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Configure IIS for Web Synchronization

The procedures in this topic make up the second step in configuring Web synchronization for merge replication. You perform this step after you enable a publication for Web synchronization. For an overview of the configuration process, see Configure Web Synchronization. After you complete the procedures in this topic, continue to the third step, configuring a subscription to use Web synchronization. This third step is described in the following topics:

Web synchronization uses a computer that is running Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS) to synchronize pull subscriptions to merge publications. IIS version 5.0, IIS version 6.0, and IIS 7.0 are supported. The Configure Web Synchronization Wizard is not supported on IIS 7.0.

Important note Important

Make sure that your application uses only .NET Framework 2.0 or later versions, and that earlier versions of the .NET Framework are not installed on the IIS server. Earlier versions of the .NET Framework can cause errors. These include the following: "The format of a message during Web synchronization was invalid. Ensure that replication components are properly configured at the Web server".

Caution note Caution

Do not use both WebSync and alternate snapshot folder locations at the same time.

To use Web synchronization, you must configure IIS by completing the following steps. Each step is described in detail in this topic.

  1. Configure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). SSL is required for communication between IIS and all Subscribers.

  2. Install Microsoft SQL Server connectivity components on the computer that is running IIS by using the SQL Server Installation Wizard. If you plan to use the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard that is mentioned in step 3, you must also install SQL Server Management Studio on the computer that is running IIS.

  3. Configure the computer that is running IIS for Web synchronization. You can configure the computer manually or use the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard. We recommend that you use the wizard.

    Note Note

    If the computer that is running IIS is running on a 64-bit version of Windows, you must run following command to make sure that the server is properly configured to run Internet Server API (ISAPI) applications. For more information, see the IIS documentation.

    cscript %SystemDrive%\inetpub\AdminScripts\adsutil.vbs set w3svc/AppPools/Enable32bitAppOnWin64 1
    
  4. Set the appropriate permissions for the SQL Server Replication Listener.

  5. Run Web synchronization in diagnostic mode to test the connection to the computer that is running IIS and to make sure that the SSL certificate is properly installed.

To configure SSL, specify a certificate for the computer that is running IIS to use. Web synchronization for merge replication supports using server certificates but not client certificates. To configure IIS for deployment, you must first obtain a certificate from a certification authority (CA). A certificate authority is an entity that is responsible for establishing and vouching for the authenticity of public encryption keys that belong to users, computers, or other certification authorities. For more information about certificates, see the IIS documentation. After you install the certificate, you must associate the certificate with the Web site that is used by Web synchronization.

To specify a certificate for deployment

  1. Log on to the computer that is running IIS as an administrator.

  2. Start Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager:

    1. Click Start, and then click Run.

    2. In the Open box, type inetmgr, and then click OK.

  3. Run the IIS Certificate Wizard:

    1. In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, expand the local computer node, and then expand the Web Sites folder.

    2. Right-click Default Web Site, and then click Properties.

    3. In the Default Web Site Properties dialog box, on the Directory Security tab, click Server Certificate.

    4. Complete the Web Server Certificate Wizard.

  4. Click OK.

If you cannot obtain a server certificate from a CA, you can specify a certificate for testing. To configure IIS 6.0 for testing, install a certificate by using the SelfSSL utility. This utility is available in the IIS 6.0 Resource Kit. You can download the tools from the Microsoft Download Center. For IIS 5.0, go to Microsoft Help and Support.

Note Note

A certificate must be associated with a Web site before that Web site can use SSL. SelfSSL automatically associates the certificate with the default Web site. If you already have a certificate or later install a certificate from a CA, you must explicitly associate that certificate with the Web site that is used by Web synchronization. Make sure there is only one certificate associated with the Web site that is used to synchronize subscriptions. If there are multiple certificates, the Subscriber will use the first available Web site.

To specify a certificate for testing in IIS 6.0

  1. Log on to the computer that is running IIS as an administrator.

  2. Download and install SelfSSL. By default, the application is installed to <drive>:\Program Files\IIS Resources\SelfSSL. Application and documentation shortcuts are copied to <drive>:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\IIS Resources\SelfSSL.

  3. Run SelfSSL:

    • To run SelfSSL with default values for all parameters, locate the installation directory for the application, and then double-click SelfSSL.exe.

      Note Note

      By default, the certificate that is installed by SelfSSL is valid for seven days.

