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cabinet (.cab) file: A single file that stores multiple compressed files to facilitate storage or transmission.

cached frame: A video frame that is cached for later use by an encoder and a decoder. A cached frame acts as a reference frame for the next Super P-frame (SP-frame). I-frames and SP-frames typically are cached frames.

calculate: The process by which computations in a workbook are performed.

calculated column: A column (2) in a table that contains a formula that is copied automatically to each record in the column.

calculation mode: A setting that determines whether the formulas in a worksheet are recalculated automatically or manually. See also automatic calculation mode and manual calculation mode.

Calendar object: A Message object that represents an event, which can be a one-time event or a recurring event. The Calendar object includes properties that specify event details such as description, organizer, date and time, and status.

call: A communication between peers that is configured for a multimedia conversation.

call park service (CPS): A server endpoint (5) that allows a user agent to make a call inactive without terminating that call. The call can then be reactivated by the same user agent, by using the same or a different endpoint (5), or a different user agent. See also parking lot.

callback: (1) A concept in which the originator of a call is called back by the responder. In dial-up communication (like ISDN/PSTN), the originator of the dial-up hangs up after indicating the interest to be called back. The responder then calls up the originator to establish the communication.

(2) The mechanism through which a remote access client gets called back by the server in order to establish connectivity.

callee: An endpoint (5) to which a call is initiated by a caller.

caller: (1) An endpoint (5) that initiates a call to establish a media session.

(2) The originator of a call. The network access client (NAC) is typically the caller. The NAC and NAS might choose to negotiate and use callback, in which case the caller role is reversed for the callback itself, with the NAS being the caller.

camera: A virtual representation of a camera that controls the position of the viewer window inside the 3-D environment.

candidate: A set of transport addresses that form an atomic unit for use with a media session. For example, in the case of Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) there are two transport addresses for each candidate, one for RTP and another for the Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP). A candidate has properties such as type, priority, foundation, and base.

candidate identifier: A random string that uniquely identifies a candidate.

candidate pair: A set of candidates that is formed from a local candidate and a remote candidate.

canonical URL: An absolute URL that identifies a space, tool, or component the same way on any device.

canvas: An area upon which multiple shapes can be drawn or displayed. The shapes can be moved and resized as a unit because they are contained within the drawing canvas.

caption: One or more characters that can be used as a label for display purposes or as an identifier.

carbon copy (cc) recipient: In an Internet message, an addressee whose name is visible to other addressees and is not necessarily expected to take any action. The message is for informational purposes only for that addressee.

card selector: Software that enables a user to select a digital identity to transmit to a relying party. When a user selects a card, the card selector obtains the claims (2) from the associated claims provider and transmits those claims (2) to the relying party application on behalf of the user.

cardinality: The measure of the number of elements in a set.

Cartridge: A unit of physical media on which information may be stored. Cartridges come in various types, including 8-mm tape, magnetic disks, optical disks, and CD-ROMs. Some cartridges have multiple sides.

cascading style sheet (CSS): An extension to HTML that enables authors and users of HTML documents to attach style sheets to those documents, as described in [CSS-LEVEL1] and [CSS-LEVEL2]. A style sheet includes typographical information about the appearance of a page, including the font for text on the page.

catalog: (1) A table that defines the structure and relationships of a set of tables in a database.

(2) A data store that holds the configuration properties for components and conglomerations.

(3) The highest-level unit of organization in the indexing service. It represents a set of indexed documents against which queries can be executed by using the [MS-MCIS].

(4) The highest-level unit of organization in the Windows Search service. It represents a set of indexed documents against which queries can be executed by using the [MS-WSP].

catalog friendly URL: A web address that is designed to be easily readable by both people and search engine web crawler programs. This type of URL has additional segments appended to control the webpage content.

catalog friendly URL suffix: The additional segment that is appended to a friendly Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in order to construct a catalog friendly URL.

category: (1) A custom string that is used to group one or more documents.

(2) A string that is used as a suggestion for a document category on a site.

(3) A subdivision of items into useful groups such as geographical regions. For example, categories that represent geographical regions could be North, South, East, and West.

(4) An enhanced presence concept that is used by a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) client to publish or subscribe to presence (2) information. A category enables basic identification of the data that is being published; it implies an agreed-upon schema for interpreting the data. A category name identifies a contract between a publisher and a subscriber.

(5) A grouping of rows in a Table object that all have the same value for a specified property.

(6) A logical grouping of updates identified by a GUID and described by metadata. A category can be treated as an update with no associated content.

(7) A hierarchical grouping of rows. For example, a query result that contains author and title columns can be categorized based on author. Each group of rows containing the same value for author would constitute a category.

(8) A group of updates. Each update belongs to zero or more update categories. An update category can be a product category that contains updates for a particular product, or a classification category that contains updates of a particular classification (for example, all security updates). A category can have a parent category as well as child categories.

category subscriber: A SIP protocol client that sent a category (4) SUBSCRIBE request.

CDATA section: A section in an XML document that is bracketed by [!CDATA[ and ]] characters. All data in this section, including markup tags, is treated as normal characters by an XML parser.

cell: A box that is formed by the intersection of a row (2) and a column (2) in a worksheet or a table. A cell can contain numbers, strings, and formulas, and various formats can be applied to that data.

cell contents: The data inside a cell, such as text, values, formulas, and cell error values.

cell error value: Any of a number of special values that are returned as a result of an unsuccessful formula calculation.

cell formatting: The set of properties that, as a whole, specify the appearance of a cell, such as font characteristics and fill color.

cell margin: A measurement of the distance between the border of a cell and the nearest pixel in a character or digit of data in the cell. There are top, bottom, right, and left margins. See also cell spacing.

cell reference: A set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. For example, "B3" is the reference of a cell that appears at the intersection of column "B" and row "3".

cell spacing: A measurement of the distance between the cells of a table or worksheet. Most tables and worksheets are implemented with contiguous cells, in which case the cell spacing value is 0 (zero). See also cell margin.

cell value: The text or numeric content of a cell, or the results of a formula. A cell value does not include a formula expression, cell formatting, or other metadata.

center-across-selection alignment: A formatting setting that centers cell content horizontally within a selected range of cells.

