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safe load: A process of loading a file in which additional error checking is performed and various corruption patterns in the file are detected and repaired.

sandboxed solution: A custom solution that can be deployed to a site by a site collection administrator, without approval from the server farm administrator.

Scalar: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a scalar value.

Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SSRTP): A Microsoft proprietary extension to the Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP), as described in [RFC3711].

scatter chart: A chart that displays values on both the x and y axes to represent two variables as a single data point.

scenario: A named set of input values (changing cells) that can be substituted in a worksheet model.

Scenario Manager: A process for creating and managing different sets of input values for calculation models in a worksheet.

schema version: An integer value that represents the version number of the schema for a deployment package.

scope identifier: A GUID that uniquely identifies a scope within a site collection.

scope index key: A basic scope index key or a compound scope index key that references a scope index record.

score: A measurement of how accurately an analysis model predicts new data. It can be used to measure the effectiveness of an analysis model by adjusting various values in the model.

scorecard: A report that depicts organizational and business performance by displaying a collection of key performance indicators (KPIs) with performance targets for those KPIs. Each KPI compares actual performance to goals for an area. A scorecard can be organized hierarchically and typically contains visualization tools such as trend charts and conditional formatting.

SDP answer: A Session Description Protocol (SDP) message that is sent by an answerer in response to an offer that is received from an offerer.

SDP offer: A Session Description Protocol (SDP) message that is sent by an offerer.

sealed content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that cannot be changed. A seal can be removed only by a site collection administrator. See also content type.

search alert: An Internet message that is sent to subscribers automatically for a specific query. It notifies subscribers when one or more new results exist, or an existing result was modified.

search application: A unique group of search settings that is associated, one-to-one, with a shared service provider.

search catalog: All of the crawl data that is associated with a specific search application. A search catalog provides information that is used to generate query results.

search clickthrough: The process of navigating to an Internet resource from a query hit that represents that resource.

search component: A logical part of a search service application. It can be an administration component, a crawl component, or a query component (2).

search database: A database that stores search-related information, including stored procedures and tables that are used for crawl data, document metadata, and administration information.

search down: A process of searching for information by ascending row and column numbers.

search folder: (1) A collection of related items to be crawled by a search service.

(2) A Folder object that provides a means of querying for items that match certain criteria. The search folder includes the search folder definition message and the search folder container.

search folder container: A Folder object that is created according to the specifications in the definition message. It is in the Finder folder of the message database.

search folder definition message: A folder associated information (FAI) message that persists all the information that defines a search folder. It is in the associated contents table of the Common Views folder in the message database.

search index: A set of data structures that facilitates query evaluation by a search service application. The primary part of a search index is an inverted index of terms.

search provider: A component or application that provides data in response to a query. See also result provider.

search query: A complete set of conditions that are used to generate search results, including query text, sort order, and ranking parameters.

search query log: A record of information about user searches, such as search terms and time of access.

search row: A set of search nodes that comprises all of the items in a search index. It consists of one search node for each index column in the search index, and is used to improve the performance of a search service application by balancing loads and providing fault tolerance.

search scope: A list of attributes that define a collection of items.

search scope compilation: The process of updating a full-text index catalog to reflect unincorporated changes to the definitions of search scopes.

search scope compilation identifier: An integer that identifies the version of the list of search scopes that is associated with a scopes compilation event on a search server.

search scope consumer: A site collection that uses a specific search scope display group.

search scope display group: An ordered set of search scopes that are defined by an administrator or programmatically, and are used to return groups of search scopes. A search scope can be in multiple search scope display groups. A search scope display group is saved for each search scope consumer.

search scope index: A specialized component of a full-text index catalog that is built on the values of scoped properties for optimized queries.

search scope rule: An attribute that specifies which items are included in a search scope.

search scope rule value: A user-specified string that is associated with a search scope rule. It is used to determine the membership of an item in the associated search scope.

search scopes system: All of the global settings of search scopes and search scope compilation.

search security descriptor: (1) A Windows security descriptor.

