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Formatting Event Messages

An event can contain localized message strings that you can format for display. To get a message string from the event, call the EvtFormatMessage function. An event can contain the following message strings:

  • A message string for the event itself.
  • A message string that describes the level value assigned to the event.
  • A message string that describes the task value assigned to the event.
  • A message string that describes the opcode value assigned to the event.
  • A message string that describes the keyword values assigned to the event.
  • A message string that describes the channel value assigned to the event.

You can also use EvtFormatMessage to get the message string for the provider or an XML string that contains the event and all the message strings.

In addition to getting the message strings from the events that you query, you can also get the message strings from the provider's metadata. For details on formatting a message based on a message identifier that you get from the provider's metadata, see Getting a Provider's Metadata.

The following example shows how to get the message strings from an event.


#include <windows.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sddl.h>
#include <winevt.h>

#pragma comment(lib, "wevtapi.lib")

LPWSTR GetMessageString(EVT_HANDLE hMetadata, EVT_HANDLE hEvent, EVT_FORMAT_MESSAGE_FLAGS FormatId);

void main(void)
{
    EVT_HANDLE hProviderMetadata = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hResults = NULL;
    EVT_HANDLE hEvent = NULL;
    DWORD status = ERROR_SUCCESS;
    DWORD dwReturned = 0;
    LPWSTR pwsMessage = NULL;
    LPWSTR pwsPath = L"<name of the channel goes here>";
    LPWSTR pwsQuery = L"<xpath query goes here>";
    LPWSTR pwszPublisherName = L"<name of the publisher goes here>";

    // Get the handle to the provider's metadata that contains the message strings.
    hProviderMetadata = EvtOpenPublisherMetadata(NULL, pwszPublisherName, NULL, 0, 0);
    if (NULL == hProviderMetadata)
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtOpenPublisherMetadata failed with %d\n", GetLastError());
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Query for an event.
    hResults = EvtQuery(NULL, pwsPath, pwsQuery, EvtQueryChannelPath);
    if (NULL == hResults)
    {
        status = GetLastError();

        if (ERROR_EVT_CHANNEL_NOT_FOUND == status)
            wprintf(L"Channel %s was not found.\n", pwsPath);
        else
            wprintf(L"EvtQuery failed with %lu.\n", status);

        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Get a single event from the result set.
    if (!EvtNext(hResults, 1, &hEvent, INFINITE, 0, &dwReturned))
    {
        wprintf(L"EvtNext failed with %lu\n", status);
        goto cleanup;
    }

    // Get the various message strings from the event.
    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageEvent);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Event message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageLevel);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Level message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageTask);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Task message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageOpcode);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Opcode message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageKeyword);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        LPWSTR ptemp = pwsMessage;

        wprintf(L"Keyword message string: %s", ptemp);

        while (*(ptemp += wcslen(ptemp)+1))
            wprintf(L", %s", ptemp);

        wprintf(L"\n\n");
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageChannel);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Channel message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageProvider);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"Provider message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

    pwsMessage = GetMessageString(hProviderMetadata, hEvent, EvtFormatMessageXml);
    if (pwsMessage)
    {
        wprintf(L"XML message string: %s\n\n", pwsMessage);
        free(pwsMessage);
        pwsMessage = NULL;
    }

cleanup:

    if (hEvent)
        EvtClose(hEvent);

    if (hResults)
        EvtClose(hResults);
    
    if (hProviderMetadata)
        EvtClose(hProviderMetadata);
}


// Gets the specified message string from the event. If the event does not
// contain the specified message, the function returns NULL.
LPWSTR GetMessageString(EVT_HANDLE hMetadata, EVT_HANDLE hEvent, EVT_FORMAT_MESSAGE_FLAGS FormatId)
{
    LPWSTR pBuffer = NULL;
    DWORD dwBufferSize = 0;
    DWORD dwBufferUsed = 0;
    DWORD status = 0;

    if (!EvtFormatMessage(hMetadata, hEvent, 0, 0, NULL, FormatId, dwBufferSize, pBuffer, &dwBufferUsed))
    {
        status = GetLastError();
        if (ERROR_INSUFFICIENT_BUFFER == status)
        {
            // An event can contain one or more keywords. The function returns keywords
            // as a list of keyword strings. To process the list, you need to know the
            // size of the buffer, so you know when you have read the last string, or you
            // can terminate the list of strings with a second null terminator character 
            // as this example does.
            if ((EvtFormatMessageKeyword == FormatId))
                pBuffer[dwBufferSize-1] = L'\0';
            else
                dwBufferSize = dwBufferUsed;

            pBuffer = (LPWSTR)malloc(dwBufferSize * sizeof(WCHAR));

            if (pBuffer)
            {
                EvtFormatMessage(hMetadata, hEvent, 0, 0, NULL, FormatId, dwBufferSize, pBuffer, &dwBufferUsed);

                // Add the second null terminator character.
                if ((EvtFormatMessageKeyword == FormatId))
                    pBuffer[dwBufferUsed-1] = L'\0';
            }
            else
            {
                wprintf(L"malloc failed\n");
            }
        }
        else if (ERROR_EVT_MESSAGE_NOT_FOUND == status || ERROR_EVT_MESSAGE_ID_NOT_FOUND == status)
            ;
        else
        {
            wprintf(L"EvtFormatMessage failed with %u\n", status);
        }
    }

    return pBuffer;
}


 

 

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