Central Administration site: A SharePoint site that an administrator can use to manage all of the sites and servers in a server farm that is running SharePoint Products and Technologies.

CER server: A designated server application that acts as a recipient for the error report level 1 data and error report level 2 data that is created by the Corporate Error Reporting V.2 Protocol.

certificate: (1) A certificate is a collection of attributes (1) and extensions that can be stored persistently. The set of attributes in a certificate can vary depending on the intended usage of the certificate. A certificate securely binds a public key to the entity that holds the corresponding private key. A certificate is commonly used for authentication (2) and secure exchange of information on open networks, such as the Internet, extranets, and intranets. Certificates are digitally signed by the issuing certification authority (CA) (1) and can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service. The most widely accepted format for certificates is defined by the ITU-T X.509 version 3 international standards. For more information about attributes and extensions, see [RFC3280] and [X509] sections 7 and 8.

(2) When referring to X.509v3 certificates, that information consists of a public key, a distinguished name (DN) (3) of some entity assumed to have control over the private key corresponding to the public key in the certificate, and some number of other attributes and extensions assumed to relate to the entity thus referenced. Other forms of certificates can bind other pieces of information.

(3) As used in this document, certificates are expressed in [XRML] section 1.2.

certificate authority (CA): See certification authority (CA).

certificate chain: A sequence of certificates (1), where each certificate in the sequence is signed by the subsequent certificate. The last certificate in the chain is normally a self-signed certificate.

certification: The certificate (1) request and issuance process whereby an end entity (EE) first makes itself known to a certification authority (CA) (1) (directly, or through a registration authority) through the submission of a certificate enrollment request, prior to that CA issuing a certificate (1) or certificates (1) for that EE.

certification authority (CA): (1) A third party that issues public key certificates (1). Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) can decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive.

(2) A software component that issues digital (X.509) certificates (2) to identities based on a public/private key pair. For more information, see [RFC2865].

(3) A third party that issues public keycertificates. Certificates serve to bind public keys to a user identity. Each user and certification authority (CA) may decide whether to trust another user or CA for a specific purpose, and whether this trust should be transitive. For more information, see [RFC3280].

CGAPI: An API that is implemented by grammar checkers that have been licensed to Microsoft Corporation by external vendors.

challenge: A piece of data used to authenticate a user. Typically a challenge takes the form of a nonce.

Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP): A protocol for user authentication to a remote resource. For more information, see [RFC1994] and [RFC2759].

change log: A log of changes, such as add and delete, that are made to objects that are stored on a back-end database server. Applications can use this information to identify changes that occurred on those objects.

change token: A serialized token that can be used to determine whether changes occurred in the system. It can also be used to deserialize packages in the correct sequence during import or restore operations.

ChangedIdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to retrieve EntityInstanceIds of EntityInstances that were modified in a line-of-business (LOB) system after a specified time.

character pitch: A quality that measures the number of characters that can be printed in a horizontal inch. Pitch is typically used to measure monospace fonts.

character set: (1) A mapping between the characters of a written language and the values that are used to represent those characters to a computer.

(2) The range of characters used to represent textual data within a MIMEbody part, as described in [RFC2046].

(3) A mapping of characters to their identifying code values. For more information, see [MSDN-CS].

chart: An object that displays data or the relationships between sets of data in a visual form.

chart area: A region in a chart object that is used to position chart elements, render axes, and plot data.

chart data table: See data table (2).

chart sheet: A single logical container that is used to create and store charts in a workbook.

check in: The process of placing a file or project into a source repository. This releases the lock for editing and enables other users to view the updated file or check out the file. See also check out.

Check List: An ordered list of candidate pairs that determines the order in which connectivity checks are performed for those candidate pairs.

check out: The process of retrieving a writable copy of a file or project from a source repository. This locks the file for editing to prevent other users from overwriting or editing it inadvertently. See also check in.

checked out: A publishing level that indicates that a document has been created and locked for exclusive editing by a user in a version control system.

checksum: A value that is the summation of a byte stream. By comparing the checksums computed from a data item at two different times, one can quickly assess whether the data items are identical.

child: (1) An object that is immediately below the current object in a hierarchy.

(2) A data item within the Master Data Services (MDS) system that has a superior data item. A child in MDS can be a leaf member or a consolidated member.

child element: In an XML document, an element that is subordinate to and is contained by another element, which is referred to as the parent element.

child item query: A set of filters and options for retrieving child objects in a collection of CSOM Objects.

child PivotTable member: A PivotTable member that is one level lower in a dimension hierarchy, relative to another PivotTable member, which is referred to as its parent member. For example, a child of a Year member might be Quarter.

chunk: A sequence of words that are treated as a single unit by a module that checks spelling.

CIM: See Common Information Model (CIM).

cipher: A cryptographic algorithm used to encrypt and decrypt files and messages.

cipher block chaining (CBC): A method of encrypting multiple blocks of plaintext with a block cipher such that each ciphertext block is dependent on all previously processed plaintext blocks. In the CBC mode of operation, the first block of plaintext is XOR'd with an Initialization Vector (IV). Each subsequent block of plaintext is XOR'd with the previously generated ciphertext block before encryption with the underlying block cipher. To prevent certain attacks, the IV must be unpredictable, and no IV should be used more than once with the same key. CBC is specified in [SP800-38A] section 6.2.

cipher suite: A set of cryptographic algorithms used to encrypt and decrypt files and messages.

ciphertext: The encrypted form of a message. Ciphertext is achieved by encrypting the plaintext form of a message, and can be transformed back to plaintext by decrypting it with the proper key. Without that transformation, a ciphertext contains no distinguishable information.

claim: (1) A set of operations that are performed on a workflow task to specify the user who owns it.

