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Sample: Complex LINQ queries

Applies To: Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2013, Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online

This sample code is for Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2013 and Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online. Download the Microsoft Dynamics CRM SDK package. The sample can be found in the following location in the download package:

SampleCode\CS\GeneralProgramming\Queries\LINQExamples.cs

SampleCode\VB\GeneralProgramming\Queries\LINQExamples.vb

Requirements

For more information about the requirements for running the sample code provided in this SDK, see Use the sample and helper code.

Demonstrates

This sample shows how to use .NET Language-Integrated Query (LINQ) with Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2013 and Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online.

Example


using System;
using System.ServiceModel;
using System.ServiceModel.Description;

// These namespaces are found in the Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.dll assembly
// located in the SDK\bin folder of the SDK download.
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Query;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Client;
using Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.Messages;

// This namespace is found in Microsoft.Crm.Sdk.Proxy.dll assembly
// found in the SDK\bin folder.
using Microsoft.Crm.Sdk.Messages;

using System.Linq;     //namespace for LINQ queries
namespace Microsoft.Crm.Sdk.Samples
{
 /// <summary>
 /// Demonstrates basic and complex LINQ queries used with Microsoft Dynamics CRM
 /// </summary>
 /// <remarks>
 /// At run-time, you will be given the option to delete all the
 /// database records created by this program.</remarks>
 public class LINQ101
 {
  #region Class Level Members
  private Guid _contactId1;
  private Guid _contactId2;
  private Guid _contactId3;
  private Guid _contactId4;
  private Guid _accountId1;
  private Guid _accountId2;
  private Guid _incidentId1;
  private Guid _incidentId2;
  private Guid _leadId;

  private OrganizationServiceProxy _serviceProxy;

  #endregion Class Level Members

  #region How To Sample Code
  /// <summary>
  /// This method first connects to the Organization service. Afterwards,
  /// a series of LINQ queries are performed.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="serverConfig">Contains server connection information.</param>
  /// <param name="promptforDelete">When True, the user will be prompted to delete all
  /// created entities.</param>
  public void Run(ServerConnection.Configuration serverConfig, bool promptforDelete)
  {
   try
   {
    // Connect to the Organization service. 
    // The using statement assures that the service proxy will be properly disposed.
    using (_serviceProxy = ServerConnection.GetOrganizationProxy(serverConfig))
    {
     // This statement is required to enable early-bound type support.
     _serviceProxy.EnableProxyTypes();

     CreateRequiredRecords();

     #region EarlyBoundExamples

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Simple where clause 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Accounts using one where clause");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");

     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_where1 = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                         where a.Name.Contains("Contoso")
                         select a;
      foreach (var a in query_where1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(a.Name + " " + a.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Accounts using where clause 1
     //======================================
     //Contoso Ltd Redmond
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Simple where clause 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Accounts using two where clauses");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_where2 = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                         where a.Name.Contains("Contoso")
                         where a.Address1_City == "Redmond"
                         select a;

      foreach (var a in query_where2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(a.Name + " " + a.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Accounts using where clause 2
     //======================================
     //Contoso Ltd Redmond
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Join and simple where clause query
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Account and Contact Info using where clause");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_where3 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                         join a in svcContext.AccountSet
                         on c.ContactId equals a.PrimaryContactId.Id
                         where a.Name.Contains("Contoso")
                         where c.LastName.Contains("Smith")
                         select new
                         {
                          account_name = a.Name,
                          contact_name = c.LastName
                         };

      foreach (var c in query_where3)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine("acct: " +
        c.account_name +
        "\t\t\t" +
        "contact: " +
        c.contact_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Account and Contact Info using where clause
     //======================================
     //acct: Contoso Ltd                       contact: Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the Distinct operator (returns only one of duplicate elements)
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using Distinct operator");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");

     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_distinct = (from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            select c.LastName).Distinct();
      foreach (var c in query_distinct)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using Distinct operator
     //======================================
     //Parker
     //Smith
     //Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Simple inner join 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact and Account Info Using join 1 ");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        join a in svcContext.AccountSet
                       on c.ContactId equals a.PrimaryContactId.Id
                        select new
                        {
                         c.FullName,
                         c.Address1_City,
                         a.Name,
                         a.Address1_Name
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine("acct: " +
        c.Name +
        "\t\t\t" +
        "contact: " +
        c.FullName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact and Account Info Using join 1
     //==================================
     //acct: Contoso Ltd                       contact: Brian Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Multiple join 4
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact, Account, Lead Info using multiple join 4");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join4 = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                        join c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        on a.PrimaryContactId.Id equals c.ContactId
                        join l in svcContext.LeadSet
                        on a.OriginatingLeadId.Id equals l.LeadId
                        select new
                        {
                         contact_name = c.FullName,
                         account_name = a.Name,
                         lead_name = l.FullName
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join4)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.contact_name +
        "  " +
        c.account_name +
        "  " +
        c.lead_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact, Account, Lead Info using multiple join 4
     //==================================
     //Brian Smith  Contoso Ltd  Diogo Andrade
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Self join 5
     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Account Info using self join 5");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join5 = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                        join a2 in svcContext.AccountSet
                        on a.ParentAccountId.Id equals a2.AccountId

