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KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem>.Item Property (TKey)

Gets the element with the specified key.

Namespace:  System.Collections.ObjectModel
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
public TItem this[
	TKey key
] { get; }

Parameters

key
Type: TKey

The key of the element to get.

Property Value

Type: TItem
The element with the specified key. If an element with the specified key is not found, an exception is thrown.
ExceptionCondition
ArgumentNullException

key is null.

KeyNotFoundException

An element with the specified key does not exist in the collection.

This property provides the ability to access a specific element in the collection by using the following syntax: myCollection[key] (myCollection(key) in Visual Basic).

NoteNote

This property is distinct from the inherited Collection<T>.Item property, which gets and sets elements by numeric index. However, if TKey is of type Int32, this property masks the inherited property. In that case, you can access the inherited property by casting the KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem> to its base type. For example, KeyedCollection<int, MyType> (KeyedCollection(Of Integer, MyType) in Visual Basic, KeyedCollection<int, MyType^> in C++) can be cast to Collection<MyType> (Collection(Of MyType) in Visual Basic, Collection<MyType^> in C++).

If the KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem> has a lookup dictionary, key is used to retrieve the element from the dictionary. If there is no lookup dictionary, the key of each element is extracted using the GetKeyForItem method and compared with the specified key.

The C# language uses the this keyword to define the indexers instead of implementing the Item property. Visual Basic implements Item as a default property, which provides the same indexing functionality.

Retrieving the value of this property is an O(1) operation if the KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem> has a lookup dictionary; otherwise it is an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

This code example shows the minimum code necessary to derive a collection class from KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem>: overriding the GetKeyForItem method and providing a public constructor that delegates to a base class constructor. The code example also demonstrates many of the properties and methods inherited from KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem> and Collection<T> classes.

The code example calls both the KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem>.Item property, which is read-only and retrieves by key, and the Collection<T>.Item property, which is settable and retrieves by index. It shows how to access the latter property when the objects in the derived collection have integer keys, indistinguishable from the integers used for indexed retrieval.

The SimpleOrder class is a very simple requisition list that contains OrderItem objects, each of which represents a line item in the order. The key of OrderItem is immutable, an important consideration for classes that derive from KeyedCollection<TKey, TItem>. For a code example that uses mutable keys, see ChangeItemKey.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Collections.ObjectModel;

// This class represents a very simple keyed list of OrderItems, 
// inheriting most of its behavior from the KeyedCollection and  
// Collection classes. The immediate base class is the constructed 
// type KeyedCollection<int, OrderItem>. When you inherit 
// from KeyedCollection, the second generic type argument is the  
// type that you want to store in the collection -- in this case 
// OrderItem. The first type argument is the type that you want 
// to use as a key. Its values must be calculated from OrderItem;  
// in this case it is the int field PartNumber, so SimpleOrder 
// inherits KeyedCollection<int, OrderItem>. 
// 
public class SimpleOrder : KeyedCollection<int, OrderItem>
{
    // The parameterless constructor of the base class creates a  
    // KeyedCollection with an internal dictionary. For this code  
    // example, no other constructors are exposed. 
    // 
    public SimpleOrder() : base() {}

    // This is the only method that absolutely must be overridden, 
    // because without it the KeyedCollection cannot extract the 
    // keys from the items. The input parameter type is the  
    // second generic type argument, in this case OrderItem, and  
    // the return value type is the first generic type argument, 
    // in this case int. 
    // 
    protected override int GetKeyForItem(OrderItem item)
    {
        // In this example, the key is the part number. 
        return item.PartNumber;
    }
}

public class Demo
{    
    public static void Main()
    {
        SimpleOrder weekly = new SimpleOrder();

        // The Add method, inherited from Collection, takes OrderItem. 
        //
        weekly.Add(new OrderItem(110072674, "Widget", 400, 45.17));
        weekly.Add(new OrderItem(110072675, "Sprocket", 27, 5.3));
        weekly.Add(new OrderItem(101030411, "Motor", 10, 237.5));
        weekly.Add(new OrderItem(110072684, "Gear", 175, 5.17));

        Display(weekly);

        // The Contains method of KeyedCollection takes the key,  
        // type, in this case int. 
        //
        Console.WriteLine("\nContains(101030411): {0}", 
            weekly.Contains(101030411));

        // The default Item property of KeyedCollection takes a key. 
        //
        Console.WriteLine("\nweekly[101030411].Description: {0}", 
            weekly[101030411].Description);

        // The Remove method of KeyedCollection takes a key. 
        //
        Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(101030411)");
        weekly.Remove(101030411);
        Display(weekly);

