TAPE = '\\.\TAPE0'. If specified as a variable (@physical_backup_device_name_var), the device name can be specified either as a string constant (@physical_backup_device_name_var = 'physcial_backup_device_name') or as a variable of character string data type, except for the ntext or text data types.

If using a network server with a UNC name (which must contain machine name), specify a device type of disk. For more information about how to use UNC names, see Backup Devices (SQL Server).

The account under which you are running SQL Server must have READ access to the remote computer or network server in order to perform a RESTORE operation.

n

Is a placeholder indicating that up to 64 backup devices may be specified in a comma-separated list.

Whether a restore sequence requires as many backup devices as were used to create the media set to which the backups belong, depends on whether the restore is offline or online, as follows:

  • Offline restore allows a backup to be restored using fewer devices than were used to create the backup.

  • Online restore requires all the backup devices of the backup. An attempt to restore with fewer devices fails.

For example, consider a case in which a database was backed up to four tape drives connected to the server. An online restore requires that you have four drives connected to the server; an offline restore allows you to restore the backup if there are less than four drives on the machine.

Note Note

When you are restoring a backup from a mirrored media set, you can specify only a single mirror for each media family. In the presence of errors, however, having the other mirrors enables some restore problems to be resolved quickly. You can substitute a damaged media volume with the corresponding volume from another mirror. Be aware that for offline restores you can restore from fewer devices than media families, but each family is processed only once.

<database_snapshot>::=

Supported by:  RESTORE DATABASE

DATABASE_SNAPSHOT =database_snapshot_name

Reverts the database to the database snapshot specified by database_snapshot_name. The DATABASE_SNAPSHOT option is available only for a full database restore. In a revert operation, the database snapshot takes the place of a full database backup.

A revert operation requires that the specified database snapshot is the only one on the database. During the revert operation, the database snapshot and the destination database and are both marked as In restore. For more information, see the "Remarks" section in RESTORE DATABASE.

WITH Options

Specifies the options to be used by a restore operation. For a summary of which statements use each option, see "Summary of Support for WITH Options," later in this topic.

Note Note

WITH options are organized here in the same order as in the "Syntax" section in RESTORE {DATABASE|LOG}.

PARTIAL

Supported by:  RESTORE DATABASE

Specifies a partial restore operation that restores the primary filegroup and any specified secondary filegroup(s). The PARTIAL option implicitly selects the primary filegroup; specifying FILEGROUP = 'PRIMARY' is unnecessary. To restore a secondary filegroup, you must explicitly specify the filegroup using the FILE option or FILEGROUP option.

The PARTIAL option is not allowed on RESTORE LOG statements.

Beginning with SQL Server 2005, the PARTIAL option starts the initial stage of a piecemeal restore, which allows remaining filegroups to be restored at a later time. For more information, see Piecemeal Restores (SQL Server).

[ RECOVERY | NORECOVERY | STANDBY ]

Supported by:  RESTORE

RECOVERY

Instructs the restore operation to roll back any uncommitted transactions. After the recovery process, the database is ready for use. If neither NORECOVERY, RECOVERY, nor STANDBY is specified, RECOVERY is the default.

If subsequent RESTORE operations (RESTORE LOG, or RESTORE DATABASE from differential) are planned, NORECOVERY or STANDBY should be specified instead.

When restoring backup sets from an earlier version of SQL Server, a database upgrade might be required. This upgrade is performed automatically when WITH RECOVERY is specified. For more information, see Apply Transaction Log Backups (SQL Server).

Note Note

If the FROM clause is omitted, NORECOVERY, RECOVERY, or STANDBY must be specified in the WITH clause.

NORECOVERY

Instructs the restore operation to not roll back any uncommitted transactions. If another transaction log has to be applied later, specify either the NORECOVERY or STANDBY option. If neither NORECOVERY, RECOVERY, nor STANDBY is specified, RECOVERY is the default. During an offline restore operation using the NORECOVERY option, the database is not usable.

For restoring a database backup and one or more transaction logs or whenever multiple RESTORE statements are necessary (for example, when restoring a full database backup followed by a differential database backup), RESTORE requires the WITH NORECOVERY option on all but the final RESTORE statement. A best practice is to use WITH NORECOVERY on ALL statements in a multi-step restore sequence until the desired recovery point is reached, and then to use a separate RESTORE WITH RECOVERY statement for recovery only.

