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TypeBuilder.DefineField Method (String, Type, FieldAttributes)

Adds a new field to the type, with the given name, attributes, and field type.

Namespace:  System.Reflection.Emit
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)
public FieldBuilder DefineField(
	string fieldName,
	Type type,
	FieldAttributes attributes
)

Parameters

fieldName
Type: System.String
The name of the field. fieldName cannot contain embedded nulls.
type
Type: System.Type
The type of the field
attributes
Type: System.Reflection.FieldAttributes
The attributes of the field.

Return Value

Type: System.Reflection.Emit.FieldBuilder
The defined field.
ExceptionCondition
ArgumentException

The length of fieldName is zero.

-or-

type is System.Void.

-or-

A total size was specified for the parent class of this field.

ArgumentNullException

fieldName is null.

InvalidOperationException

The type was previously created using CreateType.

The following example shows how to define a dynamic assembly with one module. The module in the example assembly contains one type, MyDynamicType, which has a private field, a property that gets and sets the private field, constructors that initialize the private field, and a method that multiplies a user-supplied number by the private field value and returns the result.


using System;
using System.Reflection;
using System.Reflection.Emit;

class Example
{
   public static void Demo(System.Windows.Controls.TextBlock outputBlock)
   {
      // In this version of the runtime, an assembly consists of one 
      // module which contains zero or more types. This example 
      // creates an assembly containing one public type named
      // "MyDynamicType". The type has a private field, a property 
      // that gets and sets the private field, constructors that 
      // initialize the private field, and a method that multiplies 
      // a user-supplied number by the private field value and returns
      // the result. In C# the type might look like this:
      /*
      public class MyDynamicType
      {
          private int m_number;

          public MyDynamicType() : this(42) {}
          public MyDynamicType(int initNumber)
          {
              m_number = initNumber;
          }

          public int Number
          {
              get { return m_number; }
              set { m_number = value; }
          }

          public int MyMethod(int multiplier)
          {
              return m_number * multiplier;
          }
      }
      */

      AssemblyName aName = new AssemblyName("DynamicAssemblyExample");
      AssemblyBuilder ab =
          AppDomain.CurrentDomain.DefineDynamicAssembly(
              aName,
              AssemblyBuilderAccess.Run);

      // Create the module.
      ModuleBuilder mb = ab.DefineDynamicModule(aName.Name);

      TypeBuilder tb = mb.DefineType(
          "MyDynamicType",
           TypeAttributes.Public);

      // Add a private field of type int (Int32).
      FieldBuilder fbNumber = tb.DefineField(
          "m_number",
          typeof(int),
          FieldAttributes.Private);

      // Define a constructor that takes an integer argument and 
      // stores it in the private field. 
      Type[] parameterTypes = { typeof(int) };
      ConstructorBuilder ctor1 = tb.DefineConstructor(
          MethodAttributes.Public,
          CallingConventions.Standard,
          parameterTypes);

      ILGenerator ctor1IL = ctor1.GetILGenerator();
      // For a constructor, argument zero is a reference to the new
      // instance. Push it on the stack before calling the base
      // class constructor. Specify the default constructor of the 
      // base class (System.Object) by passing an empty array of 
      // types (Type.EmptyTypes) to GetConstructor.
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Call,
          typeof(object).GetConstructor(Type.EmptyTypes));
      // Push the instance on the stack before pushing the argument
      // that is to be assigned to the private field m_number.
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Stfld, fbNumber);
      ctor1IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Define a default constructor that supplies a default value
      // for the private field. For parameter types, pass the empty
      // array of types or pass null.
      ConstructorBuilder ctor0 = tb.DefineConstructor(
          MethodAttributes.Public,
          CallingConventions.Standard,
          Type.EmptyTypes);

      ILGenerator ctor0IL = ctor0.GetILGenerator();
      // For a constructor, argument zero is a reference to the new
      // instance. Push it on the stack before pushing the default
      // value on the stack, then call constructor ctor1.
      ctor0IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      ctor0IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldc_I4_S, 42);
      ctor0IL.Emit(OpCodes.Call, ctor1);
      ctor0IL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Define a property named Number that gets and sets the private 
      // field.
      //
      // The last argument of DefineProperty is null, because the
      // property has no parameters. (If you don't specify null, you must
      // specify an array of Type objects. For a parameterless property,
      // use the built-in array with no elements: Type.EmptyTypes)
      PropertyBuilder pbNumber = tb.DefineProperty(
          "Number",
          PropertyAttributes.HasDefault,
          typeof(int),
          null);

