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Change a SQL Server Authentication User Password (OLE DB)

This sample shows how to use OLE DB to change the password of a user account under SQL Server Authentication.

Security note Security Note

When possible, use Windows Authentication. If Windows Authentication is not available, prompt users to enter their credentials at run time. Avoid storing credentials in a file. If you must persist credentials, you should encrypt them with the Win32 crypto API.

Before building, update the .C++ code to specify the user ID, old password, and new password.

This application connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. On some Windows operating systems, you will need to change (localhost) or (local) to the name of your SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the connection string from L"(local)" to L"(local)\\name" , where name is the named instance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance. Make sure your INCLUDE environment variable includes the directory that contains sqlncli.h.

Compile with ole32.lib oleaut32.lib.

To build this sample, you will need a SQL Server Authentication user account for which you know the password. To allow logins under SQL Server Authentication, open SQL Server Management Studio, right click on the Server node in Object Explorer, and select Properties. Select Security and enable SQL Server and Windows Authentication mode. To add a user account under SQL Server Authentication, right click the Security node in Object Explorer and select Add.

The server on which you will run this sample must have at least one login enabled for SQL Server Authentication. The server must also be enabled to allow SQL Server Authentication logins.

// compile with: ole32.lib oleaut32.lib
void InitializeAndEstablishConnection();

#define STATUSDUMP(status)  case status : wprintf(L"status"); break;

#define UNICODE
#define DBINITCONSTANTS
#define INITGUID

#include <assert.h>
#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <IOSTREAM>
#include <cguid.h>
#include <oledb.h>
#include <oledberr.h>

#include <SQLNCLI.h>

LPMALLOC pMalloc = NULL;
IDBInitialize * pIDBInitialize = NULL;
HRESULT hr;

void DumpErrorInfo (IUnknown* pObjectWithError, REFIID IID_InterfaceWithError);
void DumpErrorInfo (IUnknown* pObjectWithError, REFIID IID_InterfaceWithError, BOOL &has_sql_errors);

int main() {
   // All the initialization activities in a separate function.
   InitializeAndEstablishConnection();

   if ( FAILED( pIDBInitialize->Uninitialize() ) )
      // Uninitialize is not required, but fails if an interface was not released.
      printf("Problem uninitializing.\n");

   pIDBInitialize->Release();
   CoUninitialize();
};

void InitializeAndEstablishConnection() {
   IDBProperties * pIDBProperties = NULL;
   const ULONG nInitProps = 4;
   DBPROP InitProperties[nInitProps];
   const ULONG nSSInitProps = 1;
   DBPROP SSInitProperties[nSSInitProps];

   const ULONG nPropSet = 2;
   DBPROPSET rgInitPropSet[nPropSet];

   // Initialize the COM library.
   CoInitialize(NULL);
   CoGetMalloc(1, &pMalloc);

   CLSID clsid;
   CLSIDFromProgID(L"SQLNCLI11", &clsid);

   // Obtain access to the SQLOLEDB provider.
   hr = CoCreateInstance( clsid, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER, IID_IDBInitialize, (void **) &pIDBInitialize);
   if (FAILED(hr))
      printf("Failed in CoCreateInstance().\n");

   // Initialize the property values needed to establish the connection.
   for (int i = 0; i < nInitProps; i++)
      VariantInit(&InitProperties[i].vValue);

   // Specify database name.
   InitProperties[0].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_CATALOG;
   InitProperties[0].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   // Change the following line to use any database on your server
   InitProperties[0].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"master");
   InitProperties[0].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   InitProperties[0].colid = DB_NULLID;

   InitProperties[1].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_AUTH_USERID;
   InitProperties[1].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   // Modify the following line to add the user ID of a SQL Server Authentication account on your server
   InitProperties[1].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"");
   InitProperties[1].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   InitProperties[1].colid = DB_NULLID;

   InitProperties[2].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_AUTH_PASSWORD;
   InitProperties[2].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   // Modify the following line to add the new SQL Server Authentication password
   InitProperties[2].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"");
   InitProperties[2].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   InitProperties[2].colid = DB_NULLID;

   InitProperties[3].dwPropertyID = DBPROP_INIT_DATASOURCE;
   InitProperties[3].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   InitProperties[3].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"(local)");
   InitProperties[3].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   InitProperties[3].colid = DB_NULLID;