When used with a file or filegroup restore operation, NORECOVERY forces the database to remain in the restoring state after the restore operation. This is useful in either of these situations:

  • A restore script is being run and the log is always being applied.

  • A sequence of file restores is used and the database is not intended to be usable between two of the restore operations.

In some cases RESTORE WITH NORECOVERY rolls the roll forward set far enough forward that it is consistent with the database. In such cases, roll back does not occur and the data remains offline, as expected with this option. However, the Database Engine issues an informational message that states that the roll-forward set can now be recovered by using the RECOVERY option.

STANDBY =standby_file_name

Specifies a standby file that allows the recovery effects to be undone. The STANDBY option is allowed for offline restore (including partial restore). The option is disallowed for online restore. Attempting to specify the STANDBY option for an online restore operation causes the restore operation to fail. STANDBY is also not allowed when a database upgrade is necessary.

The standby file is used to keep a "copy-on-write" pre-image for pages modified during the undo pass of a RESTORE WITH STANDBY. The standby file allows a database to be brought up for read-only access between transaction log restores and can be used with either warm standby server situations or special recovery situations in which it is useful to inspect the database between log restores. After a RESTORE WITH STANDBY operation, the undo file is automatically deleted by the next RESTORE operation. If this standby file is manually deleted before the next RESTORE operation, then the entire database must be re-restored. While the database is in the STANDBY state, you should treat this standby file with the same care as any other database file. Unlike other database files, this file is only kept open by the Database Engine during active restore operations.

The standby_file_name specifies a standby file whose location is stored in the log of the database. If an existing file is using the specified name, the file is overwritten; otherwise, the Database Engine creates the file.

The size requirement of a given standby file depends on the volume of undo actions resulting from uncommitted transactions during the restore operation.

Important note Important

If free disk space is exhausted on the drive containing the specified standby file name, the restore operation stops.

For a comparison of RECOVERY and NORECOVERY, see the "Remarks" section in RESTORE.

LOADHISTORY

Supported by:  RESTORE VERIFYONLY

Specifies that the restore operation loads the information into the msdb history tables. The LOADHISTORY option loads information, for the single backup set being verified, about SQL Server backups stored on the media set to the backup and restore history tables in the msdb database. For more information about history tables, see System Tables (Transact-SQL).

<general_WITH_options> [ ,...n ]

The general WITH options are all supported in RESTORE DATABASE and RESTORE LOG statements. Some of these options are is also supported by one or more auxiliary statements, as noted below.

Restore Operation Options

These options affect the behavior of the restore operation.

MOVE 'logical_file_name_in_backup' TO 'operating_system_file_name' [ ...]

Supported by:  RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY

Specifies that the data or log file whose logical name is specified by logical_file_name_in_backup should be moved by restoring it to the location specified by operating_system_file_name. The logical file name of a data or log file in a backup set matches its logical name in the database when the backup set was created.

n is a placeholder indicating that you can specify additional MOVE statements. Specify a MOVE statement for every logical file you want to restore from the backup set to a new location. By default, the logical_file_name_in_backup file is restored to its original location.

Note Note

To obtain a list of the logical files from the backup set, use RESTORE FILELISTONLY.

If a RESTORE statement is used to relocate a database on the same server or copy it to a different server, the MOVE option might be necessary to relocate the database files and to avoid collisions with existing files.

When used with RESTORE LOG, the MOVE option can be used only to relocate files that were added during the interval covered by the log being restored. For example, if the log backup contains an add file operation for file file23, this file may be relocated using the MOVE option on RESTORE LOG.

If a RESTORE VERIFYONLY statement is used when you plan to relocate a database on the same server or copy it to a different server, the MOVE option might be necessary to verify that sufficient space is available in the target and to identify potential collisions with existing files.

For more information, see Copy Databases with Backup and Restore.

REPLACE

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies that SQL Server should create the specified database and its related files even if another database already exists with the same name. In such a case, the existing database is deleted. When the REPLACE option is not specified, a safety check occurs. This prevents overwriting a different database by accident. The safety check ensures that the RESTORE DATABASE statement does not restore the database to the current server if the following conditions both exist:

  • The database named in the RESTORE statement already exists on the current server, and

  • The database name is different from the database name recorded in the backup set.