    • To specify values for one or more parameters: click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, enter cmd, and then click OK. Locate the SelfSSL installation directory, type SelfSSL, and then specify values for one or more parameters. For a list of parameters, type SelfSSL -?.

To install SQL Server connectivity components and SQL Server Management Studio

  1. Log on as an administrator to the computer that is running IIS.

  2. From the SQL Server 2012 installation disk, start the SQL Server Installation Wizard. For more information about using this wizard, see Install SQL Server 2012 from the Installation Wizard (Setup).

  3. On the Feature Selection page, select Client Tools Connectivity.

  4. If you plan to use the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard, select Management Tools - Basic.

  5. Complete the wizard, and then restart the computer.

    Note Note

    You can install additional components, but only the connectivity components are required for Web synchronization.

Configure the IIS server by using the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard or manually. We recommend using the wizard, but we also provide steps for manual configuration in the next section. The Web Synchronization Wizard that is available with SQL Server 2012 can be used only for publications that were created on a Publisher that is running SQL Server 2012, or a Publisher that was upgraded to SQL Server 2012. The wizard cannot be used for publications on SQL Server 2005. The wizard can be used with subscriptions on SQL Server 2005 and later versions, and SQL Server Compact 3.5 3.0 and later versions.

The configuration has the following characteristics:

  • Uses the default Web site in IIS. However, you can use another Web site. For more information about how to create Web sites, see the IIS documentation.

    Note Note

    The Web site that you specify provides access to the components that are used by Web synchronization. The Web site does not provide access to other data or Web pages unless you configure the site to do so.

  • Creates a virtual directory and its associated alias. The alias is used when accessing the Web synchronization components. For example, if the IIS address is https://server.domain.com and you specify an alias of 'websync1', the address to access the replisapi.dll component is https://server.domain.com/websync1/replisapi.dll.

  • Uses Basic Authentication. We recommend using Basic Authentication because Basic Authentication enables you to run IIS and the SQL Server Publisher/Distributor on separate computers (the recommended configuration) without requiring Kerberos delegation. Using SSL with Basic Authentication makes sure that logins, passwords, and all data are encrypted in transit. (SSL is required, regardless of the type of authentication that is used.) For more information about best practices for Web synchronization, see the section "Security Best Practices for Web Synchronization" in Configure Web Synchronization.

To configure the computer that is running IIS by using the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard

  1. On the computer that is running IIS, start SQL Server Management Studio.

  2. Connect to the Publisher, and then expand the server node.

  3. Expand the Local Publications folder, right-click the publication, and then click Configure Web Synchronization.

  4. In the Configure Web Synchronization Wizard, on the Subscriber Type page, select SQL Server.

  5. On the Web Server page:

    1. Select the instance of IIS that will synchronize subscriptions.

    2. Select Create a new virtual directory.

    3. In the lower pane of the page, expand the instance of IIS, expand Web Sites, and then click Default Web Site.

  6. On the Virtual Directory Information page:

    1. In the Alias box, enter an alias for the virtual directory.

    2. In the Path box, enter a path of the virtual directory. For example, if you entered websync1 in the Alias box, enter C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\websync1 in the Path box. Click Next.

    3. On both dialog boxes, click Yes. This specifies that you want to create a new folder and that you want to copy the SQL Server Internet Server API (ISAPI) DLL. .

  7. On the Authenticated Access page:

    1. Make sure that Integrated Windows authentication and Digest authentication for Windows domain servers are cleared.

    2. Select Basic Authentication.

    3. In the Default Domain and Realm boxes, enter the domain of the computer that is running IIS.

  8. On the Directory Access page:

    1. Click Add, and then in the Select Users or Groups dialog box, add the accounts under which Subscribers will make connections to IIS. These are the accounts that you will specify on the Web Server Information page of the New Subscription Wizard or as the value for the sp_addmergepullsubscription_agent @internet_login parameter.

  9. On the Snapshot Share Access page, enter the snapshot share. The appropriate permissions are set on this share so that Subscribers can access the snapshot files. For more information about permissions for the share, see Secure the Snapshot Folder.

  10. On the Completing the Wizard page, click Finish.

    If a failure occurs, such as a network error while trying to configure a remote computer that is running IIS, all completed actions are rolled back and all remaining actions are canceled. If a completed action cannot be rolled back, the status in the final page of the wizard displays Success and the completed actions remain committed.

