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back link attribute: A constructed attribute whose values include object references (for example, an attribute of syntax Object(DS-DN)). The back link values are derived from the values of a related attribute, a forward link attribute, on other objects. If f is the forward link attribute, one back link value exists on object o for each object r that contains a value of o for attribute f. The relationship between the forward link attributes and back link attributes is expressed using the linkId attribute on the attributeSchema objects representing the two attributes. The forward link's linkId is an even number, and the back link's linkId is the forward link's linkId plus one. For more information, see [MS-ADTS] section 3.1.1.1.6.

back link value: The value of a back link attribute.

back-end database server: A server that hosts data, configuration settings, and stored procedures that are associated with one or more applications.

background color: A color against which characters, patterns, and graphics are displayed. See also foreground color.

backward link: A hyperlink between a referenced document and a referencing party. For example, if Document A contains a hyperlink to Document B, then Document B has a backward link to Document A.

banding: (1) A process and collection of settings that are used to define thresholds or boundaries between changes in indicator statuses. See also column banding and row banding.

(2) A printing technique in which an application prints an image by dividing it into a number of bands and sending each band to the printer separately.

bandwidth management endpoint: A protocol client that communicates with a protocol server to discover and enforce applicable bandwidth policies, and to track and send updates about bandwidth utilization to that server.

base: The base of a host candidate is the host candidate itself. The base of server reflexive candidates and peer reflexive candidates is the host candidate from which they are derived. The base of a relayed candidate is the relayed candidate itself.

base field type: An XML-based schema that defines the type of data, such as formatted text or an integer, that can be entered and stored in a field in a list (1). Every field in a list (1) is derived from a specific base field type.

base type: An XML-based schema that defines the data and rendering fields that can be used in a list (1). Every list is derived from a specific base type.

base URI: A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that is specified for a web resource to convert all relative URIs in that resource to absolute URIs. A base URI ends with either a file name, such as http://www.example.com/sample.htm, or a slash, such as http://www.example.com/subdir/.

base URL: A URL that is specified for a web resource to convert all relative URLs in that resource to absolute URLs. A base URL ends with either a file name, such as http://www.example.com/sample.htm, or a slash, such as http://www.example.com/subdir/. See also absolute URL.

base view: An XML-based schema that defines the data and rendering fields that can be used in a list view. Every list view is derived from a specific base view.

base view identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a view definition for a list (1).

base16: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters. Base16 uses only the digits 0 through 9 and the letters A through F.

base64: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters.

base64 encoding: A binary-to-text encoding scheme whereby an arbitrary sequence of bytes is converted to a sequence of printable ASCII characters, as described in [RFC4648].

baseline: The imaginary line to which the bottom of the lowercase "x" character in a font typeface is aligned.

basic authentication scheme: An HTTP-based authentication (2) method that enables a protocol client to authenticate itself by passing a user identifier and password, as described in [RFC2617].

Basic Encoding Rules (BER): A set of encoding rules for ASN.1 notation. These encoding schemes allow the identification, extraction, and decoding of data structures. These encoding rules are defined in [ITUX690].

basic page: A Web Parts Page that contains only one Web Part zone and, by default, a Content Editor Web Part.

basic scope index: A scope index file that contains records with basic scope index keys or anchor scope index keys.

basic scope index key: An index key that references a scope index record and contains information about a property and its value.

basic toolbar: A toolbar that consists of a row, column, or block of buttons, each of which perform an action when activated. Unlike a menu toolbar, which displays only text labels, a basic toolbar can display both text and icons.

BatchingPositionFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. Its value represents the current position of a batch, if the LOB system can return data in batches. When requesting a new batch, the filter can be populated with the position of the last batch.

BatchingTerminationFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. Its value can be used to identify the last batch, if the LOB system can return data in batches.

before event: A synchronous event whose handler runs completely before the action that raised the event is finalized. Unlike an after event, a before event handler can cancel the action that caused the event, before that action or related actions are complete. See also after event.

beginning-of-file (BOF) key: An index key that is stored near the beginning of a content index file. It references a content index record that stores the maximum occurrence for a specified property.

best bet: A URL that a site collection administrator assigns to a keyword as being relevant for that keyword. See also visual best bet.

Best Effort NOTIFY (BENOTIFY): A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to send notifications to a subscriber, as described in [MS-SIP]. Unlike the NOTIFY method, the BENOTIFY method does not require the recipient of the request to send a SIP response.

best route: The optimal route to a network destination, based on specified criteria. This concept is based on the fact that there is a certain "cost" involved in taking a route across a network. The best route to take is the one with the lowest cost, based on specified criteria. This criteria can include the number of networks crossed, the type of network crossed (for example, public or private), or a monetary or bandwidth limit.

beta: A pre-released version of a product that is sent to customers and partners for evaluation and feedback.

