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Use Date and Time Types

This sample shows how to initialize the date/time data structures that were added in SQL Server 2008. It then prepares the input values, binds parameters, and executes the query. For more information about using these types, see Date/Time Improvements (ODBC).

You will need an ODBC data source called DateTime. The default database for DateTime should be tempdb. This data source must be based on the ODBC driver for SQL Server Native Client.

If you will build and run this sample as a 32-bit application on a 64-bit operating system, you must create the ODBC data source with the ODBC Administrator in %windir%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe.

This sample connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the definition of the ODBC data source to specify the instance using the following format: server\namedinstance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance.

The first (Transact-SQL) code listing creates a table used by this sample.

Compile the second (C++) code listing with odbc32.lib and user32.lib. Make sure your INCLUDE environment variable includes the directory that contains sqlncli.h.

The third (Transact-SQL) code listing deletes the table used by this sample.

use tempdb
GO

IF EXISTS (SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'DateTimeTypes')
DROP TABLE DateTimeTypes
GO

CREATE TABLE DateTimeTypes (datecol date, time2col time(7), datetime2col datetime2(7), datetimeoffsetcol datetimeoffset(7))
GO
// compile with: odbc32.lib user32.lib
#include <windows.h>
#include <Sqlext.h>
#include <mbstring.h>
#include <sqlncli.h>
#include <stdio.h>

#define MAX_DATA 1024
#define MYSQLSUCCESS(rc) ( (rc == SQL_SUCCESS) || (rc == SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) )

class direxec {
   RETCODE rc;   // ODBC return code
   HENV henv;   // Environment
   HDBC hdbc;   // Connection Handle
   HSTMT hstmt;   // Statement Handle
   SQLHDESC hdesc;   // Descriptor handle
   unsigned char szData[MAX_DATA];   // Returned Data Storage
   SDWORD cbData;   // Output Lenght of data
   unsigned char char_ds_name[SQL_MAX_DSN_LENGTH];   // Data Source Name
   
   SQL_DATE_STRUCT date;   // date structure
   SQL_SS_TIME2_STRUCT time2;   // time2 structure
   SQL_TIMESTAMP_STRUCT datetime2;   // datetime2 structure
   SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET_STRUCT dateTimeOffset;   // datetimeoffset structure
   
   SQLLEN cbdate;   // size of date structure
   SQLLEN cbtime2;   // size of time structure
   SQLLEN cbdatetime2;   // size of datetime2
   SQLLEN cbtimestampoffset;   //size of dateTimeOffset

public:
   direxec();   // Constructor
   void sqlconn();   // Allocate env, stat and conn
   
   void sqldisconn();   // Free pointers to env, stat, conn and disconnect
   void error_out();   // Display errors
   void check_rc(RETCODE rc);   // Checks for success of the return code
   
   void sqlinsert();   // Insert into the table
};

// Constructor initializes the string char_ds_name with the data source name and
// initialize the data structures to with the date to be inserted.
direxec::direxec() {
   _mbscpy_s(char_ds_name, (const unsigned char *)"DateTime");

   // Initialize the date structure
   date.day = 12;
   date.month = 10;
   date.year = 2001;

   // Initialize the time structure
   time2.hour = 21;
   time2.minute = 45;
   time2.second = 52;
   time2.fraction = 100  ;

   // Initialize the datetime2 structure
   datetime2.year = 2007;
   datetime2.month = 12;
   datetime2.day = 26;
   datetime2.hour = 0;
   datetime2.minute = 0;
   datetime2.second = 0;
   datetime2.fraction = 100; 

   // Initialize the timestampoffset structure
   dateTimeOffset.year = 2007;
   dateTimeOffset.month = 3;
   dateTimeOffset.day = 11;
   dateTimeOffset.hour = 2;
   dateTimeOffset.minute = 30;
   dateTimeOffset.second = 29;
   dateTimeOffset.fraction = 200;
   dateTimeOffset.timezone_hour = -8;
   dateTimeOffset.timezone_minute = 0;