(2) A custom security descriptor that is in an arbitrary format and is handled by alternate authentication providers in pluggable security authentication (2).

search service account: A user account under which a search service runs.

search service application: A shared service application that provides indexing and querying capabilities.

search setting: An administrative setting for a keyword that specifies how to transform query text that contains the keyword, before executing the query against a search index.

search setting context: An administrative setting that is used to specify when a search setting for a keyword is applied to a search query, based on the query context.

search setting context expression: A logical expression that is evaluated against a query context to determine whether a search setting for a keyword is applied to a search query.

search setting group: A named collection of keywords and the search settings that are associated with those keywords.

search shared application object: An instance of a shared application for search that holds search-specific settings.

search up: A process of searching for information by descending row and column numbers.

searchable profile properties: A collection of user profile properties whose values are used in prefix-match searches of user profiles. If the value of a searchable profile property begins with a word that is the same as a word in the query text, the corresponding user profile is returned in the result set.

searchable profile property: A user profile property whose value is used in prefix-match searches of user profiles. If the value of the property begins with a word that is the same as a word in the query text, the corresponding user profile is returned in the result set.

secondary bar/pie: A secondary chart in a bar of pie or pie of pie chart that displays the detailed data of the grouped data point in the primary pie chart. The secondary bar/pie chart takes the form of a stacked bar chart or a pie chart that is connected to the primary pie chart with series lines.

secondary data connection: Any auxiliary connection between an InfoPath form and a data source that stores or provides data for the form.

secondary data source: An XML data file, a database, or a web service that is used to populate controls or provide values in an InfoPath form.

secondary shortcut key: A user-defined combination of keys that are pressed simultaneously to execute a command. See also primary shortcut key.

second-stage Recycle Bin: A container for items that were deleted from a first-stage Recycle Bin. Items in a second-stage Recycle Bin are visible only to site collection administrators.

section: (1) A collection of user profile properties that appear together on a profile site.

(2) A portion of a document that is terminated by a section break or the end of the document. A section can store unique, page-level formatting, such as page size and orientation, and other formatting features such as headers and footers.

(3) A part of a form or report, such as a header or footer, that appears at each instance of a specific level in that form or report. It can be shown or hidden independently of other sections.

securable object: An object that can have unique security permissions associated with it.

secure channel: A packet, datagram, octet stream connection, or sequence of connections that exists between two endpoints (5) and helps enable integrity and, optionally, confidentiality to the data that is exchanged over it.

Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP): A profile of Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) that provides encryption, message authentication (2), and replay protection to the RTP data, as described in [RFC3711].

Secure Store Service (SSS): A service that is used to store credentials for a user or a group of users. It enables applications, typically on behalf of a user, to authenticate and gain access to resources. Users can retrieve only their own credentials from the secure store.

Secure Store Service (SSS) store: A persistent store that provides storage for target application definitions and credentials.

Secure Store Service (SSS) ticket: A token that contains the encrypted identity of a Secure Store Service (SSS) user in the form of a claim (2) and a nonce.

Secure Store Service (SSS) user: A security principal (2) that interacts with a Secure Store Service (SSS) implementation.

Security Account Manager (SAM): A centrally managed service, such as AD DS, that enables a server to establish a trust relationship with other authorized servers. The SAM also maintains information about domains and security principals (2), and provides client-to-server information by using several available standards for access control lists (ACLs).

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML): An XML-based language that is used to exchange authentication and authorization data, typically by using HTTP-based redirects, between security domains.

security descriptor: A data structure that contains the security information associated with a securable object. A security descriptor uses a security identifier (SID) to identify the owner of an object.

security group: A named group of principals on a SharePoint site.

security group identifier: An integer that is used to uniquely identify a security group, distinguishing it from all other security principals (2) and site groups within the same site collection.

security principal: (1) A unique entity that is identifiable through cryptographic means by at least one key. It frequently corresponds to a human user, but also can be a service that offers a resource to other security principals. Also referred to as principal.