  11. If the computer that is running IIS is running on a 64-bit version of Windows, replisapi.dll must be copied to the appropriate directory:

    1. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, enter iisreset, and then click OK.

    2. After IIS stops and restarts, copy replisapi.dll from <drive>:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\110\ COM\replisapi to the directory that is specified in step 6b.

    3. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, enter cmd, and then click OK.

    4. In the directory that you specified in step 6b, execute the following command:

      regsvr32 replisapi.dll

To configure the computer that is running IIS manually, you must install and configure the SQL Server Replication Listener, and then configure authorization for Subscribers that will connect to IIS.

To install and configure the SQL Server Replication Listener

  1. Create a file directory on the computer that is running IIS to contain replisapi.dll. You can create the directory wherever you want, but we recommend that you create the directory under the <drive>:\Inetpub directory. For example, create the directory <drive>:\Inetpub\SQLReplication\.

    Important note Important

    We strongly recommend that you create this directory on an NTFS file system partition instead of a FAT file system. When you use the NTFS file system, you can use NTFS file system permissions to control precisely the users that can access SQL Server replication.

  2. Copy replisapi.dll from the directory <drive>:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\110\ com\ to the file directory that you created in step 1.

  3. Register replisapi.dll:

    1. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box, enter cmd, and then click OK.

    2. In the directory that you created in step 1, execute the following command:

      regsvr32 replisapi.dll

  4. Create a new Web site for replication, or use an existing site. The Web site will be accessed by replication components during synchronization. For more information about how to create Web sites, see the IIS documentation.

  5. Create a virtual directory in IIS. The virtual directory should be created under the Web site that was created in step 4, and should be mapped to the directory that was created in step 1. For more information about how to create virtual directories, see the IIS documentation. We recommend that you be as restrictive as possible when you assign permissions to this directory. You must select Read and Execute permissions, but you can clear Run scripts, Write, and Browse permissions.

  6. Configure IIS to enable replisapi.dll to execute. The permissions that are assigned in step 4 are sufficient for earlier versions of IIS; however, IIS version 6.0 requires Internet Server API (ISAPI) extensions to be enabled. For more information, see "Configuring ISAPI Extensions" and "Enabling and Disabling Dynamic Content" in the IIS 6.0 documentation.

To configure IIS authentication

  • When Subscribers connect to IIS, IIS must authenticate the Subscribers before they can access resources and processes. IIS offers three types of authentication: Anonymous, Basic, and Integrated. Authentication can be applied to the whole Web site or to the virtual directory that you created.

    We recommend that you use Basic Authentication with SSL. SSL is required, regardless of the type of authentication that is used. For more information about how to configure authentication, see the IIS documentation.

When a Subscriber connects to the computer that is running IIS, the Subscriber is authenticated by using the type of authentication that was specified when you configured IIS. After IIS authenticates the Subscriber, IIS checks whether the Subscriber is authorized to invoke SQL Server replication. You control the users that can invoke SQL Server replication by setting permissions for replisapi.dll. Properly configuring permissions is necessary to prevent unauthorized access to SQL Server replication.

To configure the minimum permissions for the account under which the SQL Server Replication Listener runs, complete the following procedure. The steps in the procedure apply to Microsoft Windows Server 2003 running IIS 6.0.

In addition to performing the following steps, make sure that the required logins are in the publication access list (PAL). For more information about the PAL, see Secure the Publisher.

To configure the account and permissions

  1. Create a local account on the computer that is running IIS:

    1. Right-click My Computer, and then click Manage.

    2. In Computer Management, expand Local Users and Groups.

    3. Right-click Users, and then click New User.

    4. Enter a user name and a strong password.

    5. Click Create, and then click Close.

  2. Add the account to the IIS_WPG group:

    1. In Computer Management, expand Local Users and Groups, and then click Groups.

    2. Right-click IIS_WPG, and then click Add to Group.

    3. In the IIS_WPG Properties dialog box, click Add.

    4. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, add the account created in step 1.

    5. Make sure that the name in the From this location field is the name of the local computer instead of a domain. If the name is not a local computer, click Locations. In the Locations dialog box, elect the local computer, and then click OK.