                        select new
                        {
                         account_name = a.Name,
                         account_city = a.Address1_City
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join5)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.account_name + "  " + c.account_city);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Account Info using self join 5
     //==================================
     //Contoso Ltd  Redmond
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Double join 6
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using double join 6");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join6 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        join a in svcContext.AccountSet
                        on c.ContactId equals a.PrimaryContactId.Id
                        join a2 in svcContext.AccountSet
                        on a.ParentAccountId.Id equals a2.AccountId
                        select new
                        {
                         contact_name = c.FullName,
                         account_name = a.Name
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join6)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.contact_name + "  " + c.account_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:     
     //List of Contact Info using double join 6
     //==================================
     //Brian Smith  Contoso Ltd
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Entity Fields join 7
     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using entity field join 7");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var list_join = (from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                       join c in svcContext.ContactSet
                       on a.PrimaryContactId.Id equals c.ContactId
                       where a.Name == "Contoso Ltd" &&
                       a.Address1_Name == "Contoso Pharmaceuticals"
                       select a).ToList();
      foreach (var c in list_join)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine("Account " + list_join[0].Name
           + " and it's primary contact "
           + list_join[0].PrimaryContactId.Id);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // Account Contoso Ltd and it's primary contact 918228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Left join 8
     //  A left join is designed to return parents with and without children from two sources.
     //   There is a correlation between parent and child, but no child may actually exist.
     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using left join 8");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join8 = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                        join c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        on a.PrimaryContactId.Id equals c.ContactId
                        into gr
                        from c_joined in gr.DefaultIfEmpty()
                        select new
                        {
                         contact_name = c_joined.FullName,
                         account_name = a.Name
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join8)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.contact_name + "  " + c.account_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using left join 8
     //==================================
     //  Coho Winery
     //Brian Smith  Contoso Ltd
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the Equals operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using Equals operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_equals1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                          where c.FirstName.Equals("Colin")
                          select new
                          {
                           c.FirstName,
                           c.LastName,
                           c.Address1_City
                          };
      foreach (var c in query_equals1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName +
        " " + c.LastName +
        " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using Equals operator 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox Redmond
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the Equals operator 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using Equals operator 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_equals2 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                          where c.FamilyStatusCode.Equals(3)
                          select new
                          {
                           c.FirstName,
                           c.LastName,
                           c.Address1_City
                          };
      foreach (var c in query_equals2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName +
        " " + c.LastName +
        " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using Equals operator 2
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //Darren Parker Kirkland
     //Ben Smith Kirkland
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the not equals operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using not equals operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_ne1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                      where c.Address1_City != "Redmond"
                      select new
                      {
                       c.FirstName,
                       c.LastName,
                       c.Address1_City
                      };
      foreach (var c in query_ne1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " +
        c.LastName + " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using not equals operator 1
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //Darren Parker Kirkland
     //Ben Smith Kirkland
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the not equals operator 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using not equals operator 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_ne2 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                      where !c.FirstName.Equals("Colin")
                      select new
                      {
                       c.FirstName,
                       c.LastName,
                       c.Address1_City
                      };

      foreach (var c in query_ne2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " +
        c.LastName + " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using not equals operator 2
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //Darren Parker Kirkland
     //Ben Smith Kirkland
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //              LINQ      Method-based LINQ query with where clause
     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var methodResults = svcContext.ContactSet
       .Where(a => a.LastName == "Smith");
      var methodResults2 = svcContext.ContactSet
       .Where(a => a.LastName.StartsWith("Smi"));
      Console.WriteLine();
      Console.WriteLine("Method query using Lambda expression");
      Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
      foreach (var a in methodResults)
      {
       Console.WriteLine("Name: " + a.FirstName + " " + a.LastName);
      }
      Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
      Console.WriteLine("Method query 2 using Lambda expression");
      Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
      foreach (var a in methodResults2)
      {
       Console.WriteLine("Name: " + a.Attributes["firstname"] +
        " " + a.Attributes["lastname"]);
      }
     }
     Console.WriteLine("---------------------------------------");
     // OUTPUT:
     //Method query using Lambda expression
     //---------------------------------------
     //Name: Brian Smith
     //Name: Ben Smith
     //---------------------------------------
     //Method query 2 using Lambda expression
     //---------------------------------------
     //Name: Brian Smith
     //Name: Ben Smith
     //---------------------------------------