REPLACE also allows RESTORE to overwrite an existing file that cannot be verified as belonging to the database being restored. Normally, RESTORE refuses to overwrite pre-existing files. WITH REPLACE can also be used in the same way for the RESTORE LOG option.

REPLACE also overrides the requirement that you back up the tail of the log before restoring the database.

For information the impact of using the REPLACE option, see RESTORE (Transact-SQL).

RESTART

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies that SQL Server should restart a restore operation that has been interrupted. RESTART restarts the restore operation at the point it was interrupted.

RESTRICTED_USER

Supported by:  RESTORE.

Restricts access for the newly restored database to members of the db_owner, dbcreator, or sysadmin roles. RESTRICTED_USER replaces the DBO_ONLY option. DBO_ONLY has been discontinued with SQL Server 2008.

Use with the RECOVERY option.

Backup Set Options

These options operate on the backup set containing the backup to be restored.

FILE ={ backup_set_file_number | @backup_set_file_number }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

Identifies the backup set to be restored. For example, a backup_set_file_number of 1 indicates the first backup set on the backup medium and a backup_set_file_number of 2 indicates the second backup set. You can obtain the backup_set_file_number of a backup set by using the RESTORE HEADERONLY statement.

When not specified, the default is 1, except for RESTORE HEADERONLY in which case all backup sets in the media set are processed. For more information, see "Specifying a Backup Set," later in this topic.

Important note Important

This FILE option is unrelated to the FILE option for specifying a database file, FILE = { logical_file_name_in_backup | @logical_file_name_in_backup_var }.

PASSWORD = { password | @password_variable }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

Supplies the password of the backup set. A backup-set password is a character string.

Note Note

This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.

If a password was specified when the backup set was created, that password is required to perform any restore operation from the backup set. It is an error to specify the wrong password or to specify a password if the backup set does not have one.

Important note Important

This password provides only weak protection for the media set. For more information, see the Permissions section for the relevant statement.

Media Set Options

These options operate on the media set as a whole.

MEDIANAME = { media_name | @media_name_variable}

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

Specifies the name for the media. If provided, the media name must match the media name on the backup volumes; otherwise, the restore operation terminates. If no media name is given in the RESTORE statement, the check for a matching media name on the backup volumes is not performed.

Important note Important

Consistently using media names in backup and restore operations provides an extra safety check for the media selected for the restore operation.

MEDIAPASSWORD = { mediapassword | @mediapassword_variable }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

Supplies the password of the media set. A media-set password is a character string.

Note Note

This feature will be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.

If a password was provided when the media set was formatted, that password is required to access any backup set on the media set. It is an error to specify the wrong password or to specify a password if the media set does not have any.

Important note Important

This password provides only weak protection for the media set. For more information, see the "Permissions" section for the relevant statement.

BLOCKSIZE = { blocksize | @blocksize_variable }

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies the physical block size, in bytes. The supported sizes are 512, 1024, 2048, 4096, 8192, 16384, 32768, and 65536 (64 KB) bytes. The default is 65536 for tape devices and 512 otherwise. Typically, this option is unnecessary because RESTORE automatically selects a block size that is appropriate to the device. Explicitly stating a block size overrides the automatic selection of block size.

If you are restoring a backup from a CD-ROM, specify BLOCKSIZE=2048.

Note Note

This option typically affects performance only when reading from tape devices.

Data Transfer Options

The options enable you to optimize data transfer from the backup device.

BUFFERCOUNT = { buffercount | @buffercount_variable }

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies the total number of I/O buffers to be used for the restore operation. You can specify any positive integer; however, large numbers of buffers might cause "out of memory" errors because of inadequate virtual address space in the Sqlservr.exe process.

The total space used by the buffers is determined by: buffercount * maxtransfersize.

MAXTRANSFERSIZE = { maxtransfersize | @maxtransfersize_variable }

Supported by:  RESTORE

Specifies the largest unit of transfer in bytes to be used between the backup media and SQL Server. The possible values are multiples of 65536 bytes (64 KB) ranging up to 4194304 bytes (4 MB).

Error Management Options

These options allow you to determine whether backup checksums are enabled for the restore operation and whether the operation will stop on encountering an error.

{ CHECKSUM | NO_CHECKSUM }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

The default behavior is to verify checksums if they are present and proceed without verification if they are not present.