(2) An identity that can be used to regulate access to resources. A security principal can be a user, a computer, or a group that represents a set of users.

security principal identifier: A value that is used to uniquely identify a security principal (2). In Windows-based systems, it is a security identifier (SID). In other types of systems, it can be a user identifier or other type of information that is associated with a security principal (2).

security provider: (1) A Component Object Model (COM) object that provides methods that return custom information about the security of a site.

(2) A pluggable security module that is specified by the protocol layer above the remote procedure call (RPC) layer, and will cause the RPC layer to use this module to secure messages in a communication session with the server. The security provider is sometimes referred to as an authentication service.

security role: A defined set of access privileges. The security role that is assigned to a user determines the tasks that a user can perform and which parts of the user interface a user can view.

security scope: A tree structure of objects in which every object has the same security settings as the root.

security token service (STS): A web service that issues claims (2) and packages them in encrypted security tokens.

security trimmer: A filter that is used to limit search results to only those resources that a user can view, based on the user's permission level and the access control list (ACL) for a resource. A security trimmer helps to ensure that search results display only those resources that a user has permission to view.

security trimming: The process of filtering search results by checking the access control list (ACL) for a resource and displaying only those resources that a user has permission to view.

selected: The condition of a set of items that has focus in a workbook.

selection: An item or set of items, such as cells, shapes, objects, and chart elements, that has focus in a document.

sequence header: A set of encoding and display parameters that are placed before a group of pictures, as described in [SMPTE-VC-1]. See also entry point header.

sequence number: (1) A numeric value that is used to define the order in which a series of events occurs in an execution sequence or transaction.

(2) The revision number of a Meeting object. The sequence number is used to determine the most recent meeting update that was sent by the organizer.

series line: A supplemental line on a stacked column, stacked bar, pie of pie, or bar of pie chart that connects each data point in a series with the next data point to increase legibility.

server interface: A set of method declarations that are implemented on a protocol server and are part of a FAST middleware implementation.

server name: The name of a server, as specified in the operating system settings for that server.

Server Reflexive Candidate: A candidate whose transport addresses is a network address translation (NAT) binding that is allocated on a NAT when an endpoint (5) sends a packet through the NAT to the server. A Server Reflexive Candidate can be discovered by sending an allocate request to the TURN server or by sending a binding request to a Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) server.

Server Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (Server SSRTP): A derivative of the Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SSRTP) that is used by applications to receive media from multiple senders and fan-out media to multiple receivers. Typically, applications such as Multipoint Control Units (MCUs) use this mode of encryption.

server-relative URL: A relative URL that does not specify a scheme or host, and assumes a base URI of the root of the host, as described in [RFC3986].

SERVICE: A method that is defined by Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) extensions and is used by an SIP client to request a service from a server.

service application: A middle-tier application that runs without any user interface components and supports other applications by performing tasks such as retrieving or modifying data in a database.

session: (1) A unidirectional communication channel for a stream of messages that are addressed to one or more destinations. A destination is specified by a resource URL, an identity URL, and a device URL. More than one session can be multiplexed over a single connection.

(2) A representation of application data in system memory. It is used to maintain state for application data that is being manipulated or monitored on a protocol server by a user.

(3) A collection of multimedia senders and receivers and the data streams that flow between them. A multimedia conference is an example of a multimedia session.

session data: Binary, serialized data that is stored and retrieved by a stored procedure during an application session.

Session Description Protocol (SDP): A protocol that is used to announce sessions, manage session invitations, and perform other types of initiation tasks for multimedia sessions, as described in [RFC3264].

session identifier: (1) A unique string that is used to identify a specific instance of session data and is used by stored procedures as an opaque primary key.

(2) A key that enables an application to make reference to a session.

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP): A protocol that is used to establish multimedia communication sessions between two or more users over an IP network, as described in [RFC3261].

Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) address: A URI that does not include a "sip:" prefix and is used to establish multimedia communications sessions between two or more users over an IP network, as described in [RFC3261].

session key: A symmetric key that is derived from a master key and is used to encrypt or authenticate a specific media stream by using the Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP) and Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SSRTP).

session recycling: A process in which active sessions (2) are closed to start new sessions and to limit the total number of active sessions.

session state: In ASP.NET, a variable store on a server for storing and retrieving values for a user while the user navigates ASP.NET pages in a web application. Session state is typically used to store user-specific information between postbacks. Each user maintains a separate session state on the server.