(2) A statement that one subject makes about itself or another subject. For example, the statement can be about a name, identity, key, group, privilege, or capability. Claims have a provider that issues them, and they are given one or more values. They are also defined by a claim value type and, possibly, associated metadata.

(3) An assertion about a security principal expressed as an n-tuple containing an {Identifier, ValueType and m-Values of type ValueType} where m > = 1. A claim with only 1 value in the n-tuple is called a single-valued claim and a claim with more than 1 value is called a multi-valued claim.

(4) A declaration made by an entity (for example, name, identity, key, group, privilege, and capability). For more information, see [WSFedPRP] sections 1.4 and 2.

claim issuer: A claims provider that issues a claim (2).

claim type: A statement that is part of a claim (2) and provides context for a claim value. It represents the type of claim and is typically a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Examples include FirstName and Role.

claim value: A string that represents the value of a statement in a claim (2). It specifies what is being asserted by a claim.

claim-based authentication mode: A set of operations that is used to establish trust relationships between claims providers and relying party applications. It involves the exchange of identifying certificates (1) that make it possible for a relying party to trust the content of a claim (2) that is issued by a claims provider.

claims provider: A software component or service that can be used to issue a claim (2) during sign-in operations and to display, resolve, and provide search capabilities for claims in a card selector.

claims provider schema: A schema that is used to specify which fields can be returned as metadata for a claim (2) that is issued by a specific claims provider.

class: (1) User-defined binary data that is associated with a key.

(2) A Remoting Type that encapsulates a set of named values and a set of methods that operate on those values. The named values are called Members of the Class. A Class is part of the Remoting Data Model. For more information, see [MS-NRTP] section 3.1.1.

(3) See object class.

(4) A reference to a class module whose methods and properties can be used within a report.

class factory: An object (3 or 4) whose purpose is to create objects (3 or 4) from a specific object class (3 or 4).

class identifier (CLSID): A GUID that identifies a software component; for instance, a DCOM object class (4) or a COM class.

class module: A module that contains the definition for a new object. Each instance of a class creates a new object, and procedures that are defined in the module become properties and methods of the object.

class name: The name that is used to refer to a class module that provides an implementation of a behavior.

classifier: A Unicode string used in conjunction with an authority to form a Peer Name.

clear all state: A condition in which no filter is applied to a worksheet, list, or PivotTable report.

client: (1) A computer on which the remote procedure call (RPC) client is executing.

(2) An execution environment that holds object references and issues object RPC (ORPC) calls.

(3) In DFS-R, a replicating machine acts as a client when it receives replicated files from its upstream partner. Use of the terminology client stipulates that the machine contact its upstream server, and is responsible for initiating communication related to receiving replicated files. It does not imply anything about the operating system version or the function of the machine.

(4) The sending endpoint of a web services request message, and receiver of any resulting web services response message.

(5) For the Peer Content Caching and Retrieval Framework, a client is a client-role peer; that is, a peer that is searching for content, either from the server or from other peers or hosted cashes. In the context of the Retrieval Protocol, a client is a peer that requests a block-range from a server_role_peer. It acts as a Web Services Dynamic Discovery (WS-Discovery) [WS-Discovery] client.

(6) Synonym for client computer (4).

(7) In [MS-GPOL], the capitalized use of this term refers to a domain member, including the domain controller (DC), that is involved in a policy application sequence.

(8) The entity that initiates the HTTP connection.

(9) A client device that is capable of issuing OMA-DM commands to a server and responding to OMA-DM commands issued by a server.

(10) Identifies the system that consumes WMI services and initiates DCOM ([MS-DCOM]) calls to WMI servers.

(11) The entity that has created the logging message, or an entity that receives a logging message from a client. In the latter case, the client is a proxy.

(12) The software that is used by a user to access the service. It represents the user in [MS-PASS]. A synonym is client application.

(13) Used as described in [RFC2616] section 1.3.

(14) The term "Client" that is defined in [WS-Discovery1.1].

(15) The client application using the WS-Management Protocol to access the management service, on the local or a remote machine.

(16) A client, also called a client computer, is a computer that receives and applies settings of a Group Policy Object (GPO), as specified in [MS-GPOL].

(17) A user participating in or intending to participate in collaboration.

(18) The target location machine.

(19) The entity that initiates communication with the hosted cache, to offer it segments of data.

(20) An application or a system that accesses a Web service endpoint as defined in [WSAddressing].

(21) A client application that uses the WS-Management Protocol (see [DMTF-DSP0226]) to access the management service on a local or remote computer.

(22) A domain member that is involved in a policy application mode sequence.

(23) Any process that initiates commands for execution on a server by using the PowerShell Remoting Protocol.

client area: (1) The area of the desktop that is available for a window or notification icon to paint on.

(2) In an application, the display area that is used to create data, such as drawing or typing functions. The client area does not include toolbars, menus, or status bars.

client computer: (1) A computer that instigates a connection to a well-known port on a server.

(2) A computer that receives and applies settings from a Group Policy Object (GPO), as specified in [MS-GPOL].

(3) A computer that gets its updates from an update server. A client can be a desktop computer, a server, or the update server. For more information, see [MS-WUSP] and [MS-WSUSSS].

(4) The client machine in the domain or network topology of clients, servers, and domain controllers. Alternatively, a computer that is not a domain controller server; the computer may or may not be joined to a domain.

Client Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (Client Scale-SRTP): A protocol that is used by applications that receive media from and send media to only one peer. It is a variation of the Scale Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SSRTP), as described in [MS-SSRTP].

client/server mode: A mode that consists of one server with many client connections (one-to-many). From the perspective of each client, there is only one connection: the connection to the server.

clipboard format: An unsigned integer that uniquely identifies the format of a data packet that is stored in a binary large object (BLOB) and can be shared between processes through the operating system clipboard or other means.

cluster: (1) A group of computers that are able to dynamically assign resource tasks among nodes in a group.