B-frame: A bidirectional video frame that references both the previous frame and the next frame.

big-endian: Multiple-byte values that are byte-ordered with the most significant byte stored in the memory location with the lowest address.

Binary Interchange File Format (BIFF): The binary file formats that are used to save Excel workbooks.

binary large image or picture (BLIP): A binary data structure that stores information about a metafile image or bitmap picture.

binary large object (BLOB): (1) A discrete packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.

(2) A collection of binary data stored as a single entity in a database.

BinarySecurityDescriptorAccessor: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve a sequence of bytes from a line-of-business (LOB) system. The system-specific byte sequence describes a set of security principals (2) and the associated permissions that each security principal (2) has for the EntityInstance identified by a specified EntityInstanceId.

bind: (1) The process of connecting controls to fields or groups in the data source (2) of an InfoPath form. When controls are bound to fields and groups, changes to the data in a control automatically update the data that is in the corresponding fields or groups in the data source. Similarly, changes to the data in the data source automatically update the data that is displayed in the controls that are bound to the corresponding fields and groups.

(2) To associate two EntityType [MC-CSDL] instances. An EntityType instance in a data service (described by using Entity Data Model (EDM) constructs) may be related to one or more other conceptual schema definition language (CSDL) instances. This relationship is represented by using an association in an EDM. The cardinality of a relationship can be determined by inspecting the EDM that describes the data service. The act of associating two EntityType instances is known as "binding" and of disassociating two instances is known as "unbinding". If two EntityType instances are already associated, they are considered to be "bound".

bitmap: A collection of structures that contain a representation of a graphical image, a logical palette, dimensions and other information.

BitStream: A sequence of bits that represents the compressed data for a full-text index catalog.

BitStream file: A content index file, a scope index file, or a content index extension (.cix) file that is used to store compressed data for a full-text index catalog. It stores the data as a series of BitStreams that are organized into BitStream pages.

blind carbon copy (bcc) recipient: An addressee whose name is not visible to other addressees of an Internet message.

block: (1) A set of deltas that are used to define an order for those deltas. Each block consists of one or more groups of deltas.

(2) A subdivision of a segment. Each segment is divided into blocks of equal size (64 kilobytes (KB)) except for the last block in the last segment, which can be smaller if the content size is not a multiple of the standard segment sizes. In version 2.0 Content Information, segments are not divided into blocks.

(3) A chunk of content that composes a segment. Each segment is divided into one or more blocks. Every block belongs to a specific segment, and within a segment, blocks are identified by their progressive index. (Block 0 is the first block in the segment, block 1 is the second, and so on.) See [MS-PCCRC] for more details.

block cipher: A cryptographic algorithm that transforms a group of plaintext bits, referred to as a block, into a fixed-size block of cipher text. When the process is reversed, a fixed-size block of cipher text is transformed into a block of plaintext bits. See also stream cipher.

block-level formatting: A type of formatting that can be applied to a field or column (2) in a table. It is applied to all existing records and automatically to new records.

blog: (1) A website that contains a series of posts about a subject and is arranged in reverse chronological order. Also referred to as web log.

(2) The process of writing or publishing entries to a blog.

body part: A part of an Internet message, as described in [RFC2045].

bookmark: (1) An entity that is used in a document to denote the beginning and ending character positions of specific text in the document, and optionally, metadata about that text or its relationship to other referenced parts of the document.

(2) A data structure that the server uses to point to a position in the Table object. There are three pre-defined bookmarks (beginning, end, and current). A custom bookmark is a server-specific data structure that can be stored by the client for easily navigating a Table object.

(3) A marker that uniquely identifies a row within a set of rows.

(4) An anchor that is used in a report to assist navigation, typically through the use of hyperlinks. A bookmark link in a report sends the user to another location in the report.