Setting: A partition of a metadata store. It is used to store Properties, localized names, and access control entries (ACEs) for MetadataObjects.

setup path: The location where supporting files for a product or technology are installed.

SHA-1: An algorithm that generates a 160-bit hash value from an arbitrary amount of input data, as described in [RFC3174]. SHA-1 is used with the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) in the Digital Signature Standard (DSS), in addition to other algorithms and standards.

SHA-256: An algorithm that generates a 256-bit hash value from an arbitrary amount of input data, as described in [FIPS180-2].

shade: A color that is mixed with black. A 10-percent shade is one part of the original color and nine parts black.

shadow effect: A formatting effect that makes a font or object appear to be elevated from the page or screen surface, and therefore casts a shadow.

shallow refinement: A type of query refinement that is based on the aggregation of managed property statistics for only some results of a search query. The number of refined results varies according to implementation. See also deep refinement.

shape: A collection of qualifiers, such as names, and quantifiers, such as coordinates, that is used to represent a geometric object. A shape can be contained in a document, file structure, run-time structure, or other medium.

shape identifier: An integer that corresponds to a shape object or an instantiation of a shape object.

shared lock: A condition in which multiple protocol clients or protocol servers can read or write data concurrently, but no transaction can acquire an exclusive lock on the data until all of the shared locks have been released.

shared search scope: An administrator-defined restriction (1) that can be added to a query to limit query results to a collection of content. This restriction is available to multiple site collections.

Shared Services Provider (SSP): A logical grouping of shared service applications, and their supporting resources, that can be configured and managed from a single server and can be used by multiple server farms.

shared space: A set of tools that is synchronized between different endpoints (3), as described in [MS-GRVDYNM].

shared view: A view of a list or Web Parts Page that every user who has the appropriate permissions can see.

shared workbook: A workbook that is configured to enable multiple users on a network to view and make changes to it at the same time. Each user who saves the workbook sees the changes that are made by other users.

sheet: (1) A part of an Excel workbook. There are four types of sheets: worksheet, macro sheet, dialog sheet, and chart sheet. Multiple sheets are stored together within a workbook.

(2) A worksheet. The term sheet frequently refers to a worksheet because worksheets are the most common type of sheet.

sheet stream: See stream (1) and document stream.

sheet tab: A control that is used to select a sheet.

sheet view: A collection of display settings, such as which cells are shown, and the zoom level for a sheet window.

shrink to fit: The process of adjusting the font size of text in a cell to fit the current height and width of the cell.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP): A member of the TCP/IP suite of protocols that is used to transport Internet messages, as described in [RFC5321].

Simple Symmetric Transport Protocol (SSTP): A protocol that enables two applications to engage in bi-directional, asynchronous communication. SSTP supports multiple application endpoints (5) over a single network connection between client nodes.

Simple Symmetric Transport Protocol Security Protocol (SSTP) security: An independent sub-protocol that is exchanged within defined Simple Symmetric Transport Protocol (SSTP) messages, and is used for mutual authentication (2) between a relay server and a client device or an account.

Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN): A protocol that enables applications to discover the presence of and types of network address translations (NATs) and firewalls that exist between those applications and the Internet.

simple type: An element that can contain only text and appears as <simpleType> in an XML document or any attribute (1) of an element. Attributes are considered simple types because they contain only text. See also complex type.

single sign-on (SSO): A process that enables users who have a domain user account to log on to a network and gain access to any computer or resource in the domain without entering their credentials multiple times.

single sign-on (SSO) ticket: A token that contains the encrypted identity of a single sign-on (SSO) user in the form of a security identifier string and a nonce.

single-value property: A property that can have only one value and can be added, modified, or deleted by using a Change Type operation.

SIP element: An entity that understands the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

SIP message: The data that is exchanged between Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) elements as part of the protocol. An SIP message is either a request or a response.

SIP protocol client: A network client that sends Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) requests and receives SIP responses. An SIP client does not necessarily interact directly with a human user. User agent clients (UACs) and proxies are SIP clients.