(2) A group of computers that are able to dynamically assign resource tasks among nodes in a group. The group of computers that can be accessed as though they are a single host. A cluster is generally accessed by using a virtual IP address. For more information, see [MSFT-WLBS].

(3) The smallest allocation unit on a volume.

cluster node: Cluster node defined in [MS-CMRP] section 1.3.

cluster resource group: Resource group defined in [MS-CMRP] section 1.1.

coclass: A component object (an association between a class identifier (CLSID) and a set of named implementations of IUnknown) that is defined using the coclass keyword.

code page: An ordered set of characters of a specific script in which a numerical index (code-point value) is associated with each character. Code pages are a means of providing support for character sets (1) and keyboard layouts used in different countries. Devices such as the display and keyboard can be configured to use a specific code page and to switch from one code page (such as the United States) to another (such as Portugal) at the user's request.

codec: An algorithm that is used to convert media between digital formats, especially between raw media data and a format that is more suitable for a specific purpose. Encoding converts the raw data to a digital format. Decoding reverses the process.

Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML): An XML-based language that is used to describe various elements, such as queries and views, in sites that are based on SharePoint Products and Technologies.

collapse: The process of closing a level in a dimension hierarchy on a PivotTable report to hide or aggregate lower-level details in the data.

collapsed outline state: A state in which the content that is nested within an outline is not displayed.

collation: A set of rules that determines how data is compared, ordered, and presented.

collation order: A rule for establishing a sequence for textual information.

colleague: A user who has a social networking relationship with another user.

Colleague Tracker Web Part: A type of Web Part that users can add to a My Site to track changes to the profiles of their colleagues.

collection: (1) A grouping of one or more EDM types that are type compatible. A collection can be used as the return type for a FunctionImport.

(2) A resource that contains a set of URIs that identify member resources. Use of this term is consistent with what is specified in [RFC4918] section 5.2.

(3) A user-defined group of data items from the same entity.

(4) An element that is used when a Function element is declared whose parameter or return type is not a single value but many. For example, a Function element may return a collection of varchar, that is, collection(varchar).

color gradient: A gradual progression from one color to another color, or from one shade to another shade of the same color.

color level: The intensity value of a color.

color matching: The conversion of a color, sent from its original color space, to its visually closest color in the destination color space. See also Image Color Management (ICM).

color palette: A collection of colors that is available to format text, shapes, cells, and chart elements.

color scale: A specific range of colors that is used to give additional meaning to data by assigning certain values to colors in the spectrum.

color scheme: A table of color values that enables colors to be referenced by an index value in the table instead of a color value. See also color palette.

color space: (1) A system that describes color numerically by mapping color components to a multidimensional coordinate system. The number of dimensions is typically two, three, or four. For example, if colors are expressed as a combination of the three components red, green, and blue, a three-dimensional space can describe all possible colors. Grayscale colors can be mapped to a two-dimensional color space. If transparency is considered a component, four dimensions are appropriate. Also referred to as color model.

(2) A mapping of color components to a multidimensional coordinate system. The number of dimensions is generally two, three, or four. For example, if colors are expressed as a combination of the three components red, green, and blue, a three-dimensional space is sufficient to describe all possible colors.

(3) Any method of representing colors for printing or electronic display.

color stop: A color at a specific position in a color gradient.

column: (1) See field (3).

(2) A single set of data that is displayed vertically in a worksheet or a table.

(3) See column chart.

(4) The container for a single type of information in a row. Columns map to property names and specify what properties are used for the search query's command tree elements.

column banding: A table formatting option that applies background colors to alternating columns (2) to increase legibility.

column chart: A chart that displays data in vertical bars to facilitate data comparison.

column field: A field that is contained in the PivotTable area where the column (2) values are shown.

column formula: A formula that is used in a calculated column.

column outline: A nested grouping of columns (2) in a worksheet.

COM class: An object class (3).

COM server: A server that provides access to a component object (an association between a CLSID and a set of named implementations of IUnknown).

command: Any entity that can be executed on the server.

command tree: A combination of restrictions (1) and sort orders that are specified for a search query.

comment: An annotation that is associated with a cell, text, or other object to provide context-specific information or reviewer feedback.

Common Information Model (CIM): The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) model that describes how to represent real-world computer and network objects. CIM uses an object-oriented paradigm, where managed objects are modeled using the concepts of classes and instances. See [DMTF-DSP0004].

Common Intermediate Format (CIF): A picture format, described in the H.263 standard, that is used to specify the horizontal and vertical resolutions of pixels in YCbCr sequences in video signals.

common language runtime (CLR): (1) The core runtime engine in the Microsoft .NET Framework for executing applications. The common language runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.

(2) A runtime library that acts as an agent to manages code at execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that promote security and robustness. The Microsoft implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), as specified in [ECMA-335].

Common Views folder: A special folder that contains the data for default views that are standard for a message store and can be used by any user of a client that accesses the message store.

compact axis: A state in which PivotTable members from different levels in a hierarchy are displayed in a single column (2).

ComparisonFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used when querying a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can compare a ComparisonFilter value with the value of a specific Field of a set of EntityInstances and only those EntityInstances where the Field values pass the comparison test can be returned.

complex type: (1) An element that can contain other elements or attributes (1) and appears as <complexType> in an XML document. See also simple type.

(2) A type that represents a set of related information. Like the entity type, it consists of one or more properties of the EDM simple type or complex types; however, unlike the entity type, the complex type does not have an EntityKey element or a NavigationProperty element.

component: A representation of a constituent transport address if a candidate consists of a set of transport addresses. For example, media streams that are based on the Real-Time Transfer Protocol (RTP) have two components, one for RTP and another for the Real-Time Transfer Control Protocol (RTCP).

component birth date: An integer that is associated with a full-text index component. It defines the order in which the components were created in a full-text index catalog.

component configuration entry: An entry in the catalog that represents a particular configuration of a component.

component identifier: A simple integer that identifies each component in a candidate and increments by one for each component.