CHECKSUM

Specifies that backup checksums must be verified and, if the backup lacks backup checksums, causes the restore operation to fail with a message indicating that checksums are not present.

Note Note

Page checksums are relevant to backup operations only if backup checksums are used.

By default, on encountering an invalid checksum, RESTORE reports a checksum error and stops. However, if you specify CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR, RESTORE proceeds after returning a checksum error and the number of the page containing the invalid checksum, if the corruption permits.

For more information about working with backup checksums, see Possible Media Errors During Backup and Restore (SQL Server).

NO_CHECKSUM

Explicitly disables the validation of checksums by the restore operation.

{ STOP_ON_ERROR | CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

STOP_ON_ERROR

Specifies that the restore operation stops with the first error encountered. This is the default behavior for RESTORE, except for VERIFYONLY which has CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR as the default.

CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR

Specifies that the restore operation is to continue after an error is encountered.

If a backup contains damaged pages, it is best to repeat the restore operation using an alternative backup that does not contain the errors—for example, a backup taken before the pages were damaged. As a last resort, however, you can restore a damaged backup using the CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR option of the restore statement and try to salvage the data.

FILESTREAM Options

FILESTREAM ( DIRECTORY_NAME =directory_name )

Supported by:  RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY

A windows-compatible directory name. This name should be unique among all the database-level FILESTREAM directory names in the SQL Server instance. Uniqueness comparison is done in a case-insensitive fashion, regardless of SQL Server collation settings.

Monitoring Options

These options enable you to monitor the transfer of data transfer from the backup device.

STATS [ = percentage ]

Supported by:  RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY

Displays a message each time another percentage completes, and is used to gauge progress. If percentage is omitted, SQL Server displays a message after each 10 percent is completed (approximately).

The STATS option reports the percentage complete as of the threshold for reporting the next interval. This is at approximately the specified percentage; for example, with STATS=10, the Database Engine reports at approximately that interval; for instance, instead of displaying precisely 40%, the option might display 43%. For large backup sets, this is not a problem because the percentage complete moves very slowly between completed I/O calls.

Tape Options

These options are used only for TAPE devices. If a nontape device is being used, these options are ignored.

{ REWIND | NOREWIND }

These options are used only for TAPE devices. If a non-tape device is being used, these options are ignored.

REWIND

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

Specifies that SQL Server release and rewind the tape. REWIND is the default.

NOREWIND

Supported by:  RESTORE and RESTORE VERIFYONLY

Specifying NOREWIND in any other restore statement generates an error.

Specifies that SQL Server will keep the tape open after the backup operation. You can use this option to improve performance when performing multiple backup operations to a tape.

NOREWIND implies NOUNLOAD, and these options are incompatible within a single RESTORE statement.

Note Note

If you use NOREWIND, the instance of SQL Server retains ownership of the tape drive until a BACKUP or RESTORE statement running in the same process uses either the REWIND or UNLOAD option, or the server instance is shut down. Keeping the tape open prevents other processes from accessing the tape. For information about how to display a list of open tapes and to close an open tape, see Backup Devices (SQL Server).

{ UNLOAD | NOUNLOAD }

Supported by:  RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, RESTORE LABELONLY, RESTORE REWINDONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY.

These options are used only for TAPE devices. If a non-tape device is being used, these options are ignored.

Note Note

UNLOAD/NOUNLOAD is a session setting that persists for the life of the session or until it is reset by specifying the alternative.

UNLOAD

Specifies that the tape is automatically rewound and unloaded when the backup is finished. UNLOAD is the default when a session begins.

NOUNLOAD

Specifies that after the RESTORE operation the tape will remain loaded on the tape drive.

<replication_WITH_option>

This option is relevant only if the database was replicated when the backup was created.

KEEP_REPLICATION

Supported by:  RESTORE

KEEP_REPLICATION should used when setting up replication to work with log shipping. It prevents replication settings from being removed when a database backup or log backup is restored on a warm standby server and the database is recovered. Specifying this option when restoring a backup with the NORECOVERY option is not permitted. To ensure replication functions properly after restore:

  • The msdb and master databases at the warm standby server must be in sync with the msdb and master databases at the primary server.

  • The warm standby server must be renamed to use the same name as the primary server.