SIP registrar: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) server that accepts REGISTER requests and places the information that it receives from those requests into the location service for the domain that it handles.

SIP request: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) message that is sent from a user agent client (UAC) to a user agent server (UAS) to call a specific operation.

SIP response: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) message that is sent from a user agent server (UAS) to a user agent client (UAC) to indicate the status of a request from the UAC to the UAS.

SIP response code: A three-digit code in a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) message, as described in [RFC3261].

SIP transaction: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) exchange that occurs between a user agent client (UAC) and a user agent server (UAS). This transaction comprises all of the messages that are exchanged, including the first request from the UAC to the UAS and the final response from the UAS to the UAC. If a request is INVITE, the SIP transaction can also include an ACK to the response.

site: (1) A group of related webpages that is hosted by a server on the World Wide Web or an intranet. Each website has its own entry points, metadata, administration settings, and workflows. Also referred to as web site.

(2) A group of related pages and data within a SharePoint site collection. The structure and content of a site is based on a site definition. Also referred to as SharePoint site and web site.

site certification: The process of confirming that a site is being used.

site collection: A set of websites (1) that are in the same content database, have the same owner, and share administration settings. A site collection can be identified by a GUID or the URL of the top-level site for the site collection. Each site collection contains a top-level site, can contain one or more subsites, and can have a shared navigational structure.

site collection administrator: A user who has administrative permissions for a site collection.

site collection flag: A 4-byte unsigned integer bit mask that specifies the properties that are global to a site collection. One or more values can be set for this bit mask.

site collection group: A named collection of users and domain groups that can be managed for a site collection or site. A group can be used to assign permission levels, send email messages, and indicate site membership for multiple users simultaneously.

site collection identifier: A GUID that identifies a site collection. In stored procedures, the identifier is typically "@SiteId" or "@WebSiteId". In databases, the identifier is typically "SiteId/tp_SiteId".

site collection quota: An option for a site collection that enables administrators to set levels for maximum storage allowed, maximum number of users allowed, and warnings that are associated with the maximum levels.

site column: A field that can be associated with a content type or list within a site or site collection.

site content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for lists within individual sites.

site definition: A family of site definition configurations. Each site definition specifies a name and contains a list of associated site definition configurations.

site definition configuration: An XML-based definition of lists, features, modules, and other data that collectively define a type of SharePoint site. Site definition configurations are stored in the ONET.xml file.

site definition version: A zero-based integer that indicates the version number of a site definition. It is suggested that the version number be increased each time a site definition is updated.

site description: A description of a site as it appears to users.

site hop: The process of traversing from one website to another during a crawl. See also page hop.

site identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a site in a site collection.

site membership: The status of being a member of a site and having a defined set of user rights for accessing or managing content on that site.

site scope: A type of search scope that can be added to a query to limit query results to a specific site collection or site.

site solution: A deployable, reusable package that contains a set of features, site definitions, and assemblies that apply to sites, and can be enabled or disabled individually.

site subscription: A logical grouping of site collections that share a common set of features and service data.

site subscription identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a site subscription.

site template: An XML-based definition of site settings, including formatting, lists, views, and elements such as text, graphics, page layout, and styles. Site templates are stored in .stp files in the content database.

site title: A title of a site as it appears to users.

site-collection relative URL: A URL that is relative to the site collection that contains a resource, and does not begin with a leading slash (/).

site-relative URL: A URL that is relative to the site that contains a resource and does not begin with a leading slash (/).

slice: A subset of the data in a cube. It is specified by limiting one or more dimensions based on members of those dimensions.

slicer: A mechanism that is used to filter data in one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions.

slicer header: A user interface element that displays the caption for a slicer that can be or is being used to filter one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions. It also provides a command button for removing all applied filters.

slicer item: A user interface element that displays filter values that can be applied to one or more PivotTable reports or cube functions by using a slicer.

slide: A frame that contains text, shapes, pictures, or other content. A slide is a digital equivalent to a traditional film slide.

slide layout: An organizational scheme, such as Title Only or Comparison, for content on a presentation slide.