Component Object Model (COM): An object-oriented programming model that defines how objects interact within a single process or between processes. In COM, clients have access to an object through interfaces implemented on the object. For more information, see [MS-DCOM].

composite field index: An index that uses more than one column in a table to index data.

compound file: (1) A structure for storing a file system, similar to a simplified FAT file system inside a single file, by dividing the single file into sectors.

(2) A file that is created as defined in [MS-CFB] and that is capable of storing data that is structured as storage and streams.

compound scope index: A file that is in a search scope index and contains records that store compound scope index keys or anchor scope index keys.

computed field: A field that can perform data manipulation and display functions by using the contents of other fields.

computer name: The DNS or NetBIOS name.

computer object: An object of class computer. A computer object is a security principalobject; the principal is the operating system running on the computer. The shared secret allows the operating system running on the computer to authenticate itself independently of any user running on the system. See security principal.

conceptual schema definition language (CSDL): A language that is based on XML and that can be used to define conceptual models that are based on the Entity Data Model (EDM). For more information, see [MC-CSDL].

concrete type: A type used in this specification whose representation must be standardized for interoperability. Specific cases include types in the IDL definition of an RPC interface, types sent over RPC but whose representation is unknown to RPC, and types stored as byte strings in directoryattributes.

condition: (1) A logical expression comparing one or more properties in all incoming Message objects against a set of clauses. This logical expression can evaluate to TRUE or FALSE.

(2) A condition of a policy that specifies one of the fields in a DHCP Client request and the value that the field should contain to match the condition. The condition also contains an index that identifies the expression with which the condition is associated.

(3) A predicate (for example, the machine is idle) that must be satisfied for a task to run. A task runs when any of its triggers and all of its conditions are met.

(4) A method of controlling which RAP is selected as the current resource policy. Conditions are rules that are automatically triggered in response to notifications of any of the conditional events. A condition is composed of a condition state and RAP. When a conditional event is triggered, conditions with the associated Name attribute value are evaluated in the order of their ID attribute value; that is, a condition with the ID value 0 will be evaluated first and so on. In condition evaluation, the condition state is evaluated and if it is found to be TRUE, the RAP associated with that condition is selected as the current resource policy. If no condition has its condition state as TRUE, the condition with the name ANY is evaluated.

(5) A business rule argument that determines when to apply the actions of the business rule. Conditions can be parsed together by using the logical operators AND and OR.

condition state: A part of a condition consisting of a predicate that evaluates some current state of the computer being managed. The predicate is a series of expressions separated by AND and OR operators, evaluated in order. Expressions are selected from the following fixed set: an equality or inequality test of the amount of hardware memory, an equality or inequality test of the number of processors, or a predicate test of the online or offline status of a cluster node or cluster resource group.

conditional events: Unscheduled events that can trigger the following WSRM policy changes: Processor hot add, Memory hot add, Cluster node goes up or down, or Cluster resource group goes online or offline.

conditional formatting: A mechanism that changes the appearance of a user interface element based on the evaluation of a rule or expression.

conference: (1) A Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) session that includes more than one participant (2).

(2) An RTP session involving multiple participants.

(3) A set of two or more communicating users along with the software they are using to communicate.

conference control command: See conference control request.

conference control request: A request that is sent by a conference client to modify a conference or the state of a conference participant.

conference URI (conference-URI): A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)URI that uniquely identifies the focus of a conference.

Conference-Id: A string of printable ASCII characters that uniquely identifies a conference.

configuration database: A database that is stored on a back-end database server and contains both persisted objects and site collection metadata for lookup purposes.

configuration naming context (config NC): A naming context (NC) that contains configuration information. In Active Directory, a single config NC is shared among all domain controllers (DCs) in the forest. A config NC cannot contain security principal objects.

confirmation: A message that asks a user to verify an action before the user performs it.

conglomeration: (1) A collection of component configuration entries, together with a component-independent configuration that is conceptually shared by the component configuration entries. A conglomeration is identified by a conglomeration identifier.

(2) A collection of event classes and subscriptions together with independent configuration data that is conceptually shared by the both the event classes and subscriptions. A conglomeration is identified by a conglomeration identifier.

conglomeration identifier: A GUID that identifies a conglomeration.

connected data: Data that is stored in the same workbook from which it is being referenced, or data that is stored in a database repository.

connected network: A network of computers in which any two computers can communicate directly through a common transport protocol (for example, TCP/IP or SPX/IPX). A computer can belong to multiple connected networks.

connection: (1) A link between two devices that uses the Simple Symmetric Transport Protocol (SSTP). Each connection can support one or more SSTP sessions.

(2) A link that two physical machines or applications share to pass data back and forth.

(3) Each user that has a session with a server can create multiple share connections, or resource connections, using that user ID. This resource connection is created using a tree connect Server Message Block (SMB) and is identified by an SMB TreeID or TID.

(4) Firewall rules are specified to apply to connections. Every packet is associated with a connection based on TCP, UDP, or IP endpoint parameters; see [IANAPORT].

(5) In DFS-R, a pair of client and server replication partners.

(6) In OleTx, an ordered set of logically related messages. The relationship between the messages is defined by the higher-layer protocol, but they are guaranteed to be delivered exactly one time and in order relative to other messages in the connection.

(7) Either a TCP or NetBIOS over TCP connection between an SMB 2 Protocol client and an SMB 2 Protocol server.

(8) A time-bounded association between two endpoints that allows the two endpoints to exchange messages.

(9) A logical communication path identified by a pair of sockets, as defined in [RFC793].

(10) An instantiation of the protocol that can be used as a scoping entity for channel. The server may instantiate multiple simultaneous connections to the same client.

(11) The successful completion of necessary protocol arrangements (authentication, network parameters negotiation, and so on) between a remote client computer and the RRAS server to set up a dial-up or virtual private networking (VPN) association. Connection enables the remote client computer to function on the RRAS server network as if it were connected to the server network directly.