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the greater than operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using greater than operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_gt1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                      where c.Anniversary > new DateTime(2010, 2, 5)
                      select new
                      {
                       c.FirstName,
                       c.LastName,
                       c.Address1_City
                      };

      foreach (var c in query_gt1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " +
        c.LastName + " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using greater than operator 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox Redmond
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //Darren Parker Kirkland
     //Ben Smith Kirkland
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the greater than operator 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using greater than operator 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_gt2 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                      where c.CreditLimit.Value > 20000
                      select new
                      {
                       c.FirstName,
                       c.LastName,
                       c.Address1_City
                      };
      foreach (var c in query_gt2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " +
        c.LastName + " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using greater than operator 2
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the ge and le operators 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the ge and le operators 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_gele1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        where c.CreditLimit.Value >= 200 &&
                        c.CreditLimit.Value <= 400
                        select new
                        {
                         c.FirstName,
                         c.LastName
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_gele1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using the ge and le operators 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the contains operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the contains operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_contains1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            where c.Description.Contains("Alpine")
                            select new
                            {
                             c.FirstName,
                             c.LastName
                            };
      foreach (var c in query_contains1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the contains operator 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the negated contains operator 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the negated contains operator 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_contains2 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            where !c.Description.Contains("Coho")
                            select new
                            {
                             c.FirstName,
                             c.LastName
                            };
      foreach (var c in query_contains2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the negated contains operator 2
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the StartsWith operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the StartsWith operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_startswith1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                              where c.FirstName.StartsWith("Bri")
                              select new
                              {
                               c.FirstName,
                               c.LastName
                              };
      foreach (var c in query_startswith1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the StartsWith operator 1
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the endswith operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the EndsWith operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_endswith1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            where c.LastName.EndsWith("cox")
                            select new
                            {
                             c.FirstName,
                             c.LastName
                            };
      foreach (var c in query_endswith1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }

     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the EndsWith operator 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the && and || operators 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the && and || operators 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_andor1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                         where ((c.Address1_City == "Redmond" ||
                         c.Address1_City == "Bellevue") &&
                         (c.CreditLimit.Value != null &&
                         c.CreditLimit.Value >= 200))
                         select c;

      foreach (var c in query_andor1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.LastName + ", " + c.FirstName + " " +
        c.Address1_City + " " + c.CreditLimit.Value);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using the && and || operators 1
     //======================================
     //Wilcox, Colin Redmond 300.0000
     //Smith, Brian Bellevue 30000.0000
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the orderby operator 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the orderby operator 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_orderby1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                           where !c.CreditLimit.Equals(null)
                           orderby c.CreditLimit descending
                           select new
                           {
                            limit = c.CreditLimit,
                            first = c.FirstName,
                            last = c.LastName
                           };
      foreach (var c in query_orderby1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.limit.Value + " " +
        c.last + ", " + c.first);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the orderby operator 1
     //======================================
     //30000.0000 Smith, Brian
     //12000.0000 Smith, Ben
     //10000.0000 Parker, Darren
     //300.0000 Wilcox, Colin
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the orderby operator 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the orderby operator 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_orderby2 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                           orderby c.LastName descending,
                           c.FirstName ascending
                           select new
                           {
                            first = c.FirstName,
                            last = c.LastName
                           };

      foreach (var c in query_orderby2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.last + ", " + c.first);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the orderby operator 2
     //======================================
     //Wilcox, Colin
     //Smith, Ben
     //Smith, Brian
     //Parker, Darren
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the First and Single operators 
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("==========================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      Contact firstcontact = svcContext.ContactSet.First();

      Contact singlecontact = svcContext.ContactSet.Single(c => c.ContactId == _contactId1);
      System.Console.WriteLine(firstcontact.LastName + ", " +
       firstcontact.FirstName + " is the first contact");
      System.Console.WriteLine("==========================");
      System.Console.WriteLine(singlecontact.LastName + ", " +
       singlecontact.FirstName + " is the single contact");
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //==========================
     //Wilcox, Colin is the first contact
     //==========================
     //Wilcox, Colin is the single contact
     //======================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Retrieving formatted values 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("Retrieving formatted values 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var list_retrieve1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                           where c.ContactId == _contactId1
                           select new { StatusReason = c.FormattedValues["statuscode"] };
      foreach (var c in list_retrieve1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine("Status: " + c.StatusReason);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //Retrieving formatted values 1
     //======================================
     //Status: Active
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the Skip and Take operators (non-paging)
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the Skip and Take operators");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {

      var query_skip = (from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        where c.LastName != "Parker"
                        orderby c.FirstName
                        select new
                            {
                             last = c.LastName,
                             first = c.FirstName
                            }).Skip(2).Take(2);
      foreach (var c in query_skip)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.first + " " + c.last);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the Skip and Take operators
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the FirstOrDefault and SingleOrDefault operators 
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("==========================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {

      Contact firstorcontact = svcContext.ContactSet.FirstOrDefault();

      Contact singleorcontact = svcContext.ContactSet
       .SingleOrDefault(c => c.ContactId == _contactId1);