Slide Library: A type of a document library that is optimized for storing and reusing presentation slides that conform to the format described in [ISO/IEC-29500:2008].

slide show: A delivery of a sequence of presentation slides, typically to an audience.

slide show broadcast: A delivery of a sequence of presentation slides, typically to an audience, as a single session between a protocol server and one or more protocol clients.

smart document: A file that is programmed to assist the user as the user creates or updates the document. Several types of files, such as forms and templates, can also function as smart documents.

smart tag: A feature that adds the ability to recognize and label specific data types, such as people's names, within a document and displays an action button that enables users to perform common tasks for that data type.

smart tag actions button: A user interface control that displays a menu of actions that are associated with a specific smart tag.

smart tag indicator: A triangular symbol that appears in the bottom right corner of a cell and indicates that the cell contains a smart tag.

smart tag recognizer: An add-in that can interpret a specific type of smart tag, such as an address or a financial symbol, in a document and display an action button that enables users to perform common tasks for that data type.

SmartArt: A type of graphical element, such as a diagram or image, that automatically positions and combines images with text to produce a well-formatted and well-designed graphic.

snapshot: A copy of a workbook that contains only values and formatting. It does not contain any formulas or data connections.

SOAP envelope: The outermost element of a SOAP message, as described in [SOAP1.1].

SOAP fault code: An element within a SOAP message that identifies the code for an error, as described in [SOAP1.1], [SOAP1.2/1], and [SOAP1.2/2].

SOAP fault detail: An element within a SOAP message that describes the cause of an error, as described in [SOAP1.1].

SOAP header block: An element that is used to delimit data that logically constitutes a single computational unit within a SOAP header, as described in [SOAP1.1]. The type of a SOAP header block is identified by the expanded name of the header block element.

SOAP Message: The data encapsulated in a SOAP envelope that flows back and forth between a protocol client and a web service, as described in [SOAP1.1].

SOAP node: An element in a SOAP message that identifies the node on a SOAP message path that causes a fault to occur, as described in [SOAP1.1].

SOAP operation: An action that can be performed by a Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) service, as described in [SOAP1.1].

social comment: A user-defined string that represents a user's remarks about a webpage or item on a SharePoint site or the Internet. Individual users create these comments and, by default, share them with other users.

social data: A collection of ratings, tags, and comments about webpages and items on a SharePoint site or the Internet. Individual users create this data and, by default, share it with other users.

social networking: The use of websites and services that provide enhanced information and interaction capabilities with regard to people and resources.

social rating: A user-defined value that indicates the perceived quality of a webpage or item on a SharePoint site or the Internet. Individual users create these ratings and, by default, share them with other users.

social tag: A user-defined keyword and hyperlink to a webpage or item on a SharePoint site or the Internet. Individual users create these tags and, by default, share them with other users.

SOCKS proxy: A network device that routes network packets between protocol clients and protocol servers by using the SOCKS protocol and the proxy server features that are described in [RFC1928].

solution gallery: A gallery (1) that is used to store solution packages.

solution identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a custom solution for deploying code or content, such as a content type or feature, to a site or site collection.

solution package: A compressed file that can be deployed to a server farm or a site. It can contain assemblies, resource files, site and feature definitions, templates, code access security policies, and Web Parts. Solution packages have a .wsp file name extension.

sort: A process that arranges cells in ascending or descending order, based on cell content.

sort condition: A condition that determines how to sort cells in a range.

sort order: (1) A set of rules in a search query that defines the order of relevant results. Each rule consists of a managed property, such as modified date or size, and a direction for order, such as ascending or descending. Multiple rules are applied sequentially.

(2) A specific arrangement of cells that is based on cell content. The order can be ascending or descending.

(3) The order in which the rows in a Table object are requested to appear. This can involve sorting on multiple properties and sorting of categories (5).

source data: The data that is used as the basis for charts, PivotTable reports, and other data visualization features.

source term: A specific instance of a term, in a specific term set, that is used to define permissions for the term.

spam: An unsolicited email message.

sparkline: A miniature chart that can be inserted into text or embedded in a cell on a worksheet to illustrate highs, lows, and trends in data.

special folder: One of a default set of Folder objects that can be used by an implementation to store and retrieve user data objects.

