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action: (1) The smallest unit of work in a workflow system. An action can contain one or more tasks that define work that actors need to do. Actions are deployed and registered in the workflow system to be activated by protocol client users.

(2) A unit of work that can be performed by a workflow and is typically defined in a workflow markup file.

(3) A discrete operation that is executed on an incoming Message object when all conditions in the same rule (4) are TRUE. A rule contains one or more actions.

Action: A type of MetadataObject that represents a URL that triggers the display or manipulation of data related to an Entity or EntityInstance. Actions are contained by an Entity. Actions contain ActionParameters.

action instance: The runtime instance of a specific action (1). Action instances are building blocks for an activity flow. Several action instances can be chained together to form an activity flow, and multiple action instances of the same action can exist in a single activity flow.

ActionParameter: A type of MetadataObject that defines how to parameterize the URL of an Action with specific data about an EntityInstance. ActionParameters are contained by Actions.

active reminder: A reminder that is enabled on an object and is either pending or overdue, depending on whether the signal time has passed.

active replica: A name given to a server that hosts content and is expected to serve that content to clients.

activity flow: A running instance of a workflow that consists of a sequence of action instances and activity model instances. Action instances and activity model instances can be sequenced in any order to create a single activity flow.

activity model: A predefined sequence of actions (1).

actor: A person or process that starts or participates in an activity flow. An actor can be an initiator or a target.

address book: A collection of Address Book objects, each of which are contained in any number of address lists.

address book container: An Address Book object that describes an address list.

address book hierarchy table: A collection of address book containers arranged in a hierarchy.

Address Book object: An entity in an address book that contains a set of attributes (1), each attribute with a set of associated values.

address creation table: A table containing information about the templates that an address book server supports for creating new email addresses.

address creation template: A template that describes how to present a dialog to a messaging user along with a script describing how to construct a new email address from the user's response.

address list: A collection of distinct Address Book objects.

address type: An identifier for the type of email address, such as SMTP and EX.

alias: An alternate name that can be used to reference an object or element.

animation: A record of synthetic, successive still images that produce an illusion of movement when played back.

app for Office: A cloud-enabled app that integrates rich, scenario-focused content and services into an Office application or equivalent protocol client.

application server: A computer that provides infrastructure and services for applications that are hosted on a server farm.

Appointment object: A Calendar object that has an organizer but no attendees.

archive policy: A feature that determines when items are moved into an alternate mailbox for archival purposes.

archive tag: An element that contains information about the archive policy of a Message object or folder.

Association: A MethodInstance that enables the traversal and manipulation of a data model relationship between a set of source Entities and a single destination Entity. An Association can retrieve, associate, and disassociate EntityInstances of a destination Entity if given EntityInstances of other source Entities.

asynchronous context handle: A remote procedure call (RPC) context handle that is used by a client when issuing RPCs against a server on AsyncEMSMDB interface methods. It represents a handle to a unique session context on the server.

Asynchronous JavaScript + XML (AJAX): A web programming model that incorporates a set of web technologies including Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML), cascading style sheets (CSS), Document Object Model (DOM), XML, Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation (XSLT), XMLHTTPRequest (XHR), and JavaScript. AJAX is designed to make user interaction with the web more responsive.

atom: A unit of information that cannot be divided into smaller parts, and is accepted or rejected in its entirety. See also Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub).

atom feed: An XML structure that contains metadata about content, such as the language version and the date when the content was last modified, and is sent to subscribers by using the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub), as described in [RFC4287].

Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub): An application-level protocol for publishing and editing web resources, as described in [RFC5023].

Attachment object: A set of properties that represents a file, Message object, or structured storage that is attached to a Message object and is visible through the attachments table for a Message object.

attachments table: A Table object whose rows represent the Attachment objects that are attached to a Message object.

Autodiscover client: A client that queries for a set of server locations where setup and configuration information for an [RFC2821]-compliant email address is stored.

Autodiscover server: A server in a managed environment that makes setup and configuration information available to Autodiscover clients. The location of Autodiscover servers is made available via the Autodiscover HTTP Service Protocol, as described in [MS-OXDISCO].

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