      System.Console.WriteLine(firstorcontact.FullName +
       " is the first contact");
      System.Console.WriteLine("==========================");
      System.Console.WriteLine(singleorcontact.FullName +
       " is the single contact");
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //==========================
     //Colin Wilcox is the first contact
     //==========================
     //Colin Wilcox is the single contact
     //======================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a self join with a condition on the linked entity 
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a self join with a condition on the linked entity");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_joincond = from a1 in svcContext.AccountSet
                           join a2 in svcContext.AccountSet
                           on a1.ParentAccountId.Id equals a2.AccountId
                           where a2.AccountId == _accountId1
                           select new { Account = a1, Parent = a2 };
      foreach (var a in query_joincond)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(a.Account.Name + " " + a.Parent.Name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using a self join with a condition on the linked entity
     //======================================
     //Contoso Ltd Coho Winery
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a transformation in the where clause
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a transformation in the where clause");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_wheretrans = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                             where c.ContactId == _contactId1 &&
                             c.Anniversary > DateTime.Parse("1/1/2010")
                             select new
                             {
                              c.FirstName,
                              c.LastName
                             };
      foreach (var c in query_wheretrans)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using a transformation in the where clause
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a lookup value to order by
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Account Info using a lookup value to order by");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_orderbylookup = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                                where a.Address1_Name == "Contoso Pharmaceuticals"
                                orderby a.PrimaryContactId
                                select new
                                {
                                 a.Name,
                                 a.Address1_City
                                };
      foreach (var a in query_orderbylookup)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(a.Name + " " + a.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Account Info using a lookup value to order by
     //======================================
     //Contoso Ltd Redmond
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a a picklist to order by
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a picklist to order by");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_orderbypicklist = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                                  where c.LastName != "Parker" &&
                                  c.AccountRoleCode != null
                                  orderby c.AccountRoleCode, c.FirstName
                                  select new
                                  {
                                   AccountRole = c.FormattedValues["accountrolecode"],
                                   c.FirstName,
                                   c.LastName
                                  };
      foreach (var c in query_orderbypicklist)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.AccountRole + " " +
        c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using a picklist to order by
     //======================================
     //Decision Maker Colin Wilcox
     //Employee Ben Smith
     //Employee Brian Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a paging sort 1 
     //            (Multi-column sort with extra condition)
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a paging sort 1");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_pagingsort1 = (from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                               where c.LastName != "Parker"
                               orderby c.LastName ascending,
                               c.FirstName descending
                               select new { c.FirstName, c.LastName })
                               .Skip(2).Take(2);
      foreach (var c in query_pagingsort1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using a paging sort 1
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a paging sort 2 
     //    (Page and sort where the column being sorted is different from the column being retrieved
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a paging sort 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_pagingsort2 = (from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                               where c.LastName != "Parker"
                               orderby c.FirstName descending
                               select new { c.FirstName }).Skip(2).Take(2);
      foreach (var c in query_pagingsort2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using a paging sort 2
     //======================================
     //Ben
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a paging sort 3
     //          (Creates only the first page)
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using a paging sort 3");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_pagingsort3 = (from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                               where c.LastName.StartsWith("W")
                               orderby c.MiddleName ascending,
                               c.FirstName descending
                               select new
                               {
                                c.FirstName,
                                c.MiddleName,
                                c.LastName
                               }).Take(10);
      foreach (var c in query_pagingsort3)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " +
        c.MiddleName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");

     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using a paging sort 3
     //======================================
     //Colin  Wilcox
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Retrieving related entity columns (for 1 to N relationships)
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact and Account Info by retrieving related entity columns");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_retrieve1 = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            join a in svcContext.AccountSet
                            on c.ContactId equals a.PrimaryContactId.Id
                            where c.ContactId != _contactId1
                            select new { Contact = c, Account = a };
      foreach (var c in query_retrieve1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine("Acct: " + c.Account.Name +
        "\t\t" + "Contact: " + c.Contact.FullName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact and Account Info by retrieving related entity columns
     //======================================
     //Acct: Contoso Ltd               Contact: Brian Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using .Value to retrieve the value of an attribute
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using .Value to retrieve the value of an attribute");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {

      var query_value = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                        where c.ContactId != _contactId2
                        select new
                        {
                         ContactId = c.ContactId != null ?
                          c.ContactId.Value : Guid.Empty,
                         NumberOfChildren = c.NumberOfChildren != null ?
                          c.NumberOfChildren.Value : default(int),
                         CreditOnHold = c.CreditOnHold != null ?
                          c.CreditOnHold.Value : default(bool),
                         Anniversary = c.Anniversary != null ?
                          c.Anniversary.Value : default(DateTime)
                        };

      foreach (var c in query_value)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.ContactId + " " + c.NumberOfChildren + 
        " " + c.CreditOnHold + " " + c.Anniversary);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using .Value to retrieve the value of an attribute
     //======================================
     //8f8228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 1 False 3/5/2010 8:00:00 AM
     //938228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 2 False 10/5/2010 7:00:00 AM
     //958228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 2 True 7/5/2010 7:00:00 AM
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Multiple projections, new data type casting to different types
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using multiple projections");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_projections = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                              where c.ContactId == _contactId1
                              && c.NumberOfChildren != null && 
                              c.Anniversary.Value != null
                              select new
                              {
                               Contact = new Contact { 
                                LastName = c.LastName, 
                                NumberOfChildren = c.NumberOfChildren 
                               },
                               NumberOfChildren = (double)c.NumberOfChildren,
                               Anniversary = c.Anniversary.Value.AddYears(1),
                              };
      foreach (var c in query_projections)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.Contact.LastName + " " + 
        c.NumberOfChildren + " " + c.Anniversary);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using multiple projections
     //======================================
     //Wilcox 1 3/5/2011 8:00:00 AM
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the GetAttributeValue method
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using the GetAttributeValue method");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_getattrib = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                            where c.GetAttributeValue<Guid>("contactid") != _contactId1
                            select new
                            {
                             ContactId = c.GetAttributeValue<Guid?>("contactid"),
                             NumberOfChildren = c.GetAttributeValue<int?>("numberofchildren"),
                             CreditOnHold = c.GetAttributeValue<bool?>("creditonhold"),
                             Anniversary = c.GetAttributeValue<DateTime?>("anniversary"),
                            };