Connection Join (Join): The process by which a connection session is established.

Connection Session: After FRS discovers a connection from Active Directory, FRS establishes a connection session with the remote connection partner based on the information provided by the connection object. The connection is called "joined" when a connection session is successfully established. This connection session is disconnected once the connection schedule is off (forbidding file replication on the connection).

connection string: (1) A series of arguments, delimited by a semicolon, that defines the location of a database and how to connect to it.

(2) A character string expression that uniquely identifies the data store to use for a particular query or set of queries and the methods, including authentication information and configuration options, for connecting to that data store.

connectionless protocol: A transport protocol that enables endpoints (5) to communicate without a previous connection arrangement and that treats each packet independently as a datagram. Examples of connectionless protocols are Internet Protocol (IP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).

connection-oriented transport protocol: A transport protocol that enables endpoints (5) to communicate after first establishing a connection and that treats each packet according to the connection state. An example of a connection-oriented transport protocol is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

connectivity check: A Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) binding request that is sent to validate connectivity between the local and remote candidates in a candidate pair.

constructed attribute: (1) An attribute whose values are computed from normal attributes (for read) and/or have effects on the values of normal attributes (for write).

(2) See [MS-ADTS] section 3.1.1.1.4.

contact: (1) A presence entity (presentity) whose presence information can be tracked.

(2) An object of the contact class that represents a company or person whom a user can contact.

(3) A person, company, or other entity that is stored in a directory and is associated with one or more unique identifiers and attributes (2), such as an Internet message address or login name.

(4) A node that publishes a contact record. Contacts are used by graph maintenance to detect partitions.

contact identifier: A universally unique identifier (UUID) that identifies a partner in the MSDTC Connection Manager: OleTx Transports Protocol. These UUIDs are frequently converted to and from string representations. This string representation must follow the format specified in [C706] Appendix A. In addition, the UUIDs must be compared, as specified in C706-AppendixAUUID.

contact record: A record published by a contact that includes the contact's address and the graphsignature at the time of publication.

container: (1) A data model that is used to store published presence (1) information and a list of subscribers who are permitted to view that information. It enables a publisher to publish different data values of the same category (4) and instance, which enables different subscribers to see different values.

(2) An object in the directory that can serve as the parent for other objects. In the absence of schema constraints, all objects would be containers. The schema allows only objects of specific classes to be containers.

container record: A record that defines the structure and hierarchy of atom records and other container records.

content: (1) Multimedia data. content is always in ASF, for example, a single ASF music file or a single ASF video file. Data in general. A file that an application accesses. Examples of content include web pages and documents stored on either web servers or SMB file servers.

(2) Items that correspond to a file that an application attempts to access. Examples of content include web pages and documents stored on either HTTP servers or SMB file servers. Each content item consists of an ordered collection of one or more segments.

(3) A package that contains all the associated files for an update that is to be installed on a client computer.

(4) Identified by a unique name under a given multicast namespace. The content metadata cannot change during the lifetime of a multicast session, and is required to allow random access to the data.

content app: An app for Office that appears within the content of a document.

content database: A database that is stored on a back-end database server and contains stored procedures, site collections, and the contents of those site collections.

content index extension (.cix) file: A file that is part of a full-text index catalog. It is used to store compressed document identifiers and OccCount values for data that is stored in an associated content index file.

content index file: A file that is part of a full-text index catalog. It is used to store data from items as an inverted index and it enables searches for specific terms across items.

content index record: A part of a content index file that is used to store all of the document identifiers for items that have a unique combination of a token and a property identifier.

Content Metadata: Specifies an opaque binary data that is associated with the content.

content source: A set of options for specifying the type of content to be crawled and the start addresses for the content to be indexed. A content source is defined by the protocol handler that is used to access specific systems, such as SharePoint sites, file systems, and external websites. A content source can contain up to 500 start addresses.

content type: A named and uniquely identifiable collection of settings and fields that store metadata for individual items in a SharePoint list. One or more content types can be associated with a list, which restricts the contents to items of those types.

content type group: A named category of content types that is used to organize content types of a similar purpose.

content type identifier: A unique identifier that is assigned to a content type.

content type order: The sequence in which content types are displayed.

content type package: A file that contains the definition of and related objects for a content type.

content type schema: An XML definition that describes the contents of a content type.

content type subscriber: A site collection that is connected to a shared service application that provides content types.

Content-Type header: A message header field whose value describes the type of data that is in the body of the message.

context: (1) A collection of context properties that describe an execution environment.

(2) An abstract concept that represents an association between a resource and a set of messages that are exchanged between a client and a server. A context is uniquely identified by a context identifier.

(3) Logical container spaces where objects exist "together" in memory and can efficiently communicate with each other.

context identifier: (1) A GUID that identifies a context.

(2) A set of name-value pairs where each name in the set is unique.

context site: A site that corresponds to the context of the current request.

contextual tab: A tab on the ribbon that displays commands related to the active selection or object.

contributing source (CSRC): A source of a stream of RTP packets that has contributed to the combined stream produced by an RTP mixer. The mixer inserts a list of the synchronization source (SSRC) identifiers of the sources that contributed to the generation of a particular packet into the RTP header of that packet. This list is called the CSRC list. An example application is audio conferencing where a mixer indicates all the talkers whose speech was combined to produce the outgoing packet, allowing the receiver to indicate the current talker, even though all the audio packets contain the same SSRC identifier (that of the mixer). See [RFC3550] section 3.

control: A graphical user interface object that users interact with when working with applications, forms, documents, webpages, and other types of files.

control button: A button in the user interface.

control level: The permissions that are granted to a participant in a shared desktop. The control levels include "view" (the participant is able to see, but not interact with, shared content), "full" (the participant is able to both see and interact with shared content), and "none" (the participant can neither see nor interact with shared content).

control template: A fragment of HTML and ASP.NET markup that customizes and extends the functionality of an ASP.NET control.

controlled agent: An Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) agent that waits for the controlling agent to select the final candidate pairs to be used.

controlling agent: An Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE) agent that is responsible for selecting and signaling the final candidate pair that is selected by connectivity checks. The controlling agent signals the final candidates in a Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT (STUN) binding request and an updated offer. In a session, one of the agents is a controlling agent and the other agent is a controlled agent.

conversation: (1) A single representation of a send/response series of email messages. A conversation appears in the Inbox as one unit and allows the user to view and read the series of related email messages in a single effort.