<change_data_capture_WITH_option>

This option is relevant only if the database was enabled for change data capture when the backup was created.

KEEP_CDC

Supported by:  RESTORE

KEEP_CDC should be used to prevent change data capture settings from being removed when a database backup or log backup is restored on another server and the database is recovered. Specifying this option when restoring a backup with the NORECOVERY option is not permitted.

Restoring the database with KEEP_CDC will not create the change data capture jobs. To extract changes from the log after restoring the database, recreate the capture process job and the cleanup job for the restored database. For information, see sys.sp_cdc_add_job (Transact-SQL).

For information about using change data capture with database mirroring, see Change Data Capture and Other SQL Server Features.

<service_broker_WITH_options>

Turns Service Broker message delivery on or off or sets a new Service Broker identifier. This option is relevant only if Service Broker was enabled (activated) for the database when the backup was created.

{ ENABLE_BROKER  | ERROR_BROKER_CONVERSATIONS  | NEW_BROKER }

Supported by:  RESTORE DATABASE

ENABLE_BROKER

Specifies that Service Broker message delivery is enabled at the end of the restore so that messages can be sent immediately. By default Service Broker message delivery is disabled during a restore. The database retains the existing Service Broker identifier.

ERROR_BROKER_CONVERSATIONS

Ends all conversations with an error stating that the database is attached or restored. This enables your applications to perform regular clean up for existing conversations. Service Broker message delivery is disabled until this operation is completed, and then it is enabled. The database retains the existing Service Broker identifier.

NEW_BROKER

Specifies that the database be assigned a new Service Broker identifier. Because the database is considered to be a new Service Broker, existing conversations in the database are immediately removed without producing end dialog messages. Any route referencing the old Service Broker identifier must be recreated with the new identifier.

<point_in_time_WITH_options>

Supported by:  RESTORE {DATABASE|LOG} and only for the full or bulk-logged recovery models.

You can restore a database to a specific point in time or transaction, by specifying the target recovery point in a STOPAT, STOPATMARK, or STOPBEFOREMARK clause. A specified time or transaction is always restored from a log backup. In every RESTORE LOG statement of the restore sequence, you must specify your target time or transaction in an identical STOPAT, STOPATMARK, or STOPBEFOREMARK clause.

As a prerequisite to a point-in-time restore, you must first restore a full database backup whose end point is earlier than your target recovery point. To help you identify which database backup to restore, you can optionally specify your WITH STOPAT, STOPATMARK, or STOPBEFOREMARK clause in a RESTORE DATABASE statement to raise an error if a data backup is too recent for the specified target time. But the complete data backup is always restored, even if it contains the target time.

Note Note

The RESTORE_DATABASE and RESTORE_LOG point-in-time WITH options are similar, but only RESTORE LOG supports the mark_name argument.

{ STOPAT | STOPATMARK | STOPBEFOREMARK }
STOPAT = { 'datetime' | @datetime_var }

Specifies that the database be restored to the state it was in as of the date and time specified by the datetime or @datetime_var parameter. For information about specifying a date and time, see Date and Time Data Types and Functions (Transact-SQL).

If a variable is used for STOPAT, the variable must be varchar, char, smalldatetime, or datetime data type. Only transaction log records written before the specified date and time are applied to the database.

Note Note

If the specified STOPAT time is after the last LOG backup, the database is left in the unrecovered state, just as if RESTORE LOG ran with NORECOVERY.

For more information, see Restore a SQL Server Database to a Point in Time (Full Recovery Model).

STOPATMARK = { 'mark_name' | 'lsn:lsn_number' } [ AFTER 'datetime' ]

Specifies recovery to a specified recovery point. The specified transaction is included in the recovery, but it is committed only if it was originally committed when the transaction was actually generated.

Both RESTORE DATABASE and RESTORE LOG support the lsn_number parameter. This parameter specifies a log sequence number.

The mark_name parameter is supported only by the RESTORE LOG statement. This parameter identifies a transaction mark in the log backup.

In a RESTORE LOG statement, if AFTER datetime is omitted, recovery stops at the first mark with the specified name. If AFTER datetime is specified, recovery stops at the first mark having the specified name exactly at or after datetime.

Note Note

If the specified mark, LSN, or time is after the last LOG backup, the database is left in the unrecovered state, just as if RESTORE LOG ran with NORECOVERY.

