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C26100

warning C26100: Race condition. Variable <var> should be protected by lock <lock>.

The _Guarded_by_ annotation in the code specifies the lock to use to guard a shared variable. Warning C26100 is generated when the guard contract is violated.

The following example generates warning C26100 because there is a violation of the _Guarded_by_ contract.

CRITICAL_SECTION gCS; 

_Guarded_by_(gCS) int gData; 

typedef struct _DATA { 
   _Guarded_by_(cs) int data; 
   CRITICAL_SECTION cs; 
} DATA; 

void Safe(DATA* p) { 
   EnterCriticalSection(&p->cs); 
   p->data = 1; // OK 
   LeaveCriticalSection(&p->cs); 
   EnterCriticalSection(&gCS); 
   gData = 1; // OK 
   LeaveCriticalSection(&gCS); 
} 

void Unsafe(DATA* p) { 
   EnterCriticalSection(&p->cs); 
   gData = 1; // Warning C26100 (wrong lock) 
   LeaveCriticalSection(&p->cs); 
}

The contract violation occurs because an incorrect lock is used in the function Unsafe. In this case, gCS is the correct lock to use.

Occasionally a shared variable only has to be guarded for write access but not for read access. In that case, use the _Write_guarded_by_ annotation, as shown in the following example.

CRITICAL_SECTION gCS; 

_Guarded_by_(gCS) int gData; 

typedef struct _DATA2 { 
   _Write_guarded_by_(cs) int data; 
   CRITICAL_SECTION cs; 
} DATA2; 

int Safe2(DATA2* p) { 
   // OK: read does not have to be guarded 
   int result = p->data; 
   return result; 
} 

void Unsafe2(DATA2* p) { 
   EnterCriticalSection(&gCS); 
   // Warning C26100 (write has to be guarded by p->cs) 
   p->data = 1; 
   LeaveCriticalSection(&gCS); 
} 

This example also generates warning C26100 because it uses an incorrect lock in the function Unsafe2.

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