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insert (XML DML)

Inserts one or more nodes identified by Expression1 as child nodes or siblings of the node identified by Expression2.


insert 
      Expression1 (
                 {as first | as last} into | after | before
                                    Expression2
                )

Expression1

Identifies one or more nodes to insert. It can be a constant XML instance or an XQuery expression. The expression can result in a node, and also a text node, or in an ordered sequence of nodes. It cannot resolve to the root (/) node. If the expression results in a value or a sequence of values, the values are inserted as a single text node with a space separating each value in the sequence. If you specify multiple nodes as constant, the nodes are included in parentheses and are separated by commas. You cannot insert heterogeneous sequences such as a sequence of elements, attributes, or values. If Expression1 resolves to an empty sequence, no insertion occurs and no errors are returned.

into

Nodes identified by Expression1 are inserted as direct descendents (child nodes) of the node identified by Expression2. If the node in Expression2 already has one or more child nodes, you must use either as first or as last to specify where you want the new node added. For example, at the start or at the end of the child list, respectively. The as first and as last keywords are ignored when attributes are inserted.

after

Nodes identified by Expression1 are inserted as siblings directly after the node identified by Expression2. The after keyword cannot be used to insert attributes. For example, it cannot be used to insert an attribute constructor or to return an attribute from an XQuery.

before

Nodes identified by Expression1 are inserted as siblings directly before the node identified by Expression2. The before keyword cannot be used when attributes are being inserted. For example, it cannot be used to insert an attribute constructor or to return an attribute from an XQuery.

Expression2

Identifies a node. The nodes identified in Expression1 are inserted relative to the node identified by Expression2. This can be an XQuery expression that returns a reference to a node that exists in the currently referenced document. If more than one node is returned, the insert fails. If Expression2 returns an empty sequence, no insertion occurs and no errors are returned. If Expression2 is statically not a singleton, a static error is returned. Expression2 cannot be a processing instruction, comment, or attribute. Note that Expression2 must be a reference to an existing node in the document and not a constructed node.

A. Inserting element nodes into the document

The following example illustrates how to insert elements into a document. First, an XML document is assigned to a variable of xml type. Then, through several insert XML DML statements, the example illustrates how element nodes are inserted in the document. After each insert, the SELECT statement displays the result.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml       
SET @myDoc = '<Root>       
    <ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">       
        <Features>       
        </Features>       
    </ProductDescription>       
</Root>'       
SELECT @myDoc       
-- insert first feature child (no need to specify as first or as last)       
SET @myDoc.modify('       
insert <Maintenance>3 year parts and labor extended maintenance is available</Maintenance> 
into (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1]') 
SELECT @myDoc       
-- insert second feature. We want this to be the first in sequence so use 'as first'       
set @myDoc.modify('       
insert <Warranty>1 year parts and labor</Warranty>        
as first       
into (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1]       
')       
SELECT @myDoc       
-- insert third feature child. This one is the last child of <Features> so use 'as last'       
SELECT @myDoc       
SET @myDoc.modify('       
insert <Material>Aluminium</Material>        
as last       
into (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1]       
')       
SELECT @myDoc       
-- Add fourth feature - this time as a sibling (and not a child)       
-- 'after' keyword is used (instead of as first or as last child)       
SELECT @myDoc       
set @myDoc.modify('       
insert <BikeFrame>Strong long lasting</BikeFrame> 
after (/Root/ProductDescription/Features/Material)[1]       
')       
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

Note that various path expressions in this example specify "[1]" as a per-static typing requirement. This ensures a single target node.

B. Inserting multiple elements into the document

In the following example, a document is first assigned to a variable of xml type. Then, a sequence of two elements, product features, is inserted into it.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml           
SET @myDoc = '<Root>           
<ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">           
    <Features> </Features>           
</ProductDescription>           
</Root>'           
SELECT @myDoc           
-- insert first feature children (no need to specify as first or last)           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert (           
    <Warranty>1 year parts and labor</Warranty>,           
    <Maintenance>3 year parts and labor extended maintenance is available</Maintenance>           
   )           
into (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

Note that the element nodes in the sequence are separated by a comma and are wrapped in parentheses. This is how a sequence is constructed in XQuery.

C. Inserting attributes into a document

The following example illustrates how attributes are inserted in a document.First, a document is assigned to an xml type variable. Then, a series of insert XML DML statements is used to insert attributes into the document. After each attribute insertion, the SELECT statement displays the result.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml           
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>           
    <Location LocationID="10" >           
        <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>           
        <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>           
    </Location>           
</Root>' 
SELECT @myDoc           
-- insert LaborHours attribute           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert attribute LaborHours {".5" }           
into (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc           
-- insert MachineHours attribute but its value is retrived from a sql variable @Hrs           
DECLARE @Hrs float           
SET @Hrs =.2           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert attribute MachineHours {sql:variable("@Hrs") }           
into   (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc           
-- insert sequence of attribute nodes (note the use of ',' and ()            
-- around the attributes.           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert (            
           attribute SetupHours {".5" },           
           attribute SomeOtherAtt {".2"}           
        )           
into (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

D. Inserting a comment node

In this query, an XML document is first assigned to a variable of xml type. Then, XML DML is used to insert a comment node after the first <step> element.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml           
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>           
    <Location LocationID="10" >           
        <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>           
        <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>           
    </Location>           
</Root>'           
SELECT @myDoc           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert <!-- some comment -->           
after (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10]/step[1])[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