      // The property "set" and property "get" methods require a special
      // set of attributes.
      MethodAttributes getSetAttr = MethodAttributes.Public |
          MethodAttributes.SpecialName | MethodAttributes.HideBySig;

      // Define the "get" accessor method for Number. The method returns
      // an integer and has no arguments. (Note that null could be 
      // used instead of Types.EmptyTypes)
      MethodBuilder mbNumberGetAccessor = tb.DefineMethod(
          "get_Number",
          getSetAttr,
          typeof(int),
          Type.EmptyTypes);

      ILGenerator numberGetIL = mbNumberGetAccessor.GetILGenerator();
      // For an instance property, argument zero is the instance. Load the 
      // instance, then load the private field and return, leaving the
      // field value on the stack.
      numberGetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      numberGetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldfld, fbNumber);
      numberGetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Define the "set" accessor method for Number, which has no return
      // type and takes one argument of type int (Int32).
      MethodBuilder mbNumberSetAccessor = tb.DefineMethod(
          "set_Number",
          getSetAttr,
          null,
          new Type[] { typeof(int) });

      ILGenerator numberSetIL = mbNumberSetAccessor.GetILGenerator();
      // Load the instance and then the numeric argument, then store the
      // argument in the field.
      numberSetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      numberSetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      numberSetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Stfld, fbNumber);
      numberSetIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Last, map the "get" and "set" accessor methods to the 
      // PropertyBuilder. The property is now complete. 
      pbNumber.SetGetMethod(mbNumberGetAccessor);
      pbNumber.SetSetMethod(mbNumberSetAccessor);

      // Define a method that accepts an integer argument and returns
      // the product of that integer and the private field m_number. This
      // time, the array of parameter types is created on the fly.
      MethodBuilder meth = tb.DefineMethod(
          "MyMethod",
          MethodAttributes.Public,
          typeof(int),
          new Type[] { typeof(int) });

      ILGenerator methIL = meth.GetILGenerator();
      // To retrieve the private instance field, load the instance it
      // belongs to (argument zero). After loading the field, load the 
      // argument one and then multiply. Return from the method with 
      // the return value (the product of the two numbers) on the 
      // execution stack.
      methIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_0);
      methIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldfld, fbNumber);
      methIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ldarg_1);
      methIL.Emit(OpCodes.Mul);
      methIL.Emit(OpCodes.Ret);

      // Finish the type.
      Type t = tb.CreateType();

      // The code can be executed immediately. Start by getting reflection
      // objects for the method and the property.
      MethodInfo mi = t.GetMethod("MyMethod");
      PropertyInfo pi = t.GetProperty("Number");

      // Create an instance of MyDynamicType using the default 
      // constructor. 
      object o1 = Activator.CreateInstance(t);

      // Display the value of the property, then change it to 127 and 
      // display it again. Use null to indicate that the property
      // has no index.
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("o1.Number: {0}\n", pi.GetValue(o1, null));
      pi.SetValue(o1, 127, null);
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("o1.Number: {0}\n", pi.GetValue(o1, null));

      // Call MyMethod, passing 22, and display the return value, 22
      // times 127. Arguments must be passed as an array, even when
      // there is only one.
      object[] arguments = { 22 };
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("o1.MyMethod(22): {0}\n",
          mi.Invoke(o1, arguments));

      // Create an instance of MyDynamicType using the constructor
      // that specifies m_Number. The constructor is identified by
      // matching the types in the argument array. In this case, 
      // the argument array is created on the fly. Display the 
      // property value.
      object o2 = Activator.CreateInstance(t,
          new object[] { 5280 });
      outputBlock.Text += String.Format("o2.Number: {0}\n", pi.GetValue(o2, null));
   }
}

/* This code produces the following output:

o1.Number: 42
o1.Number: 127
o1.MyMethod(22): 2794
o2.Number: 5280
 */


Silverlight

Supported in: 5, 4, 3

For a list of the operating systems and browsers that are supported by Silverlight, see Supported Operating Systems and Browsers.

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