SpecificFinder: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a specific EntityInstance of a specific Entity given its EntityInstanceId. SpecificFinder input is defined and ordered by the Identifiers that are associated with the Entity that is associated with the Method that is associated with the SpecificFinder.

spell tuning: An entity of a search service application that is used to align spelling checker dictionaries with the content in a search index.

split pane: A pane that consists of two or more discrete areas of a window. Each area displays content and scrolls independently from other areas of the window. See also frozen panes.

SplitButtonMRUPopup control: A type of SplitButtonPopup control whose icon changes to reflect the command that the user most recently selected from the menu that is displayed by that button.

SplitButtonPopup control: A type of Button control that performs an action when clicked, and can also display a menu of related commands when the user clicks a drop-down arrow that appears on the button.

SplitDropDown control: A type of Button control that performs a default action when clicked, and can also expand to display a list of other possible actions when the user clicks a drop-down arrow that appears on the button.

spreadsheet data model: A local Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) storage of data used by a spreadsheet application.

SQL authentication: One of two mechanisms for validating attempts to connect to instances of SQL Server. In SQL authentication, users specify a SQL Server login name and password when they connect. The SQL Server instance ensures that the login name and password combination are valid before permitting the connection to succeed.

SQL collation name: A string that specifies the collation name for a SQL Server collation.

SQL statement: A complete phrase in SQL that begins with a keyword and completely describes an action to be taken on data.

sRGB: A standard color space that enables various devices, including cameras, scanners, displays, and printers, to produce colors that are reasonably identical, as described in [IEC-RGB].

SsoTicketFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used in conjunction with a single sign-on (SSO) system to transmit an SSO ticket to a line-of-business (LOB) system.

staging object: A block of data that represents an instance of an object type as defined in the connected data source.

Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML): The international standard for organizing and tagging elements and data in a document. SGML itself does not define any specific formatting; rather, it defines the rules for tagging elements. Tags can then be interpreted to format elements in different ways.

start address: A URL that identifies a point at which to start a crawl. Administrators specify start addresses when they create or edit a content source.

start URI: A URI that identifies a point at which to start a crawl.

startup directory: The directory from which an application opens data files when the application starts.

state changing: A type of operation that changes the state of a session.

static CSOM method: A class method that is accessed through the type name rather than an instance of the class.

static page: A webpage that is prepared before a request is received for it and is sent to the protocol client upon request. A static page neither takes nor requires any special processing when it is requested.

static rank: The component of a rank that does not depend on a search query. It represents the perceived importance of an item and can be related to the origin of the item, and relationships between the item and other items or business rules that are defined in the search application. See also dynamic rank.

Status-Code: A 3-digit integer result code in an HTTP response message, as described in [RFC2616].

Status-Line: The first line of an HTTP response message, as described in [RFC2616].

stemming: A type of query expansion that factors relationships between words by reducing inflected words to their stem form or expanding stems to their inflected forms. For example, the words "swimming" and "swam" can be associated with the stem "swim."

stemming by expansion: A process that is used to index a word in an item, both as it appears in the item and with all grammatical variants of that word, at the same index position in a search index.

stemming by reduction: A process that is used to index a word in an item, both as it appears in the item and with the grammatical base form of that word, at the same index position in a search index.

stock chart: A custom chart type that is designed to display stock market data on multiple series; for example, high, low, close, and volume.

stop word: A language-specific token that is not indexed and is ignored in a query. It typically has low semantic content and is used only for grammatical purposes, for example “a” and “and” in the English language.

storage: An element of a compound file that is a unit of containment for one or more storages and streams, analogous to directories in a file system, as described in [MS-CFB].

stored procedure: A precompiled collection of SQL statements and, optionally, control-of-flow statements that are stored under a name and processed as a unit. They are stored in a SQL database and can be run with one call from an application. Stored procedures return an integer return code and can additionally return one or more result sets. Also referred to as sproc.

store-relative form: See store-relative URL.

store-relative URL: A URL that consists only of a path segment and does not include the leading and trailing slash.

stream: (1) An element of a compound file, as described in [MS-CFB]. A stream contains a sequence of bytes that can be read from or written to by an application, and they can exist only in storages.