   SSInitProperties[0].dwPropertyID = SSPROP_AUTH_OLD_PASSWORD;
   SSInitProperties[0].vValue.vt = VT_BSTR;
   // Modify the following line to specify the existing SQL Server Authentication password
   SSInitProperties[0].vValue.bstrVal = SysAllocString(L"");
   SSInitProperties[0].dwOptions = DBPROPOPTIONS_REQUIRED;
   SSInitProperties[0].colid = DB_NULLID;

   rgInitPropSet[0].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_DBINIT;
   rgInitPropSet[0].cProperties = nInitProps;
   rgInitPropSet[0].rgProperties = InitProperties;

   rgInitPropSet[1].guidPropertySet = DBPROPSET_SQLSERVERDBINIT;
   rgInitPropSet[1].cProperties = nSSInitProps;
   rgInitPropSet[1].rgProperties = SSInitProperties;

   // Set initialization properties.
   hr = pIDBInitialize->QueryInterface( IID_IDBProperties, (void **)&pIDBProperties);

   if (FAILED(hr))
      printf("Failed to obtain IDBProperties interface.\n");

   hr = pIDBProperties->SetProperties( nPropSet, rgInitPropSet);

   if (FAILED(hr))
      printf("Failed to set initialization properties.\n");

   pIDBProperties->Release();

   // establish connection to the data source.
   DWORD now = GetTickCount();

   if ( FAILED(pIDBInitialize->Initialize()) ) {
      printf("Problem in initializing.\n");
      DumpErrorInfo(pIDBInitialize, IID_IDBInitialize);
   }

   DWORD tookms = GetTickCount() - now;
   printf("Connection took %d ms.\n", tookms);
}

// DumpErrorInfo queries SQLOLEDB error interfaces, retrieving available status
// or error information. This version is called when SQL Server errors are not expected.
void DumpErrorInfo (IUnknown* pObjectWithError, REFIID IID_InterfaceWithError) {
   BOOL has_sql_errors;
   DumpErrorInfo (pObjectWithError, IID_InterfaceWithError, has_sql_errors);
}

// DumpErrorInfo queries SQLOLEDB error interfaces, retrieving available status 
// or error information. This version is called when an SQL Server error could occur.
void DumpErrorInfo (IUnknown* pObjectWithError, REFIID IID_InterfaceWithError, BOOL &has_sql_errors ) {
   // Interfaces used in the example.
   IErrorInfo * pIErrorInfoAll = NULL;
   IErrorInfo * pIErrorInfoRecord = NULL;
   IErrorRecords * pIErrorRecords = NULL;
   ISupportErrorInfo * pISupportErrorInfo = NULL;
   ISQLErrorInfo * pISQLErrorInfo = NULL;
   ISQLServerErrorInfo * pISQLServerErrorInfo = NULL;

   // Number of error records.
   ULONG nRecs;
   ULONG nRec;

   // Basic error information from GetBasicErrorInfo.
   ERRORINFO errorinfo;

   // IErrorInfo values.
   BSTR bstrDescription;
   BSTR bstrSource;

   // ISQLErrorInfo parameters.
   BSTR bstrSQLSTATE;
   LONG lNativeError;

   // ISQLServerErrorInfo parameter pointers.
   SSERRORINFO * pSSErrorInfo = NULL;
   OLECHAR * pSSErrorStrings = NULL;

   // Hard-code an American English locale for the example.
   DWORD MYLOCALEID = 0x0409;

   has_sql_errors = 0;

   // Only ask for error information if the interface supports it.
   if (FAILED(pObjectWithError->QueryInterface(IID_ISupportErrorInfo, (void**) &pISupportErrorInfo)))   
      wprintf(L"SupportErrorErrorInfo interface not supported\n");
   else if (FAILED(pISupportErrorInfo->InterfaceSupportsErrorInfo(IID_InterfaceWithError)))   
      wprintf(L"InterfaceWithError interface not supported\n");


   // Do not test the return of GetErrorInfo. It can succeed and return
   // a NULL pointer in pIErrorInfoAll. Simply test the pointer.
   GetErrorInfo(0, &pIErrorInfoAll);