Boolean: An operation or expression that can be evaluated only as either true or false.

border: A line that can be applied to the outer edge of a cell, shape, object, or chart element. A border can be variously formatted for style, color, and thickness.

border formatting: A set of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a border, such as color, line style, and thickness.

border style: See border formatting.

border thickness: A property of a border that specifies how thick a border line is drawn.

bot: A structured HTML comment that is processed by a front-end web server when the containing document is opened by or saved to the server. Also referred to as web bot.

bottom N filter: A filter that matches the smallest numerical values or oldest time and date values in a specified range.

bottom N filter by count: A type of bottom N filter that matches the N smallest numerical values or the N oldest time and date values.

bottom N filter by percent: A type of bottom N filter that matches the N percent smallest numerical values or the N percent oldest time and date values.

bottom N filter by sum: A type of bottom N filter that matches the smallest numerical values or the oldest time and date values whose sum is equal to or greater than N.

bounding rectangle: A frame that encompasses an object. A bounding rectangle is not rotated and, therefore, always aligns along the x and y axes.

broadcast: (1) A style of resource location in which a client makes a request to all parties on the network simultaneously (a one-to-many communication). Also, a mode of resource location that does not use a name service.

(2) A style of resource location or data transmission in which a client makes a request to all parties on a network simultaneously (a one-to-many communication). Also, a mode of resource location that does not use a name service.

(3) An action of sending the same fax to multiple recipients.

(4) The sending of a frame to the Ethernet broadcast domain by an LLTD-capable station.

(5) Live or prerecorded content that can be streamed to more than one client simultaneously. The server streams the content to all clients from the same location, and does not allow clients to seek.

broadcast session: A sharing session initiated by a presenter that is used for sharing the presenter's view of a document with one or more attendees.

browser-compatible form template: A form template that is designed for publication to a protocol server that is running InfoPath Forms Services.

browser-enable: The process of converting an InfoPath form template into a format that can be rendered in a web browser, and publishing it to and activating it on a protocol server that is running InfoPath Forms Services.

browser-enabled form template: A form template that is published to a protocol server that is running InfoPath Forms Services and is also activated for use on that server.

bubble size: A value that represents the diameter of a bubble in a bubble chart.

bucket: (1) A collection of items that were requested by a search application during a crawl. An item can be a person, a document, or any other type of item that can be crawled.

(2) A positive integer value that represents a mapping for a specific error signature.

(3) A positive integer value that is assigned to a particular error signature by a hosted error reporting service.

bucket web: A site that is used to store content for a specific category (1).

build: (1) An animation effect that is applied to content on a presentation slide. The complete animation for a given piece of content is specified as a sequence of builds, where each build causes parts of the content to appear, disappear, move, or be emphasized in some manner.

(2) See build number.

build dependency set: A serialized .NET Framework object that represents a set of file dependencies.

build identifier: An integer that identifies a build (1).

build number: (1) A part of a sequential numbering system that is used to differentiate one version of a software product from another.

(2) A unique number identifying the version of an application, in this case the Terminal Services (TS) client.

built-in control: A control that is included with Microsoft InfoPath and appears by default in the Controls pane.

built-in name: A member of the group of defined names that are reserved for specific functionality.

BulkAssociatedIdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve pairs of EntityInstanceIds of source EntityInstances and EntityInstanceIds of corresponding destination EntityInstances for a specified Association. The specified EntityInstances are either a source or a destination in the specified Association.

BulkAssociationNavigator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve destination EntityInstances that are associated with multiple specified EntityInstances for each of the sources of the specified Association.

BulkIdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve a set of EntityInstanceIds and a small subset of important Fields of the EntityInstances that are identified by the specified set of EntityInstanceIds.

BulkSpecificFinder: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return a set of specific EntityInstances of an Entity, given a set of corresponding EntityInstanceIds.

Business Connectivity Services (BCS): A set of services that enables interaction and integration with back-end data in a line-of-business (LOB) system, including external data and related services. BCS includes the Business Data Connectivity (BDC) service.

Business Data Connectivity (BDC): A shared service that stores information about business application data that exists outside a server farm. It can be used to display business data in lists, Web Parts, search results, user profiles, and custom applications. Previously referred to as Business Data Catalog.

business logic: (1) A set of rules, formulas, validation, and code that define the limits and methods for processing data that is entered into an InfoPath form.

(2) The part of an application that processes data according to the requirements defined in a line-of-business (LOB) system. It refers to the routines that perform the data entry, update, query, and report processing, and more specifically to the processing that takes place behind the scenes rather than the presentation logic that is required to display the data.

Business Logic Module: A module that contains Business Logic software and is called to enforce data constraints or perform tasks that are loaded and executed in a host-specific run-time environment.

business object: An object that performs a defined set of operations, such as data validation or business logic (2) rules, related to a business process or workflow.

business rule: A user-defined process that can proactively manage data within the Master Data Services database.

ButtonPopup control: A type of Button control that displays a menu of related commands when activated.

byte order mark: A Unicode character that is used to indicate that text is encoded in UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-32.

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