E. Inserting a processing instruction

In the following query, an XML document is first assigned to a variable of xml type. Then, the XML DML keyword is used to insert a processing instruction at the start of the document.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml           
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>           
    <Location LocationID="10" >           
        <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>           
        <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>           
    </Location>           
</Root>'           
SELECT @myDoc           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert <?Program="Instructions.exe" ?>           
before (/Root)[1] ')           
SELECT @myDoc ;
GO

F. Inserting data using a CDATA section

When you insert text that includes characters that are not valid in XML, such as < or >, you can use CDATA sections to insert the data as shown in the following query. The query specifies a CDATA section, but it is added as a text node with any invalid characters converted to entities. For example, '<' is saved as &lt;.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml           
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>           
    <ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">           
        <Features> </Features>           
    </ProductDescription>           
</Root>'           
SELECT @myDoc           
SET @myDoc.modify('           
insert <![CDATA[ <notxml> as text </notxml> or cdata ]]> 
into  (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1] ')  
SELECT @myDoc ;
GO

The query inserts a text node into the <Features> element:

<Root>
<ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">
<Features> &lt;notxml&gt; as text &lt;/notxml&gt; or cdata </Features>
</ProductDescription>
</Root>     

G. Inserting text node

In this query, an XML document is first assigned to a variable of xml type. Then, XML DML is used to insert a text node as the first child of the <Root> element. The text constructor is used to specify the text.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml
SET @myDoc = '<Root>
<ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">
<Features>

</Features>
</ProductDescription>
</Root>'
SELECT @myDoc
set @myDoc.modify('
 insert text{"Product Catalog Description"} 
 as first into (/Root)[1]
')
SELECT @myDoc

H. Inserting a new element into an untyped xml column

The following example applies XML DML to update an XML instance stored in an xml type column:

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
CREATE TABLE T (i int, x xml);
go
INSERT INTO T VALUES(1,'<Root>
    <ProductDescription ProductID="1" ProductName="Road Bike">
        <Features>
            <Warranty>1 year parts and labor</Warranty>
            <Maintenance>3 year parts and labor extended maintenance is available</Maintenance>
        </Features>
    </ProductDescription>
</Root>')
go
-- insert a new element
UPDATE T
SET x.modify('insert <Material>Aluminium</Material> as first
  into   (/Root/ProductDescription/Features)[1]
');
GO

Again, when the <Material> element node is inserted, the path expression must return a single target. This is explicitly specified by adding a [1] at the end of the expression.

-- check the update
SELECT x.query(' //ProductDescription/Features')
FROM T;
GO

I. Inserting based on an if condition statement

In the following example, an IF condition is specified as part of Expression1 in the insert XML DML statement. If the condition is True, an attribute is added to the <WorkCenter> element.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>
    <Location LocationID="10" LaborHours="1.2" >
        <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>
    <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>
    </Location>
</Root>'
SELECT @myDoc
SET @myDoc.modify('
insert
if (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])
then attribute MachineHours {".5"}
else ()
    as first into   (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])[1] ')
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

The following example is similar, except that the insert XML DML statement inserts an element in the document if the condition is True. That is, if the <WorkCenter> element has less than or is equal to two <step> child elements.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO
DECLARE @myDoc xml
SET @myDoc = 
'<Root>
    <Location LocationID="10" LaborHours="1.2" >
        <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>
        <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>
    </Location>
</Root>'
SELECT @myDoc
SET @myDoc.modify('
insert
if (count(/Root/Location/step) <= 2)
then element step { "This is a new step" }
else ()
    as last into   (/Root/Location[@LocationID=10])[1] ')
SELECT @myDoc;
GO

This is the result:

<Root>
 <WorkCenter WorkCenterID="10" LaborHours="1.2">
  <step>Manufacturing step 1 at this work center</step>
  <step>Manufacturing step 2 at this work center</step>
  <step>This is a new step</step>
 </WorkCenter>

J. Inserting nodes in a typed xml column

This example inserts an element and an attribute into a manufacturing instructions XML stored in a typed xml column.

In the example, you first create a table (T) with a typed xml column, in the AdventureWorks database. You then copy a manufacturing instructions XML instance from the Instructions column in the ProductModel table into table T. Insertions are then applied to XML in table T.

USE AdventureWorks;
GO          
DROP TABLE T;
GO           
CREATE TABLE T(ProductModelID int primary key,  
Instructions xml (Production.ManuInstructionsSchemaCollection));
GO
INSERT T            
    SELECT ProductModelID, Instructions           
    FROM Production.ProductModel           
    WHERE ProductModelID=7;
GO           
SELECT Instructions           
FROM T;
-- now insertion begins           
--1) insert a new manu. Location. The <Root> specified as            
-- expression 2 in the insert() must be singleton.    
UPDATE T 
set Instructions.modify(' 
declare namespace MI="http://schemas.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2004/07/adventure-works/ProductModelManuInstructions"; 
insert <MI:Location LocationID="1000" > 
           <MI:step>New instructions go here</MI:step> 
         </MI:Location> 
as first 
into   (/MI:root)[1] 
') 
         
SELECT Instructions           
FROM T ;
-- 2) insert attributes in the new <Location>           
UPDATE T           
SET Instructions.modify('           
declare namespace MI="http://schemas.microsoft.com/sqlserver/2004/07/adventure-works/ProductModelManuInstructions";           
insert attribute LaborHours { "1000" }           
into (/MI:root/MI:Location[@LocationID=1000])[1] '); 
GO           
SELECT Instructions           
FROM T ;
GO           
--cleanup           
DROP TABLE T ;
GO           

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