   // Test to see if it's a valid OLE DB IErrorInfo interface exposing a list of records.
   if (pIErrorInfoAll != NULL)  {
      if (SUCCEEDED(pIErrorInfoAll->QueryInterface(IID_IErrorRecords, (void**) &pIErrorRecords))) {
         pIErrorRecords->GetRecordCount(&nRecs);

         // Within each record, retrieve information from each of the defined interfaces.
         for (nRec = 0; nRec < nRecs; nRec++) {
            ULONG errorno = nRecs - nRec - 1;
            // From IErrorRecords, get the HRESULT and a reference to the ISQLErrorInfo interface.
            pIErrorRecords->GetBasicErrorInfo(errorno, &errorinfo);
            pIErrorRecords->GetCustomErrorObject(errorno,IID_ISQLErrorInfo, (IUnknown**) &pISQLErrorInfo);

            // Display the HRESULT, then use the ISQLErrorInfo.
            wprintf(L"HRESULT:\t%#X\n", errorinfo.hrError);

            if (pISQLErrorInfo != NULL) {
               pISQLErrorInfo->GetSQLInfo(&bstrSQLSTATE, &lNativeError);
               // Display SQLSTATE and native error values.
               wprintf(L"SQLSTATE:\t%s\nNative Error:\t%ld\n", bstrSQLSTATE, lNativeError);

               // SysFree BSTR references.
               SysFreeString(bstrSQLSTATE);

               // Get the ISQLServerErrorInfo interface from
               // ISQLErrorInfo before releasing the reference.
               pISQLErrorInfo->QueryInterface(IID_ISQLServerErrorInfo, (void**) &pISQLServerErrorInfo);

               pISQLErrorInfo->Release();
            }

            // Test to ensure the reference is valid, then get error information from ISQLServerErrorInfo.
            if (pISQLServerErrorInfo != NULL) {
               pISQLServerErrorInfo->GetErrorInfo(&pSSErrorInfo, &pSSErrorStrings);

               // ISQLServerErrorInfo::GetErrorInfo succeeds even when it
               // has nothing to return. Test the pointers before using.
               if (pSSErrorInfo) {
                  // Display the state and severity from the returned
                  // information. The error message comes from
                  // IErrorInfo::GetDescription.
                  wprintf(L"Error state:\t%d\nSeverity:\t%d\n", pSSErrorInfo->bState, pSSErrorInfo->bClass);
                  wprintf(L"Procedure:\t%s\nLine:\t%d\n", pSSErrorInfo->pwszProcedure, pSSErrorInfo->wLineNumber);

                  has_sql_errors++;

                  // IMalloc::Free needed to release references on returned values.
                  pMalloc->Free(pSSErrorStrings);
                  pMalloc->Free(pSSErrorInfo);
               }

               pISQLServerErrorInfo->Release();
            }

            if (SUCCEEDED(pIErrorRecords->GetErrorInfo(errno, MYLOCALEID, &pIErrorInfoRecord))) {
               // Get the source and description (error message) from the record's IErrorInfo.
               pIErrorInfoRecord->GetSource(&bstrSource);
               pIErrorInfoRecord->GetDescription(&bstrDescription);

               if (bstrSource != NULL) {
                  wprintf(L"Source:\t\t%s\n", bstrSource);
                  SysFreeString(bstrSource);
               }

               if (bstrDescription != NULL) {
                  wprintf(L"Error message:\t%s\n", bstrDescription);
                  SysFreeString(bstrDescription);
               }

               pIErrorInfoRecord->Release();
            }
         }

         pIErrorRecords->Release();
      }
      else {
         // IErrorInfo is valid; get the source and
         // description to see what it is.
         pIErrorInfoAll->GetSource(&bstrSource);
         pIErrorInfoAll->GetDescription(&bstrDescription);

         if (bstrSource != NULL) {
            wprintf(L"Source:\t\t%s\n", bstrSource);
            SysFreeString(bstrSource);
         }

         if (bstrDescription != NULL) {
            wprintf(L"Error message:\t%s\n", bstrDescription);
            SysFreeString(bstrDescription);
         }
      }

      pIErrorInfoAll->Release();
   }
   else
      wprintf(L"GetErrorInfo failed.\n");

   if (pISupportErrorInfo != NULL)
      pISupportErrorInfo->Release();
}

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