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Working with Sheets

This topic discusses the Open XML SDK 2.0Worksheet, Chartsheet, and DialogSheet classes and how they relate to the Open XML File Format SpreadsheetML schema. For more information about the overall structure of the parts and elements that make up a SpreadsheetML document, see Structure of a SpreadsheetML Document.

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the sheet (<sheet>) element.

Sheets are the central structures within a workbook, and are where the user does most of their spreadsheet work. The most common type of sheet is the worksheet, which is represented as a grid of cells. Worksheet cells can contain text, numbers, dates, and formulas. Cells can be formatted as well. Workbooks usually contain more than one sheet. To aid in the analysis of data and making informed decisions, spreadsheet applications often implement features and objects which help calculate, sort, filter, organize, and graphically display information. Since these features are often connected very tightly with the spreadsheet grid, these are also included in the sheet definition on disk.

Other types of sheets include chart sheets and dialog sheets.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

The Open XML SDK 2.0Worksheet class represents the worksheet (<worksheet>) element defined in the Open XML File Format schema for SpreadsheetML documents. Use the Worksheet class to manipulate individual <worksheet> elements in a SpreadsheetML document.

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the worksheet (<worksheet>) element.

An instance of this part type contains all the data, formulas, and characteristics associated with a given worksheet.

A package shall contain exactly one Worksheet part per worksheet

Specifically, the id attribute on the sheet element shall reference the desired worksheet part.

The root element for a part of this content type shall be worksheet.

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the minimum worksheet scenario.

The smallest possible (blank) sheet is as follows:

<worksheet>

    <sheetData/>

</worksheet>

The empty sheetData collection represents an empty grid; this element is required. As defined in the schema, some optional sheet property collections can appear before sheetData, and some can appear after. To simplify the logic required to insert a new sheetData collection into an existing (but empty) sheet, the sheetData collection is required, even when empty.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

A typical spreadsheet has at least one worksheet. The worksheet contains a table like structure for defining data, represented by the sheetData element. A sheet that contains data uses the worksheet element as the root element for defining worksheets. Inside a worksheet the data is split up into three distinct sections. The first section contains optional sheet properties. The second section contains the data, using the required sheetData element. The third section contains optional supporting features such as sheet protection and filter information. To define an empty worksheet you only have to use the worksheet and sheetData elements. The sheetData element can be empty.

To create new values for the worksheet you define rows inside the sheetData element. These rows contain cells, which contain values. The row element defines a new row. Normally the first row in the sheetData is the first row in the visible sheet. Inside the row you create new cells using the <c> element. Values for cells can be provided by storing a <v> element inside the cell. Usually the <v> element contains the current value of the worksheet cell. If the value is a numeric value, it is stored directly in the <v> element in the XML file. If the value is a string value, it is stored in a shared string table. For more information about using the shared string table to store string values, see Working with the Shared String Table.

The following table lists the common Open XML SDK 2.0 classes used when working with the Worksheet class.

SpreadsheetML Element

Open XML SDK 2.0 Class

sheetData

SheetData

row

Row

c

Cell

v

CellValue

For more information about optional spreadsheet elements, such as sheet properties and supporting sheet features, see the ISO/IEC 29500 specification.

SheetData Class

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the sheet data (<sheetData>) element.

The cell table is the core structure of a worksheet. It consists of all the text, numbers, and formulas in the grid.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

Row Class

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the row (<row>) element.

The cells in the cell table are organized by row. Each row has an index (attribute r) so that empty rows need not be written out. Each row indicates the number of cells defined for it, as well as their relative position in the sheet. In this example, the first row of data is row 2.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

Cell Class

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the cell (<c>) element.

The cell itself is expressed by the c collection. Each cell indicates its location in the grid using A1-style reference notation. A cell can also indicate a style identifier (attribute s) and a data type (attribute t). The cell types include string, number, and Boolean. In order to optimize load/save operations, default data values are not written out.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

CellValue Class

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the cell value (<v>) element.

Cells contain values, whether the values were directly entered (e.g., cell A2 in our example has the value External Link:) or are the result of a calculation (e.g., cell B3 in our example has the formula B2+1).