      foreach (var c in query_getattrib)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.ContactId + " " + c.NumberOfChildren + 
        " " + c.CreditOnHold + " " + c.Anniversary);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using the GetAttributeValue method
     //======================================
     //918228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 2 False 4/5/2010 7:00:00 AM
     //938228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 2 False 10/5/2010 7:00:00 AM
     //958228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 2 True 7/5/2010 7:00:00 AM
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using math operations
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using math operations");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_math = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                       where c.ContactId != _contactId2
                       && c.Address1_Latitude != null && 
                       c.Address1_Longitude != null
                       select new
                       {
                        Round = Math.Round(c.Address1_Latitude.Value),
                        Floor = Math.Floor(c.Address1_Latitude.Value),
                        Ceiling = Math.Ceiling(c.Address1_Latitude.Value),
                        Abs = Math.Abs(c.Address1_Latitude.Value),
                       };
      foreach (var c in query_math)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.Round + " " + c.Floor + 
        " " + c.Ceiling + " " + c.Abs);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //     List of Contact Info using math operations
     //======================================
     //48 47 48 47.67417
     //48 47 48 47.61056
     //48 47 48 47.61056
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using multiple select and where clauses
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Incidents using multiple select and where clauses");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_multiselect = svcContext.IncidentSet
                             .Where(i => i.IncidentId != _incidentId1)
                             .Select(i => i.incident_customer_accounts)
                             .Where(a => a.AccountId != _accountId2)
                             .Select(a => a.account_primary_contact)
                             .OrderBy(c => c.FirstName)
                             .Select(c => c.ContactId);
      foreach (var c in query_multiselect)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.GetValueOrDefault());
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Incidents using multiple select and where clauses
     //======================================
     //918228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using SelectMany
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Account Info using SelectMany");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_selectmany = svcContext.ContactSet
                             .Where(c => c.ContactId != _contactId2)
                             .SelectMany(c => c.account_primary_contact)
                             .OrderBy(a => a.Name);
      foreach (var c in query_selectmany)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.AccountId + " " + c.Name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Account Info using SelectMany
     //======================================
     //9b8228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 Contoso Ltd
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using String operations
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using String operations");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_string = from c in svcContext.ContactSet
                         where c.ContactId == _contactId2
                         select new
                         {
                          IndexOf = c.FirstName.IndexOf("contact"),
                          Insert = c.FirstName.Insert(1, "Insert"),
                          Remove = c.FirstName.Remove(1, 1),
                          Substring = c.FirstName.Substring(1, 1),
                          ToUpper = c.FirstName.ToUpper(),
                          ToLower = c.FirstName.ToLower(),
                          TrimStart = c.FirstName.TrimStart(),
                          TrimEnd = c.FirstName.TrimEnd(),
                         };

      foreach (var c in query_string)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.IndexOf + "\n" + c.Insert + "\n" + 
        c.Remove + "\n" + c.Substring + "\n"
                                + c.ToUpper + "\n" + c.ToLower + 
                                "\n" + c.TrimStart + " " + c.TrimEnd);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using String operations
     //======================================
     //-1
     //BInsertrian
     //Bian
     //r
     //BRIAN
     //brian
     //Brian Brian
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using Two Where Clauses
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Account and Contact Info using two where clauses");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (ServiceContext svcContext = new ServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_twowhere = from a in svcContext.AccountSet
                           join c in svcContext.ContactSet 
                           on a.PrimaryContactId.Id equals c.ContactId
                           where c.LastName == "Smith" && c.CreditOnHold != null
                           where a.Name == "Contoso Ltd"
                           orderby a.Name
                           select a;
      foreach (var c in query_twowhere)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.AccountId + " " + c.Name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:  
     //List of Account and Contact Info using two where clauses
     //======================================
     //9b8228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818 Contoso Ltd
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();


     #endregion EarlyBoundExamples

     #region LateBoundExamples


     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Using late-bound entities, simple inner join 2
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact and Account Info using late-bound entities with join 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join2 = from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                        join a in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("account")
                        on c["contactid"] equals a["primarycontactid"]
                        select new
                        {
                         contact_name = c["fullname"],
                         account_name = a["name"]
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join2)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.contact_name + "  " + c.account_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact and Account Info using late-bound entities with join 2
     //==================================
     //Brian Smith  Contoso Ltd
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ    Alternative syntax simple inner join 3
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact and Account Info with alternative syntax join 3");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");