(2) In LU 6.2, conversations connect transaction programs, and are used by the transaction programs to transfer messages. For a more complete definition, see [LU62Peer].

conversion group: A data structure that contains information about one or more conversion items in a conversion job. The items are organized into a hierarchy that is based on input and output path values for the conversion items.

conversion item: A data structure that contains information about operations to convert a file from one file format to another. This information includes a unique identifier for the conversion item and the location of the source file to convert.

conversion job: A data structure that contains information about one or more conversion items or conversion groups that are associated with it. This information includes preferred settings for conversion operations to be performed for the conversion items that it contains.

cookie: (1) A small data file that is stored on a user's computer and carries state information between participating protocol servers and protocol clients.

(2) A randomly generated, 16-byte sequence that is used to authenticate the client to the server during the creation of a multitransport connection.

(3) An HTTP header that carries state information between participating origin servers and user agents. For more information, see [RFC2109].

coordinate space: A space based on Cartesian coordinates, which provides a means of specifying the location of each point in the space. A two-dimensional coordinate space requires two axes that are perpendicular and equal in length. Three two-dimensional coordinate spaces are generally used to describe an output surface: world, page, and device. To scale device-independent output for a particular physical device, a rectangular area in the world or page coordinate space is mapped into the device coordinate space using a transform

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC): A high-precision atomic time standard that approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). It is the basis for legal, civil time all over the Earth. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative offsets from UTC. In this role, it is also referred to as Zulu time (Z) and Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). In these specifications, all references to UTC refer to the time at UTC–0 (or GMT).

crawl: The process of traversing a URL space to acquire items to record in a search catalog.

crawl account: A user account that has access to all of the content that is traversed by a crawl component.

crawl component: A search component that traverses content in a URL space and acquires items to be stored in a full-text index catalog and metadata index.

crawl log: A set of properties that provides information about the results of crawling a display URL. The information includes whether the crawl was successful, the content source of the display URL, and the level, message, time, and identifier for any errors that occur.

crawl mapping: A mapping that associates an access URL, which is used to obtain an item from a content source, and a display URL, which is the address of the item.

crawl queue: A data structure that stores the list of items to crawl next.

crawl rule: A set of preferences that applies to a specific URL or range of URLs. A crawl rule can be used to include or exclude items in a crawl and to specify the content access account to use when crawling that URL or range of URLs.

crawled property: A type of metadata that can be discovered during a crawl and applied to one or more items. It can be promoted to a managed property. See also managed property.

crawler: A process that browses and indexes content from a content source.

Creator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to create a new EntityInstance. The set of Fields that are required to create the EntityInstance is referred to as the Creator View.

credential: Previously established, authentication (2) data that is used by a security principal to establish its own identity. When used in reference to the Netlogon Protocol, it is the data that is stored in the NETLOGON_CREDENTIAL structure.

cross-site scripting: A type of security vulnerability that enables malicious users to insert client-side script into webpages and to run that script when those pages are viewed by other users. The script might then gain access to user-specific data, such as cookies, cached objects, and application settings. Also referred to as XSS.

Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (CAPI) or CryptoAPI: The Microsoft cryptographic application programming interface (API). An API that enables application developers to add authentication (2), encoding, and encryption to Windows-based applications.

cryptographic context: A set of cryptographic state information that is maintained in a Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP) stream.

cryptographic hash function: A function that maps an input of any length to a short output bit string of fixed length, such that finding an input that maps to a particular bit string of the correct output length, or even finding two inputs that map to the same output bit string, is computationally infeasible. For more information, see [SCHNEIER] chapters 2 and 18.

cryptographic service provider: An independent software module that performs authentication (2), encoding, and encryption services that Windows-based applications access through the CryptoAPI.

cryptographic service provider (CSP): A software module that implements cryptographic functions for calling applications that generates digital signatures. Multiple CSPs may be installed. A CSP is identified by a name represented by a NULL-terminated Unicode string.

CSOM action: An individual method, property, or lookup operation that is performed by a protocol server in a request.

CSOM action list: A sequential list of CSOM actions that are defined in a CSOM request to be executed by a protocol server.

CSOM array: An ordered collection of values that can be used in an XML request or JSON response text. The values are identified by their position and their position is determined by a zero-based integer index.

CSOM binary: An array of 8-bit, unsigned integers that can be used in an XML request or as a string in JSON response text.

CSOM Boolean: A Boolean value that can be used in an XML request or JSON response text. A CSOM Boolean value is either "true" or "false".

CSOM Byte: An 8-bit, unsigned integer value that represents the BYTE type, as described in [MS-DTYP]. The range of CSOM Byte values is 0-255 and it has different representations, depending on whether it is used in an XML request or JSON response text.

CSOM Char: A Unicode character value that can be used in an XML request or as a string in JSON response text.

CSOM DateTime: An Int64 value that represents the number of 100-nanosecond time intervals that have elapsed since 12:00:00, January 1, 0001. It can be used in an XML request or as a string in JSON response text. The value can represent time intervals through 23:59:59.9999999, December 31, 9999. It can also specify whether a local, UTC, or no time zone applies.

CSOM dictionary: An object that contains an unordered collection of key/value pairs that can be used in an XML request or JSON response text. Each key in a CSOM dictionary has a unique name.

CSOM Double: A 64-bit, double-precision, floating-point value, which is the DOUBLE type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Double values is from "-1.79769313486232e308" to "1.79769313486232e308".