    6. In the Select Users dialog box and the IIS_WPG Properties dialog box, click OK.

  3. Grant the minimum permissions on the folder that contains replisapi.dll to the account :

    1. Locate the folder that you created for replisapi.dll, right-click the folder, and then click Sharing and Security.

    2. On the Security tab, click Add.

    3. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, add the account that you created in step 1.

    4. Make sure that the name in the From this location field is the name of the local computer instead of a domain. If the name is not a local computer, click Locations. In the Locations dialog box, select the local computer, and then click OK.

    5. Make sure that the account is granted only Read, Read & Execute, and List Folder Contents permissions.

    6. Select any users or groups that do not require access to the directory, and then click Remove.

    7. Click OK.

  4. Create an application pool in Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager:

    1. Click Start, and then click Run.

    2. In the Open box, type inetmgr, and then click OK.

    3. In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, expand the local computer node.

    4. Right-click Application Pools, point to New and then click Application Pool.

    5. Enter a name for the pool in the Application pool ID field, and then click OK.

  5. Associate the account with the application pool:

    1. In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, expand the local computer node, and then expand Application Pools.

    2. Right-click the application pool that you created, and then click Properties.

    3. In the <ApplicationPoolName> Properties dialog box, on the Identity tab, click Configurable.

    4. In the User name and password fields, enter the account and password that were created in step 1.

    5. Click OK.

  6. Associate the application pool with the virtual directory that is used for Web synchronization:

    1. In Internet Information Services (IIS) Manager, expand the local computer node, and then expand Web Sites.

    2. Expand the Web site that you are using for Web synchronization, right-click the virtual directory that you created for Web synchronization, and then click Properties.

    3. On the Virtual Directory tab of the <VirtualDirectoryName> Properties dialog box, from the Application pool drop-down list, select the application pool that was created in step 5.

    4. Click OK.

Run Web synchronization in diagnostic mode to test the connection to the computer that is running IIS and to make sure that the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate is properly installed. To run Web synchronization in diagnostic mode, you must be an administrator on the computer running IIS.

To test the connection to replisapi.dll

  1. Make sure that local area network (LAN) settings at the Subscriber are correct:

    1. In Microsoft Internet Explorer, on the Tools menu, click Internet Options.

    2. On the Connections tab, click LAN Settings.

    3. If a proxy server is not used on the LAN, clear Automatically Detect Settings and Use a proxy server for your LAN.

    4. If a proxy server is used, select Use a proxy server for your LAN and Bypass proxy server for local addresses.

    5. Click OK.

  2. At the Subscriber, in Internet Explorer, connect to the server in diagnostic mode by appending ?diag to the address for the replisapi.dll. For example: https://server.domain.com/directory/replisapi.dll?diag.

  3. If the certificate that you specified for IIS is not recognized by the Windows operating system, the Security Alert dialog box appears. This alert might occur because the certificate is a test certificate or the certificate was issued by a certification authority (CA) that Windows does not recognize.

    Note Note

    If this dialog box does not appear, make sure that the certificate for the server that you are accessing has been added to the certificate store at the Subscriber as a trusted certificate. For more information about exporting certificates, see the IIS documentation.

    1. In the Security Alert dialog box, click View Certificate.

    2. In the Certificate dialog box, on the General tab, click Install Certificate.

    3. Complete the Certificate Import Wizard, accepting the defaults.

    4. In the Security Warning dialog box, click Yes.

    5. In the Certificate Import Wizard confirmation dialog box, click OK.

    6. Close the Certificate dialog box.

    7. In the Security Alert dialog box, click Yes.

    Note Note

    Certificates are installed for users. This process must be performed for each user that will synchronize with IIS.

  4. In the Connect to <ServerName> dialog box, specify the login and password that the Merge Agent will use to connect to IIS. These credentials will also be specified in the New Subscription Wizard.

  5. In the Internet Explorer window called SQL Websync diagnostic information, verify that the value in each Status column on the page is SUCCESS.

  6. Make sure that the certificate is installed correctly on the Subscriber:

    1. Close and then reopen Internet Explorer.

    2. Connect to the server in diagnostic mode. If the certificate is installed properly, the Security Alert dialog box will not appear. If the dialog box appears, the Merge Agent will fail when it tries to connect to the computer that is running IIS. You must make sure that the certificate for the server that you are accessing has been added to the certificate store at the Subscriber as a trusted certificate. For more information about exporting certificates, see the IIS documentation.

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