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Command-line Syntax (Team Explorer Everywhere)

This topic provides general syntax and usage information for the Cross-platform Command-Line Client for Team Foundation Server.

In this topic

Absolute paths on a computer that is running Unix always start with a forward slash, so you must use hyphens to start options. If you do not do this, the Cross-platform Command-Line Client for Team Foundation Server cannot tell a path from an option. The examples shown in the documentation for the command-line client for Visual Studio use a slash to denote options, but for the commands that are common to both clients, you must instead use the hyphen (-).

You must escape or quote arguments to commands if those arguments contain characters that your shell considers special. On Windows operating systems, you typically need to enclose arguments in quotation marks (“”) only if those arguments contains spaces. Unix shells have additional requirements.

Unix Shells

Unix shells support many special characters for wildcards, regular expressions and so on. You can mark literal text in Unix shells by using the following three methods:

  • Precede a character with a backslash (\) to preserve the literal value of the character.

  • Enclose text within single quotation marks (‘’) to preserve the literal values of the enclosed characters.

    Shell variables that are referenced with a dollar sign ($) and wildcards are not expanded if they are enclosed within single quotation marks.

  • Enclose text within double quotation marks (“”) to preserve the literal value of the enclosed characters with the exception of $, `, \, and !.

    Because of these exceptions, variables are expanded, subshells are still evaluated, the backslash can still be used to escape characters, and history events are still expanded.

NoteNote

Server paths for Visual Studio Team Foundation Server start with a dollar sign, but Unix shells use the dollar sign to start variable expansion. Shells like sh, ksh, bash, and zah recognize that the character in a server path that occurs after the dollar sign is not a valid variable name. Therefore, these shells pass the dollar sign to the Cross-platform Command-Line Client for Team Foundation Server unaltered.

However, shells derived from csh (including tcsh) do not parse the command line in this manner. These shells read the dollar sign and attempt to substitute a variable that matches the text that follows. Because the text that follows is a slash (/), and these shells require variable names to start with a letter, an error appears. If you use the csh or tcsh shells, you must escape the dollar signs in server paths by using a backslash or single quotation marks.

Examples

The following example demonstrates how to enclose paths that contain whitespace on a computer that is running Windows.

tf checkout -recursive “$/Inventory/Client Suite/”

The following example demonstrates how to use the backslash to escape a single character on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkout -recursive $/Inventory/Client\ Suite/

The following example demonstrates how to use single quotation marks to enclose a path on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkout -recursive ‘$/Inventory/Client Suite/’

The following example demonstrates how to use double quotation marks to enclose a path on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkin -comment:”Fixed the bug\!” file.java

The following example demonstrates how to use backslash to escape dollar signs in the path when using the csh or tcsh shell on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkout -recursive \$/Inventory/Client\ Suite/

The following example demonstrates how to use single quotation marks to enclose dollar signs in the path when using the csh or tcsh shell on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkout -recursive ‘$/Inventory/Client Suite/’

The following example demonstrates how to use double quotation marks to enclose dollar signs in the path when using the csh or tcsh shell on a computer that is running Unix.

tf checkout -recursive \$”/Inventory/Client Suite/”

An item specification is a local or server path that describes a file or folder that is an input parameter to an option or command for the Cross-platform Command-Line Client for Team Foundation Server. An item specification might contain a version specification suffix, separated by a semicolon. This suffix is optional. Specify the suffix only when you want to refer to a historic version of an item.

Example item specifications:

Item specification

Description

$/Inventory/src

Server path to a folder

$/Inventory/src/Class.java

Server path to a file

/tmp/Inventory

Local path (Unix) to a working folder

/tmp/Inventory/src/Class.java

Local path (Unix) to a file

C:\Inventory\src

Local path (Windows) to a working folder

C:\Inventory\src\Class.java

Local path (Windows) to a file

$/Inventory/src;C4095

Server path to a folder at changeset 4095

.\Class.java;C129

Relative local path (Windows) to a file at changeset 129

./Class.java;Lrelease-1.0

Relative local path (Unix) to a file at label release-1.0

$/Inventory/src/file.txt;Wdev;john

Server path at the version in the dev workspace that is owned by John.

file.txt;D01/01/2007

Local path at January 1, 2007

file.txt;X1067

Previously deleted file with deletionID 1067

A version specification is a specially formatted string that refers to a specific single version or a range of versions of an item in version control. Version specifications are used in two ways: as suffixes to item specifications (for more information, see Item Specifications earlier in this topic) and as stand-alone values to the /version option for certain commands.

Example version specifications:

Version Specification Format

Description

T

The latest version.

Cn

The version at changeset n.

LlabelID

The version at label labelID.

Wname; owner

The version currently in workspace name owned by owner.

Ddatestring

The version at the date and time specified in datestring

XdeletionID

The version that was deleted and given the deletionID by the server.

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