String values in a cell are not stored in the cell table unless they are the result of a calculation. Therefore, instead of seeing External Link: as the content of the cell's v node, instead you see a zero-based index into the shared string table where that string is stored uniquely. This is done to optimize load/save performance and to reduce duplication of information. To determine whether the 0 in v is a number or an index to a string, the cell's data type must be examined. When the data type indicates string, then it is an index and not a numeric value.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

Open XML SDK 2.0 Code Example

The following code example creates a spreadsheet document with the specified file name and instantiates an Open XML SDK 2.0Worksheet class, and then adds a row and adds a cell to the cell table at position A1. Then the value of the cell in A1 is set equal to the numeric value 100.

public static void CreateSpreadsheetWorkbook(string filepath)
{
    // Create a spreadsheet document by supplying the filepath.
    // By default, AutoSave = true, Editable = true, and Type = xlsx.
    SpreadsheetDocument spreadsheetDocument = SpreadsheetDocument.Create(filepath, SpreadsheetDocumentType.Workbook);

    // Add a WorkbookPart to the document.
    WorkbookPart workbookpart = spreadsheetDocument.AddWorkbookPart();
    workbookpart.Workbook = new Workbook();

    // Add a WorksheetPart to the WorkbookPart.
    WorksheetPart worksheetPart = workbookpart.AddNewPart<WorksheetPart>();
    worksheetPart.Worksheet = new Worksheet(new SheetData());

    // Add Sheets to the Workbook.
    Sheets sheets = spreadsheetDocument.WorkbookPart.Workbook.AppendChild<Sheets>(new Sheets());

    // Append a new worksheet and associate it with the workbook.
    Sheet sheet = new Sheet() { Id = spreadsheetDocument.WorkbookPart.GetIdOfPart(worksheetPart), SheetId = 1, Name = "mySheet" };
    sheets.Append(sheet);

    // Get the sheetData cell table.
    SheetData sheetData = worksheetPart.Worksheet.GetFirstChild<SheetData>();
                        
    // Add a row to the cell table.
    Row row;
    row = new Row() { RowIndex = 1 };
    sheetData.Append(row);

    // In the new row, find the column location to insert a cell in A1.  
    Cell refCell = null;
    foreach (Cell cell in row.Elements<Cell>())
    {
        if (string.Compare(cell.CellReference.Value, "A1", true) > 0)
        {
            refCell = cell;
            break;
        }
    }

    // Add the cell to the cell table at A1.
    Cell newCell = new Cell() { CellReference = "A1" };
    row.InsertBefore(newCell, refCell);
            
    // Set the cell value to be a numeric value of 100.
    newCell.CellValue = new CellValue("100");
    newCell.DataType = new EnumValue<CellValues>(CellValues.Number);

    // Close the document.
    spreadsheetDocument.Close();
}

Generated SpreadsheetML

When the Open XML SDK 2.0 is run, the following XML is written to the SpreadsheetML document referenced in the code. To view this XML, open the “sheet.xml” file in the “worksheets” folder of the .zip file.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<x:worksheet xmlns:x="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/spreadsheetml/2006/main">
    <x:sheetData>
        <x:row r="1">
            <x:c r="A1" t="n">
                <x:v>100</x:v>
            </x:c>
        </x:row>
    </x:sheetData>
</x:worksheet>

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the chartsheet (<chartsheet>) element.

An instance of this part type represents a chart that is stored in its own sheet.

A package is permitted to contain zero or more Chartsheet parts.

[Example: sheet1.xml refers to a drawing that is the target of a relationship in the Chartsheet part's relationship item:

<chartsheet xmlns:r="…" …>

    <sheetViews>

        <sheetView scale="64"/>

    </sheetViews>

    <drawing r:id="rId1"/>

</chartsheet>

end example]

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

The following table lists the common Open XML SDK 2.0 classes used when working with the Chartsheet class.

SpreadsheetML Element

Open XML SDK 2.0 Class

drawing

Drawing

Drawing Class

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the drawings (<wsDr>) element.

An instance of this part type contains the presentation and layout information for one or more drawing elements that are present on this worksheet.

A package is permitted to contain one or more Drawings parts, and each such part shall be the target of an explicit relationship from a Worksheet part (§12.3.24), or a Chartsheet part (§12.3.2). There shall be only one Drawings part per worksheet or chartsheet.

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

The following information from the ISO/IEC 29500 specification introduces the dialogsheet (<dialogsheet>) element.

An instance of this part type contains information about a legacy custom dialog box for a user form.

A package is permitted to contain one or more Dialogsheet parts

The root element for a part of this content type shall be dialogsheet.

[Example: sheet1.xml contains the following:

<dialogsheet xmlns:r="…" …>

    <sheetPr>

        <pageSetUpPr/>

    </sheetPr>

    <sheetViews>

        …

    </sheetViews>

    …

    <legacyDrawing r:id="rId1"/>

</dialogsheet>

end example]

© ISO/IEC29500: 2008.

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