(2) A flow of data from one host to another host, or the data that flows between two hosts.

stream binary piece: A block of binary data containing the length (in bytes) of a data stream and the data stream itself.

stream cipher: A cryptographic algorithm that transforms plaintext bits into cipher text one bit or byte at a time. When the process is reversed, cipher text is transformed into plaintext one bit or byte at a time. See also block cipher.

stream identifier: A 64-bit integer that uniquely specifies a stream binary piece.

stream partition: A byte that identifies the container for a stream binary piece.

stream schema: A numeric selector that specifies the format of a file’s stream binary pieces.

StreamAccessor: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve a Field (4) of an EntityInstance in the form of a data stream of bytes.

strikethrough formatting: A formatting option in which characters are crossed out by horizontal line.

string SID: A string that represents a security identifier (SID), as described in [MS-DTYP].

stripe band: One or more adjacent columns (2) or rows (2) that are in a table and have the same stripe formatting.

stripe formatting: A table formatting option that applies background colors to alternating rows (2) or columns (2) to increase legibility.

stroke order: A sort order that arranges items in a sort range according to the number of strokes that is used to write each glyph. Stroke order is used when sorting text that is written in some East Asian languages.

strong name: A name that consists of the simple text name, version number, and culture information of an assembly, strengthened by a public key and a digital signature that is generated over the assembly.

Structured Query Language (SQL): A database query and programming language that is widely used for accessing, querying, updating, and managing data in relational database systems.

style: A set of formatting options that is applied to text, tables, charts, and other objects in a document.

subdomain: A DNS domain that is located directly beneath another domain name, referred to as the parent domain, in a namespace tree. For example, example.microsoft.com is a subdomain of the microsoft.com domain.

submit: The process of sending data to an external data source such as a web service, database, Internet message, or SharePoint site.

SUBSCRIBE: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to request asynchronous notification of an event or a set of events at a later time.

subscriber: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client that is making a SUBSCRIBE request.

subscription: The result of a SUBSCRIBE request from a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) element.

subsite: A complete website that is stored in a named subdirectory of another website. The parent website can be the top-level site of a site collection or another subsite. Also referred to as subweb.

substring search: An item and query processing operation that can be applied to text that is considered difficult to tokenize based on word dictionaries or grammatical rules.

summary: The orientation of outline expand and outline collapse symbols in relation to the data that is outlined.

summary class: A set of document summaries that are associated with an item in a search index.

Super P-frame (SP-frame): A special P-frame that uses the previous cached frame instead of the previous P-frame or I-frame as a reference frame.

surface chart: A chart that shows a three-dimensional surface that connects a set of data points. It can be used to determine the optimum combination between two sets of data.

survey list: A list that is preconfigured and optimized for conducting surveys and compiling survey results into graphical views.

survivable mode: A mode that enables a protocol client to access basic voice services if some server or network resources are unavailable.

symbol file: A file that contains information about an executable image, including the names and addresses of functions and variables.

synchronization engine: A code module that creates an integrated view of objects that are stored in multiple, connected data sources, and manages information in those data sources.

Synchronization Source (SSRC): A 32-bit identifier that uniquely identifies a media stream (2) in a Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) session. An SSRC value is part of an RTP packet header, as described in [RFC3550].

synthetic context catalog: See context catalog.

system alert: An alert (1) notification that is sent by a protocol server to the user to whom a task or issue is assigned.

system palette: An itemization of all of the colors that can be displayed by the operating system for a device.

system resources: The physical resources of a server computer, such as memory, disk space, CPU, and network bandwidth.

SystemID: A binary identifier that is used to uniquely identify a security principal (2). For Windows integrated authentication, it is a security identifier (SID). For an ASP.NET Forms Authentication provider, it is the binary representation that is derived from a combination of the provider name and the user login name.

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