CSOM error: An object that contains information about an error that occurred on a protocol server when processing a request.

CSOM expando field: A field that stores data for an instance of a CSOM Object and is not defined explicitly in the corresponding CSOM Object type.

CSOM GUID: A GUID, as described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a string in JSON response text.

CSOM Int16: A 16-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT16 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int16 values is from "-32768" to "32767".

CSOM Int32: A 32-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT32 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int32 values is from "-2147483648" to "2147483647".

CSOM Int64: A 64-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT64 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Int64 values is from "-9223372036854775808" to "9223372036854775807".

CSOM method: A procedure that is executed by a protocol server for a CSOM Object.

CSOM Object: An object that contains a set of members, which are named values and methods. It has a Unicode string value, which is referred to as a CSOM type name, that identifies its type.

CSOM Object type: A reference to a standard definition of methods, properties, and behavior for a logical object in the SharePoint Client-Side Object Model.

CSOM property: A representation of a field of data that is stored for a type of CSOM Object.

CSOM SByte: An 8-bit, signed integer value, which is the INT8 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM SByte values is from "-128" to "127".

CSOM Single: A 32-bit, single-precision, floating-point value, which is the FLOAT type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM Single values is from "-3.402823e38" to "3.402823e38".

CSOM String: A representation of text as a series of Unicode characters. It can be used in an XML request or JSON response text.

CSOM type: A predefined set of named values that enable a protocol client to access standard descriptions of exposed objects, members, and enumerations. A CSOM type can be a CSOM Object type, CSOM value object type, or CSOM enumeration.

CSOM type identifier: A GUID that is used to identify a CSOM type.

CSOM type name: A Unicode string that identifies the type of a CSOM Object.

CSOM UInt16: A 16-bit, unsigned integer value, which is the UINT16 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM UInt16 values is from "0" to "65535".

CSOM UInt32: A 32-bit, unsigned integer value, which is the UINT32 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM UInt32 values is from "0" to "4294967295".

CSOM UInt64: A 64-bit, unsigned integer value, which is the UINT64 type described in [MS-DTYP], that can be used in an XML request or as a number in JSON response text. The range of CSOM UInt64 values is from "0" to "18446744073709551615".

CSOM value object: An object that contains a set of named values, which are referred to as members. It has a Unicode string value, referred to as a CSOM type name, that identifies its type.

CSOM value object type: A CSOM type that contains a set of named values, which are referred to as members. It has type information, which is identified by a Unicode string, and is associated with a specific identifier, which is a CSOM GUID.

CSS: See cascading style sheet (CSS).

cube: A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined by a set of dimensions (1) and measures.

cube function: A function that is used to extract and display Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) data sets and values.

culture name: A part of a language identification tagging system, as described in [RFC1766]. Culture names adhere to the format "<languagecode2>-<country/regioncode2>." If a two-letter language code is not available, a three-letter code that is derived from [ISO-639] is used.

curly braced GUID string: The string representation of a 128-bit globally unique identifier (GUID) using the form {XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX}, where X denotes a hexadecimal digit. The string representation between the enclosing braces is the standard representation of a GUID as described in [RFC4122] section 3. Unlike a GUIDString, a curly braced GUID string includes enclosing braces.

current navigation menu: The navigation menu that appears vertically on the left side of the default master page and shows the set of current navigation nodes.

current resource policy: While in the running management state, the management service always selects exactly one RAP to be the current resource policy.

current user: The user who is authenticated during processing operations on a front-end web server or a back-end database server.

current version: The latest version of a document that is available to a user, based on the permissions of the user and the publishing level of the document.

cursor: (1) A data structure providing sequential access over a message queue. A cursor has a current pointer that lies between the head and tail pointer of the queue. The pointer can be moved forward or backward through an operation on the cursor (Next). A message at the current pointer can be accessed through a nondestructive read (Peek) operation or a destructive read (Receive) operation.

(2) An entity that is used as a mechanism to work with one row or a small block of rows (at one time) in a set of data returned in a result set. A cursor is positioned on a single row within the result set. After the cursor is positioned on a row, operations can be performed on that row or on a block of rows starting at that position.

(3) The current position within a result set.

custodian: A user that is part of a discovery litigation that allows attorneys to associate users with the discovery sources.

custom action: An extension to the user interface, such as a button on a toolbar or a link on a site settings page.

custom filter: A filter that contains preconfigured expressions in which users can optionally enter a string to filter data.

custom label filter: A custom filter that is applied to string labels for data.

custom list: A user-defined list (2) or enumeration that can be used to sort data in a worksheet.

custom rollup: An aggregation (1) calculation that is customized for a dimension level, dimension member, or measure. A custom rollup contains a custom formula or operator, overrides the aggregate functions of a cube's measures, and is defined on a hierarchy.

custom toolbar: A type of toolbar that contains a user-defined set of controls and is not included in an application by default. A custom toolbar has a toolbar identifier value of "1".

custom toolbar control: A user-defined control that can be added to a toolbar. A custom toolbar control has a toolbar control identifier (TCID) value of "1" and can be one of the following types of controls: ActiveX, Button, ComboBox, DropDown, Edit, or Popup.

custom value filter: A custom filter that is applied to the numerical values of data.

custom view: A collection of display and print settings that users can name and save. Users can switch between custom views to change settings quickly.

customized: (1) A document whose content is stored in a content database instead of a front-end file system. Also referred to as unghosted.

(2) A column (1) or content type whose schema is stored in a content database instead of a front-end file system. Also referred to as unghosted.

cyclic redundancy check (CRC): An algorithm used to produce a checksum (a small, fixed number of bits) against a block of data, such as a packet of network traffic or a block of a computer file. The CRC is used to detect errors after transmission or storage. A CRC is designed to catch random errors, as opposed to intentional errors. If errors might be introduced by a motivated and intelligent adversary, a cryptographic hash function should be used instead.

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