        // The Insert method, inherited from Collection, takes an  
        // index and an OrderItem. 
        //
        Console.WriteLine("\nInsert(2, New OrderItem(...))");
        weekly.Insert(2, new OrderItem(111033401, "Nut", 10, .5));
        Display(weekly);

        // The default Item property is overloaded. One overload comes 
        // from KeyedCollection<int, OrderItem>; that overload 
        // is read-only, and takes Integer because it retrieves by key.  
        // The other overload comes from Collection<OrderItem>, the  
        // base class of KeyedCollection<int, OrderItem>; it  
        // retrieves by index, so it also takes an Integer. The compiler 
        // uses the most-derived overload, from KeyedCollection, so the 
        // only way to access SimpleOrder by index is to cast it to 
        // Collection<OrderItem>. Otherwise the index is interpreted 
        // as a key, and KeyNotFoundException is thrown. 
        //
        Collection<OrderItem> coweekly = weekly;
        Console.WriteLine("\ncoweekly[2].Description: {0}", 
            coweekly[2].Description);

        Console.WriteLine("\ncoweekly[2] = new OrderItem(...)");
        coweekly[2] = new OrderItem(127700026, "Crank", 27, 5.98);

        OrderItem temp = coweekly[2];

        // The IndexOf method inherited from Collection<OrderItem>  
        // takes an OrderItem instead of a key 
        // 
        Console.WriteLine("\nIndexOf(temp): {0}", weekly.IndexOf(temp));

        // The inherited Remove method also takes an OrderItem. 
        //
        Console.WriteLine("\nRemove(temp)");
        weekly.Remove(temp);
        Display(weekly);

        Console.WriteLine("\nRemoveAt(0)");
        weekly.RemoveAt(0);
        Display(weekly);

    }

    private static void Display(SimpleOrder order)
    {
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( OrderItem item in order )
        {
            Console.WriteLine(item);
        }
    }
}

// This class represents a simple line item in an order. All the  
// values are immutable except quantity. 
//  
public class OrderItem
{
    public readonly int PartNumber;
    public readonly string Description;
    public readonly double UnitPrice;

    private int _quantity = 0;

    public OrderItem(int partNumber, string description, 
        int quantity, double unitPrice)
    {
        this.PartNumber = partNumber;
        this.Description = description;
        this.Quantity = quantity;
        this.UnitPrice = unitPrice;
    } 

    public int Quantity    
    {
        get { return _quantity; }
        set
        {
            if (value<0)
                throw new ArgumentException("Quantity cannot be negative.");

            _quantity = value;
        }
    }

    public override string ToString()
    {
        return String.Format(
            "{0,9} {1,6} {2,-12} at {3,8:#,###.00} = {4,10:###,###.00}", 
            PartNumber, _quantity, Description, UnitPrice, 
            UnitPrice * _quantity);
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

110072674    400 Widget       at    45.17 =  18,068.00
110072675     27 Sprocket     at     5.30 =     143.10
101030411     10 Motor        at   237.50 =   2,375.00
110072684    175 Gear         at     5.17 =     904.75

Contains(101030411): True

weekly[101030411].Description: Motor

Remove(101030411)

110072674    400 Widget       at    45.17 =  18,068.00
110072675     27 Sprocket     at     5.30 =     143.10
110072684    175 Gear         at     5.17 =     904.75

Insert(2, New OrderItem(...))

110072674    400 Widget       at    45.17 =  18,068.00
110072675     27 Sprocket     at     5.30 =     143.10
111033401     10 Nut          at      .50 =       5.00
110072684    175 Gear         at     5.17 =     904.75

coweekly[2].Description: Nut

coweekly[2] = new OrderItem(...)

IndexOf(temp): 2

Remove(temp)

110072674    400 Widget       at    45.17 =  18,068.00
110072675     27 Sprocket     at     5.30 =     143.10
110072684    175 Gear         at     5.17 =     904.75

RemoveAt(0)

110072675     27 Sprocket     at     5.30 =     143.10
110072684    175 Gear         at     5.17 =     904.75
 */

.NET Framework

Supported in: 4.5.1, 4.5, 4, 3.5, 3.0, 2.0

.NET Framework Client Profile

Supported in: 4, 3.5 SP1

Portable Class Library

Supported in: Portable Class Library

.NET for Windows Store apps

Supported in: Windows 8

.NET for Windows Phone apps

Supported in: Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Silverlight 8.1

Windows Phone 8.1, Windows Phone 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012, Windows 7, Windows Vista SP2, Windows Server 2008 (Server Core Role not supported), Windows Server 2008 R2 (Server Core Role supported with SP1 or later; Itanium not supported)

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see .NET Framework System Requirements.

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