     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join3 = from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                        join a in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("account")
                        on c["contactid"] equals (Guid)((EntityReference)a["primarycontactid"]).Id
                        select new
                        {
                         contact_name = c["fullname"],
                         account_name = a["name"]
                        };

      foreach (var c in query_join3)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.contact_name + "  " + c.account_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:     
     //List of Contact and Account Info with alternative syntax join 3
     //==================================
     //Brian Smith  Contoso Ltd
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ                  Late binding left join 9
     //  A left join is designed to return parents with and without children from two sources.
     //   There is a correlation between parent and child, but no child may actually exist.
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using late binding left join 9");
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_join9 = from a in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("account")
                        join c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact") 
                        on a["primarycontactid"] equals c["contactid"] into gr
                        from c_joined in gr.DefaultIfEmpty()
                        select new
                        {
                         account_name = a.Attributes["name"]
                        };
      foreach (var c in query_join9)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.account_name);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("==================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using late binding left join 9
     //==================================
     //Coho Winery
     //Contoso Ltd
     //==================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using late binding and not equals operator 3
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using late binding and not equals operator 3");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");

     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_ne3 = from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                      where !c["address1_city"].Equals(null)
                      select new
                      {
                       FirstName = c["firstname"],
                       LastName = c["lastname"],
                       Address1_City = c["address1_city"]
                      };
      foreach (var c in query_ne3)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + 
        c.LastName + " " + c.Address1_City);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     // List of Contact Info using late binding and not equals operator 3
     //======================================
     //Colin Wilcox Redmond
     //Brian Smith Bellevue
     //Darren Parker Kirkland
     //Ben Smith Kirkland
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using late binding with Contains operator 3
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using late binding with Contains operator 3");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_contains3 = from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                            where ((string)c["description"]).Contains("Coho")
                            select new
                            {
                             firstname = c.Attributes["firstname"],
                             lastname = c.Attributes["lastname"]
                            };
      foreach (var c in query_contains3)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.firstname + " " + c.lastname);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using late binding with Contains operator 3
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith
     //Darren Parker
     //Ben Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using the GetAttributeValue (late binding) method 1
     // *****************************************************************************************************************     
     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Contact Info using late binding and the GetAttributeValue method 2");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {

      var list_getattrib1 = (from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                             where c.GetAttributeValue<Guid?>("contactid") != _contactId1
                             select new { 
                              FirstName = c.GetAttributeValue<string>("firstname"), 
                              LastName = c.GetAttributeValue<string>("lastname") 
                             }).ToList();
      foreach (var c in list_getattrib1)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.FirstName + " " + c.LastName);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Contact Info using late binding and the GetAttributeValue method 2
     //======================================
     //Brian Smith
     //Darren Parker
     //Ben Smith
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     // *****************************************************************************************************************
     //    LNQ        Using a late binding join
     // *****************************************************************************************************************

     System.Console.WriteLine();
     System.Console.WriteLine("List of Info using a late binding join");
     System.Console.WriteLine("======================================");
     using (OrganizationServiceContext orgSvcContext = new OrganizationServiceContext(_serviceProxy))
     {
      var query_dejoin = from c in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("contact")
                         join a in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("account") 
                         on c["contactid"] equals a["primarycontactid"]
                         join l in orgSvcContext.CreateQuery("lead") 
                         on a["originatingleadid"] equals l["leadid"]
                         where (string)c["lastname"] != "Parker"
                         select new { Contact = c, Account = a, Lead = l };
      foreach (var c in query_dejoin)
      {
       System.Console.WriteLine(c.Account.Attributes["name"] + " " + 
        c.Contact.Attributes["fullname"] + " " + c.Lead.Attributes["leadid"]);
      }
     }
     System.Console.WriteLine("=====================================");
     // OUTPUT:
     //List of Info using a late binding join
     //======================================
     //Contoso Ltd Brian Smith 9a8228af-04a1-e011-b1b7-00155dba3818
     //=====================================
     System.Console.WriteLine();

     #endregion LateBoundExamples
     DeleteRequiredRecords(promptforDelete);
    }
   }

   // Catch any service fault exceptions that Microsoft Dynamics CRM throws.
   catch (FaultException<Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.OrganizationServiceFault>)
   {
    // You can handle an exception here or pass it back to the calling method.
    throw;
   }
  }

  /// <summary>
  /// Creates any entity records that this sample requires.
  /// </summary>
  public void CreateRequiredRecords()
  {
   Contact contact1 = new Contact
   {
    FirstName = "Colin",
    LastName = "Wilcox",
    Address1_City = "Redmond",
    Address1_StateOrProvince = "WA",
    Address1_PostalCode = "98052",
    Anniversary = new DateTime(2010, 3, 5),
    CreditLimit = new Money(300),
    Description = "Alpine Ski House",
    StatusCode = new OptionSetValue(1),
    AccountRoleCode = new OptionSetValue(1),
    NumberOfChildren = 1,
    Address1_Latitude = 47.6741667,
    Address1_Longitude = -122.1202778,
    CreditOnHold = false
   };
   _contactId1 = _serviceProxy.Create(contact1);

   Console.Write("Created a sample contact 1: {0}, ", contact1.FirstName + " " + contact1.LastName);

