Operators (Azure SQL Database)
Updated: February 17, 2014
This topic is OBSOLETE. You can find the most current version in the SQL 14 TransactSQL Reference.
An operator is a symbol specifying an action that is performed on one or more expressions. The following table lists the operator categories that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports.
Operator Category  SQL Database Support 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Yes 

Other Miscellaneous Operators (String Concatenation Operator and Assignment Operator) 
Yes 
Scope Resolution Operator 
No 
Important 

For more information about SQL grammar and operator usage and examples, see Operators (TransactSQL) in SQL Server Books Online. 
Arithmetic Operators
Arithmetic operators perform mathematical operations on two expressions of one or more numeric data types. The following table lists the arithmetic operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports:
Operator  Meaning 

+ (Add) 
Addition 
 (Subtract) 
Subtraction 
* (Multiply) 
Multiplication 
/ (Divide) 
Division 
% (Modulo) 
Returns the integer remainder of a division. For example, 12 % 5 = 2 because the remainder of 12 divided by 5 is 2. 
Compound Operators
Compound operators execute an operation and set an original value to the result of the operation. For example, if a variable @x equals 35, then @x += 2 takes the original value of @x, adds 2 and sets @x to that new value (37).
The following table lists the compound operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports:
Operator  More information  Action 

+= 
+= (Add EQUALS) 
Adds the specified amount to the original value and sets the original value to the result. 
= 
= (Subtract EQUALS) 
Subtracts the specified amount from the original value and sets the original value to the result. 
*= 
*= (MULTIPLY EQUALS) 
Multiplies by the specified value and sets the original value to the result. 
/= 
/= (DIVIDE EQUALS) 
Divides by the specified value and sets the original value to the result. 
%= 
%= (Modulo EQUALS) 
Divides by the specified value and sets the original value to the modulo. 
&= 
&= (Bitwise AND EQUALS) 
Performs a bitwise AND operation and sets the original value to the result. 
^= 
^= (Bitwise Exclusive OR EQUALS) 
Performs a bitwise exclusive OR operation and sets the original value to the result. 
= 
= (Bitwise OR EQUALS) 
Performs a bitwise OR operation and sets the original value to the result. 
Bitwise Operators
Bitwise operators perform bit manipulations between two expressions of any of the data types of the integer data type category. The following table lists the bitwise operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports:
Operator  Meaning 

& (Bitwise AND) 
Bitwise AND (two operands). 
 (Bitwise OR) 
Bitwise OR (two operands). 
^ (Bitwise Exclusive OR) 
Bitwise exclusive OR (two operands). 
Logical Operators
Logical operators test for the truth of some condition. Logical operators, like comparison operators, return a Boolean data type with a value of TRUE, FALSE, or UNKNOWN. The following table lists the logical operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports:
Operator  Meaning 

ALL 
TRUE if all of a set of comparisons are TRUE. 
AND 
TRUE if both Boolean expressions are TRUE. 
ANY 
TRUE if any one of a set of comparisons is TRUE. 
BETWEEN 
TRUE if the operand is within a range. 
EXISTS 
TRUE if a sub query contains any rows. 
IN 
TRUE if the operand is equal to one of a list of expressions. 
LIKE 
TRUE if the operand matches a pattern. 
NOT 
Reverses the value of any other Boolean operator. 
OR 
TRUE if either Boolean expression is TRUE. 
SOME 
TRUE if some of a set of comparisons are TRUE. 
Comparison Operators
Comparison operators test whether two expressions are the same. The following table lists the comparison operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports.
Operator  Meaning 

= (Equals) 
Equal to 
> (Greater Than) 
Greater than 
< (Less Than) 
Less than 
>= (Greater Than or Equal To) 
Greater than or equal to 
<= (Less Than or Equal To) 
Less than or equal to 
<> (Not Equal To) 
Not equal to 
!= (Not Equal To) 
Not equal to (not ISO standard) 
!< (Not Less Than) 
Not less than (not ISO standard) 
!> (Not Greater Than) 
Not greater than (not ISO standard) 
Unary Operators
Unary operators perform an operation on only one expression of any one of the data types of the numeric data type category. The following table lists the unary operators that Microsoft Azure SQL Database supports.
Operator  Meaning 

+ (Positive) 
The numeric value is positive. 
 (Negative) 
The numeric value is negative. 
~ (Bitwise NOT) 
Performs a bitwise logical NOT for the expression, taking each bit in turn. If expression has a value of 0, the bits in the result set are set to 1; otherwise, the bit in the result is cleared to a value of 0. In other words, ones are changed to zeros and zeros are changed to ones. 
Other Miscellaneous Operators
The following table lists the operators that do not fit into other categories and are supported by Microsoft Azure SQL Database.
Operator  Meaning 

+ (String Concatenation Operator) 
The plus sign (+) is the operator that enables string concatenation. 
= (Assignment Operator) 
The equal sign (=) is the only TransactSQL assignment operator. 
See Also