   // Size of structures 
   cbdate = sizeof(SQL_DATE_STRUCT);
   cbtime2 = sizeof(SQL_SS_TIME2_STRUCT);
   cbdatetime2 = sizeof(SQL_TIMESTAMP_STRUCT);
   cbtimestampoffset = sizeof(SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET_STRUCT);

}   // direxec

// Allocate environment handles, connection handle, connect to data source, and allocate statement handle
void direxec::sqlconn() {
   // Allocate the enviroment handle
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, SQL_NULL_HANDLE, &henv);
   check_rc(rc);

   // Set the ODBC version to version 3
   rc = SQLSetEnvAttr(henv, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION, (SQLPOINTER) SQL_OV_ODBC3, SQL_IS_INTEGER);
   check_rc(rc);

   // Allocate the database connection handle
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, henv, &hdbc);
   check_rc(rc);

   // Connect to the database
   rc = SQLConnect(hdbc, char_ds_name, SQL_NTS, NULL, 0, NULL, 0);
   check_rc(rc);

   // Allocate the statement handle
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hdbc, &hstmt); 
   check_rc(rc);  

   // Allocate the descriptor handle
   rc = rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DESC, hdbc, &hdesc);
   check_rc(rc);

}   // direxec::sqlconn

// Display error message from the DiagRecord
void direxec::error_out() {
   // String to hold the SQL State
   unsigned char szSQLSTATE[10];

   // Error code
   SDWORD nErr;

   // The error message
   unsigned char msg[SQL_MAX_MESSAGE_LENGTH + 1];

   // Size of the message
   SWORD cbmsg;

   // If hstmt is not null use that for getting the DiagRec
   if (hstmt)
      rc = SQLGetDiagRec(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hstmt, 1, szSQLSTATE, &nErr, msg, sizeof(msg), &cbmsg);
   // else get the diag record from the env
   else
      rc = SQLGetDiagRec(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv, 1, szSQLSTATE, &nErr, msg, sizeof(msg), &cbmsg);

   // If the rc is successful, show the message using a message box
   if ( rc == SQL_SUCCESS) {
      char hold_err[100];
      _itoa_s(nErr, hold_err, 100, 10);
      _snprintf_s((char *)szData, MAX_DATA, MAX_DATA - 1, "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s", 
        "Error:", "\n", "SQLSTATE= ", szSQLSTATE, ", Native error=", hold_err, ", msg = ", msg);
      MessageBox(NULL, (const char *)szData, "ODBC Error", MB_OK);
   }
}   // direxec::error_out

// Checks the return code.  If failure, displays the error, free the memory and exits the program
void direxec::check_rc(RETCODE rc) {
   if (!MYSQLSUCCESS(rc)) {
      error_out();
      SQLFreeEnv(henv);
      SQLFreeConnect(hdbc);
      exit(-1);
   } 
}   // direxec::check_rc

// Function to insert dates into the table.
void direxec::sqlinsert() {   
   rc = SQLPrepare(hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "INSERT INTO DateTimeTypes (datecol, time2col, datetime2col, datetimeoffsetcol) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)", SQL_NTS);
   check_rc(rc);

   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 1, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_TYPE_DATE, SQL_TYPE_DATE, 10, 0, &date, 0, &cbdate);
   check_rc(rc);

   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 2, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_BINARY, SQL_SS_TIME2, 16, 7, &time2, 0, &cbtime2);
   check_rc(rc);

   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 3, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_TIMESTAMP, SQL_TYPE_TIMESTAMP, 27, 7, &datetime2, 0, &cbdatetime2);
   check_rc(rc);

   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 4, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_BINARY, SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET, 34, 7, &dateTimeOffset, 0, &cbtimestampoffset);
   check_rc(rc);

   rc = SQLExecute(hstmt);
   check_rc(rc);
}   // direxec::sqlinsert

int main() {
   direxec x;

   // Allocate handles, and connect.
   x.sqlconn(); 

   // Insert all into the table
   x.sqlinsert();
}
USE tempdb
GO

IF EXISTS (SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'DateTimeTypes')
DROP TABLE DateTimeTypes
GO

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