   Contact contact2 = new Contact
   {
    FirstName = "Brian",
    LastName = "Smith",
    Address1_City = "Bellevue",
    FamilyStatusCode = new OptionSetValue(3),
    Address1_StateOrProvince = "WA",
    Address1_PostalCode = "98008",
    Anniversary = new DateTime(2010, 4, 5),
    CreditLimit = new Money(30000),
    Description = "Coho Winery",
    StatusCode = new OptionSetValue(1),
    AccountRoleCode = new OptionSetValue(2),
    NumberOfChildren = 2,
    Address1_Latitude = 47.6105556,
    Address1_Longitude = -122.1994444,
    CreditOnHold = false
   };
   _contactId2 = _serviceProxy.Create(contact2);

   Console.Write("Created a sample contact 2: {0}, ", contact2.FirstName + " " + contact2.LastName);

   Contact contact3 = new Contact
   {
    FirstName = "Darren",
    LastName = "Parker",
    Address1_City = "Kirkland",
    FamilyStatusCode = new OptionSetValue(3),
    Address1_StateOrProvince = "WA",
    Address1_PostalCode = "98033",
    Anniversary = new DateTime(2010, 10, 5),
    CreditLimit = new Money(10000),
    Description = "Coho Winery",
    StatusCode = new OptionSetValue(1),
    AccountRoleCode = new OptionSetValue(2),
    NumberOfChildren = 2,
    Address1_Latitude = 47.6105556,
    Address1_Longitude = -122.1994444,
    CreditOnHold = false
   };
   _contactId3 = _serviceProxy.Create(contact3);

   Console.Write("Created a sample contact 3: {0}, ", contact3.FirstName + " " + contact3.LastName);

   Contact contact4 = new Contact
   {
    FirstName = "Ben",
    LastName = "Smith",
    Address1_City = "Kirkland",
    FamilyStatusCode = new OptionSetValue(3),
    Address1_StateOrProvince = "WA",
    Address1_PostalCode = "98033",
    Anniversary = new DateTime(2010, 7, 5),
    CreditLimit = new Money(12000),
    Description = "Coho Winery",
    StatusCode = new OptionSetValue(1),
    AccountRoleCode = new OptionSetValue(2),
    NumberOfChildren = 2,
    Address1_Latitude = 47.6105556,
    Address1_Longitude = -122.1994444,
    CreditOnHold = true
   };
   _contactId4 = _serviceProxy.Create(contact4);

   Console.Write("Created a sample contact 4: {0}, ", contact4.FirstName + " " + contact4.LastName);

   Incident incident1 = new Incident
   {
    Title = "Test Case 1",
    PriorityCode = new OptionSetValue(1), // 1 = High
    CaseOriginCode = new OptionSetValue(1), // 1 = Phone
    CaseTypeCode = new OptionSetValue(2), // 2 = Problem
    Description = "Description for Test Case 1.",
    FollowupBy = DateTime.Now.AddHours(3.0), // follow-up in 3 hours
    CustomerId = new EntityReference(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId2)
   };

   _incidentId1 = _serviceProxy.Create(incident1);

   Console.Write("Created a sample incident 1: {0}, ", incident1.Title);

   Relationship relationship1 = new Relationship("incident_customer_contacts");
   EntityReferenceCollection relatedEntities1 = new EntityReferenceCollection();
   relatedEntities1.Add(new EntityReference(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId1));
   _serviceProxy.Associate(Incident.EntityLogicalName, _incidentId1, relationship1, relatedEntities1);

   Console.Write("Added relationship between incident 1 and contact 1, ");


   Account account1 = new Account
   {
    Name = "Coho Winery",
    Address1_Name = "Coho Vineyard & Winery",
    Address1_City = "Redmond"
   };
   _accountId1 = _serviceProxy.Create(account1);

   Console.Write("Created a sample account 1: {0}, ", account1.Name);

   Incident incident2 = new Incident
   {
    Title = "Test Case 2",
    PriorityCode = new OptionSetValue(1), // 1 = High
    CaseOriginCode = new OptionSetValue(1), // 1 = Phone
    CaseTypeCode = new OptionSetValue(2), // 2 = Problem
    Description = "Description for Sample Case 2.",
    FollowupBy = DateTime.Now.AddHours(3.0), // follow-up in 3 hours
    CustomerId = new EntityReference(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId1)
   };

   _incidentId2 = _serviceProxy.Create(incident2);

   Console.Write("Created a sample incident 2: {0}, ", incident2.Title);

   Relationship relationship2 = new Relationship("incident_customer_accounts");
   EntityReferenceCollection relatedEntities2 = new EntityReferenceCollection();
   relatedEntities2.Add(new EntityReference(Account.EntityLogicalName, _accountId1));
   _serviceProxy.Associate(Incident.EntityLogicalName, _incidentId2, relationship2, relatedEntities2);

   Console.Write("Added relationship between incident 2 and account 1, ");

   Lead lead = new Lead()
   {
    FirstName = "Diogo",
    LastName = "Andrade"
   };
   _leadId = _serviceProxy.Create(lead);
   Console.Write("Created a sample Lead: {0} ", lead.FirstName + " " + lead.LastName);