For more information, see Use Marked Transactions to Recover Related Databases Consistently (Full Recovery Model) and Recover to a Log Sequence Number (SQL Server).

STOPBEFOREMARK = { 'mark_name' | 'lsn:lsn_number' } [ AFTER 'datetime' ]

Specifies recovery up to a specified recovery point. The specified transaction is not included in the recovery, and is rolled back when WITH RECOVERY is used.

Both RESTORE DATABASE and RESTORE LOG support the lsn_number parameter. This parameter specifies a log sequence number.

The mark_name parameter is supported only by the RESTORE LOG statement. This parameter identifies a transaction mark in the log backup.

In a RESTORE LOG statement, if AFTER datetime is omitted, recovery stops just before the first mark with the specified name. If AFTER datetime is specified, recovery stops just before the first mark having the specified name exactly at or after datetime.

Important note Important

If a partial restore sequence excludes any FILESTREAM filegroup, point-in-time restore is not supported. You can force the restore sequence to continue. However, the FILESTREAM filegroups that are omitted from the RESTORE statement can never be restored. To force a point-in-time restore, specify the CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR option together with the STOPAT, STOPATMARK, or STOPBEFOREMARK option. If you specify CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR, the partial restore sequence succeeds and the FILESTREAM filegroup becomes unrecoverable.

For additional remarks, see the following topics:

Specifying a Backup Set

A backup set contains the backup from a single, successful backup operation. RESTORE, RESTORE FILELISTONLY, RESTORE HEADERONLY, and RESTORE VERIFYONLY statements operate on a single backup set within the media set on the specified backup device or devices. You should specify the backup you need from within the media set. You can obtain the backup_set_file_number of a backup set by using the RESTORE HEADERONLY statement.

The option for specifying the backup set to restore is:

FILE ={ backup_set_file_number | @backup_set_file_number }

Where backup_set_file_number indicates the position of the backup in the media set. A backup_set_file_number of 1 (FILE = 1) indicates the first backup set on the backup medium and a backup_set_file_number of 2 (FILE = 2) indicates the second backup set, and so on.

The behavior of this option varies depending on the statement, as described in the following table.

Statement

Behavior of backup-set FILE option

RESTORE

The default backup set file number is 1. Only one backup-set FILE option is allowed in a RESTORE statement. It is important to specify backup sets in order.

RESTORE FILELISTONLY

The default backup set file number is 1.

RESTORE HEADERONLY

By default, all backup sets in the media set are processed. The RESTORE HEADERONLY results set returns information about each backup set, including its Position in the media set. To return information on a given backup set, use its position number as the backup_set_file_number value in the FILE option.

Note Note

For tape media, RESTORE HEADER only processes backup sets on the loaded tape.

RESTORE VERIFYONLY

The default backup_set_file_number is 1.

Note Note

The FILE option for specifying a backup set is unrelated to the FILE option for specifying a database file, FILE = { logical_file_name_in_backup | @logical_file_name_in_backup_var }.

Summary of Support for WITH Options

The following WITH options are supported by only the RESTORE statement: BLOCKSIZE, BUFFERCOUNT, MAXTRANSFERSIZE, PARTIAL, KEEP_REPLICATION, { RECOVERY | NORECOVERY | STANDBY }, REPLACE, RESTART, RESTRICTED_USER, and { STOPAT | STOPATMARK | STOPBEFOREMARK }

Note Note

The PARTIAL option is supported only by RESTORE DATABASE.

The following table lists the WITH options that are used by one or more statements and indicates which statements support each option. A check mark (√) indicates that an option is supported; a dash (—) indicates that an option is not supported.

WITH option

RESTORE

RESTORE FILELISTONLY

RESTORE HEADERONLY

RESTORE LABELONLY

RESTORE REWINDONLY

RESTORE VERIFYONLY

{ CHECKSUM

| NO_CHECKSUM }

{ CONTINUE_AFTER_ERROR

| STOP_ON_ERROR }

FILE1

LOADHISTORY

MEDIANAME

MEDIAPASSWORD

MOVE

PASSWORD

{ REWIND | NOREWIND }

Only REWIND

Only REWIND

Only REWIND

STATS

{ UNLOAD | NOUNLOAD }

1 FILE = backup_set_file_number, which is distinct from {FILE | FILEGROUP}.

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