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for_each

Applies a specified function object to each element in a forward order within a range and returns the function object.

template<class InputIterator, class Function>
   Function for_each(
      InputIterator _First, 
      InputIterator _Last, 
      Function _Func
   );

Parameters

_First
An input iterator addressing the position of the first element in the range to be operated on.
_Last
An input iterator addressing the position one past the final element in the range operated on.
_Func
User-defined function object that is applied to each element in the range.

Return Value

A copy of the function object after it has been applied to all of the elements in the range.

Remarks

The algorithm for_each is very flexible, allowing the modification of each element within a range in different, user-specified ways. Templatized functions may be reused in a modified form by passing different parameters. User-defined functions may accumulate information within an internal state that the algorithm may return after processing all of the elements in the range.

The range referenced must be valid; all pointers must be dereferenceable and, within the sequence, the last position must be reachable from the first by incrementation.

The complexity is linear with at most (_Last – _First) comparisons.

Example

// alg_for_each.cpp
// compile with: /EHsc
#include <vector>
#include <algorithm>
#include <iostream>

// The function object multiplies an element by a Factor
template <class Type>
class MultValue
{
private:
   Type Factor;   // The value to multiply by
public:
   // Constructor initializes the value to multiply by
   MultValue ( const Type& _Val ) : Factor ( _Val ) {
   }

   // The function call for the element to be multiplied
   void operator ( ) ( Type& elem ) const
   {
      elem *= Factor;
   }
};

// The function object to determine the average
class Average
{
private:
   long num;      // The number of elements
   long sum;      // The sum of the elements
public:
   // Constructor initializes the value to multiply by
   Average ( ) : num ( 0 ) , sum ( 0 )
   {
   }

   // The function call to process the next elment
   void operator ( ) ( int elem ) \
   {
      num++;      // Increment the element count
      sum += elem;   // Add the value to the partial sum
   }

   // return Average
   operator double ( )
   {
      return  static_cast <double> (sum) /
      static_cast <double> (num);
   }
};

int main( )
{
   using namespace std;
   vector <int> v1;
   vector <int>::iterator Iter1;

   // Constructing vector v1
   int i;
   for ( i = -4 ; i <= 2 ; i++ )
   {
      v1.push_back(  i );
   }

   cout << "Original vector  v1 = ( " ;
   for ( Iter1 = v1.begin( ) ; Iter1 != v1.end( ) ; Iter1++ )
      cout << *Iter1 << " ";
   cout << ")." << endl;

   // Using for_each to multiply each element by a Factor
   for_each ( v1.begin ( ) , v1.end ( ) , MultValue<int> ( -2 ) );

   cout << "Multiplying the elements of the vector v1\n "
        <<  "by the factor -2 gives:\n v1mod1 = ( " ;
   for ( Iter1 = v1.begin( ) ; Iter1 != v1.end( ) ; Iter1++ )
      cout << *Iter1 << " ";
   cout << ")." << endl;

   // The function object is templatized and so can be
   // used again on the elements with a different Factor
   for_each (v1.begin ( ) , v1.end ( ) , MultValue<int> (5 ) );

   cout << "Multiplying the elements of the vector v1mod\n "
        <<  "by the factor 5 gives:\n v1mod2 = ( " ;
   for ( Iter1 = v1.begin( ) ; Iter1 != v1.end( ) ; Iter1++ )
      cout << *Iter1 << " ";
   cout << ")." << endl;

   // The local state of a function object can accumulate
   // information about a sequence of actions that the
   // return value can make available, here the Average
   double avemod2 = for_each ( v1.begin ( ) , v1.end ( ) ,
      Average ( ) );
   cout << "The average of the elements of v1 is:\n Average ( v1mod2 ) = "
        << avemod2 << "." << endl;
}

Output

Original vector  v1 = ( -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 ).
Multiplying the elements of the vector v1
 by the factor -2 gives:
 v1mod1 = ( 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 ).
Multiplying the elements of the vector v1mod
 by the factor 5 gives:
 v1mod2 = ( 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 ).
The average of the elements of v1 is:
 Average ( v1mod2 ) = 10.

See Also

<algorithm> Members | for_each Sample

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