   Account account2 = new Account
   {
    Name = "Contoso Ltd",
    ParentAccountId = new EntityReference(Account.EntityLogicalName, _accountId1),
    Address1_Name = "Contoso Pharmaceuticals",
    Address1_City = "Redmond",
    OriginatingLeadId = new EntityReference(Lead.EntityLogicalName, _leadId)
   };
   _accountId2 = _serviceProxy.Create(account2);

   Console.Write("Created a sample account 2: {0}, ", account2.Name);

   Relationship relationship3 = new Relationship("account_primary_contact");
   EntityReferenceCollection relatedEntities3 = new EntityReferenceCollection();
   relatedEntities3.Add(new EntityReference(Account.EntityLogicalName, _accountId2));
   _serviceProxy.Associate(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId2, relationship3, relatedEntities3);

   Console.WriteLine("Added relationship between account 2 and contact 2.");
  }
  /// <summary>
  /// Deletes any entity records that were created for this sample.
  /// <param name="prompt">Indicates whether to prompt the user 
  /// to delete the records created in this sample.</param>
  /// </summary>
  public void DeleteRequiredRecords(bool prompt)
  {
   // The three system users that were created by this sample will continue to 
   // exist on your system because system users cannot be deleted in Microsoft
   // Dynamics CRM.  They can only be enabled or disabled.

   bool toBeDeleted = true;

   if (prompt)
   {
    // Ask the user if the created entities should be deleted.
    Console.Write("\nDo you want these entity records deleted? (y/n) [y]: ");
    String answer = Console.ReadLine();
    if (answer.StartsWith("y") ||
        answer.StartsWith("Y") ||
        answer == String.Empty)
    {
     toBeDeleted = true;
    }
    else
    {
     toBeDeleted = false;
    }
   }

   if (toBeDeleted)
   {
    // Delete all records created in this sample.
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Account.EntityLogicalName, _accountId2);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Incident.EntityLogicalName, _incidentId2);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Account.EntityLogicalName, _accountId1);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Lead.EntityLogicalName, _leadId);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Incident.EntityLogicalName, _incidentId1);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId4);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId3);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId2);
    _serviceProxy.Delete(Contact.EntityLogicalName, _contactId1);

    Console.WriteLine("Entity record(s) have been deleted.");
   }
  }

  #endregion How To Sample Code

  #region Main method

  /// <summary>
  /// Standard Main() method used by most SDK samples.
  /// </summary>
  /// <param name="args"></param>
  static public void Main(string[] args)
  {
   try
   {
    // Obtain the target organization's Web address and client logon 
    // credentials from the user.
    ServerConnection serverConnect = new ServerConnection();
    ServerConnection.Configuration config = serverConnect.GetServerConfiguration();

    LINQ101 app = new LINQ101();
    app.Run(config, true);
   }
   catch (FaultException<Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.OrganizationServiceFault> ex)
   {
    Console.WriteLine("The application terminated with an error.");
    Console.WriteLine("Timestamp: {0}", ex.Detail.Timestamp);
    Console.WriteLine("Code: {0}", ex.Detail.ErrorCode);
    Console.WriteLine("Message: {0}", ex.Detail.Message);
    Console.WriteLine("Plugin Trace: {0}", ex.Detail.TraceText);
    Console.WriteLine("Inner Fault: {0}",
        null == ex.Detail.InnerFault ? "No Inner Fault" : "Has Inner Fault");
   }
   catch (System.TimeoutException ex)
   {
    Console.WriteLine("The application terminated with an error.");
    Console.WriteLine("Message: {0}", ex.Message);
    Console.WriteLine("Stack Trace: {0}", ex.StackTrace);
    Console.WriteLine("Inner Fault: {0}",
        null == ex.InnerException.Message ? "No Inner Fault" : ex.InnerException.Message);
   }
   catch (System.Exception ex)
   {
    Console.WriteLine("The application terminated with an error.");
    Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);

    // Display the details of the inner exception.
    if (ex.InnerException != null)
    {
     Console.WriteLine(ex.InnerException.Message);

     FaultException<Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.OrganizationServiceFault> fe = ex.InnerException
         as FaultException<Microsoft.Xrm.Sdk.OrganizationServiceFault>;
     if (fe != null)
     {
      Console.WriteLine("Timestamp: {0}", fe.Detail.Timestamp);
      Console.WriteLine("Code: {0}", fe.Detail.ErrorCode);
      Console.WriteLine("Message: {0}", fe.Detail.Message);
      Console.WriteLine("Plugin Trace: {0}", fe.Detail.TraceText);
      Console.WriteLine("Inner Fault: {0}",
          null == fe.Detail.InnerFault ? "No Inner Fault" : "Has Inner Fault");
     }
    }
   }
   // Additonal exceptions to catch: SecurityTokenValidationException, ExpiredSecurityTokenException,
   // SecurityAccessDeniedException, MessageSecurityException, and SecurityNegotiationException.

   finally
   {
    Console.WriteLine("Press <Enter> to exit.");
    Console.ReadLine();
   }
  }
  #endregion Main method
 }
}

See Also

Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2013 and Microsoft Dynamics CRM Online
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