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iCalendar: A standard content type for capturing calendar event information, as described in [RFC2445].

ICE keep-alive message: A message that is sent periodically to keep active the NAT bindings at intermediate NATs and allocations on the TURN server.

icon: A small graphical image or picture in the user interface that is used to represent an object or convey meaning.

icon set: A collection of icons that can be used to comment and classify data into categories.

Identifier: The Field (4) or Fields (4) that define the Identity of an EntityInstance. Also referred to as Key.

identity: A digital persona that is associated with two key pairs, one for encrypting data and another for signing data.

identity URL: A string of characters that uniquely identifies an identity and conforms to the syntax of a URI, as described in [RFC3986].

identity-targeted message: A message that is destined for a specific resource handler and identity combination, regardless of the client device. The message address includes a resource URL, identity URL, and client device URL, where the client device URL is empty.

IdEnumerator: A type of MethodInstance that can be called to return the Field (4) values that represent the identity of EntityInstances of a specific Entity. IdEnumerator input is defined by the FilterDescriptors that are contained in the Method that contains the IdEnumerator.

IFilter: An interface that is used to extract text, properties, and attributes of documents for inclusion in a search index. During the extraction process, it excludes embedded formatting but retains information about the position of text in a document.

I-frame: A video frame that is encoded as a single image, such that it can be decoded without any dependencies on previous frames. Also referred to as Intra-Coded frame, Intra frame, and key frame.

IM MCU: A Multipoint Control Unit (MCU) that supports Instant Messaging (IM) conferencing.

IME: See Input Method Editor (IME).

immediate solution resource usage log: A collection of data that reports current or near-current use of resources, such as memory and CPU, by code that was deployed to a server.

immediate translation job: A translation job that contains only one translation item and is executed as a higher priority than a typical translation job.

import attribute flow: The process of updating the metaverse attribute values of the current metaverse object during an import operation.

import connection: A connection that exists between a protocol client and a directory service and is dedicated to import operations for user profiles, member groups, and memberships. The data is imported from a directory service into a protocol server by using the connection.

in-band provisioning: A process in which a protocol client obtains configuration information from a protocol server.

inclusion list: A list of items to include in query results and to add to a search index the next time that a crawl occurs.

incremental crawl: A crawl process that includes logic to index only a subset of the items in a content source that is crawled based on item modifications.

incremental export operation: A process in which a front-end web server retrieves from back-end database servers only those data objects that were modified after a specific time, and then serializes those objects into deployment package XML files.

incremental search scope table: A list of sites from which an incremental export operation retrieves objects. It is maintained in back-end database servers.

indentation level: A measure of the distance between the position of content that is in a cell and the logical left side of the cell. An indentation level is equal to three spaces.

index alias: A string that specifies the name of a property index.

index column: A part of a search index that can be hosted by one server computer or virtual server. Each index column contains a unique set of indexed items.

index data: An optional set of metadata that can be associated with user profiles. It can be used to retrieve users, organizations, member groups, and audiences more efficiently than by querying data that is stored directly within individual user profiles.

index directory level: An array of index directory pages that contains index keys from an associated index and the positions of those keys in the index.

index directory page: A page that conforms to the index directory page structure that stores index directory records.

index field: A managed property, full-text index, or internal property that can be queried or returned in query results.

index generation identifier: A string that is used to uniquely identify a search index. It is composed of the index partition number, followed by an underscore (_), and then a unique integer.

index identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies a full-text index component within a full-text index catalog.

index key: A key that references a record in a content index file or a scope index file. It consists of an index key string and a property identifier.

index key string: A sequence of bytes that specifies the value that is used to sort records in a content index file or a scope index file.

index partition: A part of an inverted index within a search system. In Search Server 2010 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 for Search, it is defined by a set of document distribution identifiers. In FAST Search Server 2010, it is defined by a search index within an index column and can be divided into additional index partitions.

index schema: A schema that is used to specify which managed properties can be searched in a search index and the associated configuration parameters.

index server: A server that is assigned the task of crawling.

indexed field: A field that stores values in a separate indexed table.

indexer row: An indexing node in an index column.

indexing component: A service component that is responsible for generating a FAST Search Server 2010 search index.

indexing connector: A software component that is used to natively access the appropriate file formats, data structures, and security implementation of a content source, retrieve content from that source, and submit the appropriate content to a search service application.

indexing dispatcher: An entity that distributes an item to an appropriate indexing node after the item is prepared for indexing.

indexing node: An instance of an indexing component that is running on a server computer or virtual server.

indexing service: A service that traverses URL spaces and file systems to acquire items, including properties, to record in catalogs for those spaces and systems. The catalogs can then be used for tasks such as searching and auditing content.

individual target application: A target application that stores credentials for Secure Store Service (SSS) users. It references an identity claim (2) that represents an SSS user who can retrieve the credentials that are associated with it.

inflectional form: A variant of a root token that has been modified according to the linguistic rules of a given language. For example, inflections of the verb "swim" in English include "swim," "swims," "swimming," and "swam."

Information Rights Management (IRM): A technology that provides persistent protection to digital data by using encryption, certificates (1), and authentication (2). Authorized recipients or users acquire a license to gain access to the protected files according to the rights or business rules that are set by the content owner.

inheritable navigation structure: The navigational structure of a site that can be inherited by a subsite.

initial offer: An offer that is sent by a caller and with the caller's local candidates when the caller initiates a media session with a callee.

ink: A process of entering text in handwritten form. Instead of converting handwritten text to typed text, ink is converted to an object and displayed exactly as it was written.

inner rectangle: In a cell that is formatted with a rectangular gradient, a rectangle that is formed by the leftmost, rightmost, topmost, and bottommost lines of pixels in which the initial color of the gradient is completely dissipated. See also rectangular gradient.

input cell: A cell in which each input value from a data table is substituted.

Input Method Editor (IME): An application that is used to enter characters in written Asian languages by using a standard 101-key keyboard. An IME consists of both an engine that converts keystrokes into phonetic and ideographic characters and a dictionary of commonly used ideographic words.

input source: A table, view, query, or schema diagram that is used as a data source for a query.

input summary class: A type of summary class that is used when indexing an item. It maps all of the managed properties in an index schema to document summaries for that item.

InputFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used while calling an operation for a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can use the value of an InputFilter as additional arguments for the operation.

InputOutputFilter: A FilterDescriptor type that is used while calling an operation for a line-of-business (LOB) system. An LOB system can use the value of an InputOutputFilter as additional arguments for the operation, and additional results of an operation that cannot be captured by ReturnTypeDescriptor can be retrieved as a value of the InputOutputFilter.

insert row: A placeholder row at the bottom of a table. It is used to enter new records.

inside margin: A side or top margin of a document on which the document is bound.

instance: A unique publication of data for a category (4). It enables a publisher to publish data for the same category multiple times. An example is a publisher who uses two different endpoints (5) to publish data. These endpoints can publish the same category. However, each endpoint requires a different instance number to be considered a distinct publication by the server (2). An instance number is provided by the publishing client.

Integrated Windows authentication: A configuration setting that enables negotiation of authentication (2) protocols in Internet Information Services (IIS). Integrated Windows authentication is more secure than Basic authentication, because the user name and password are hashed instead of plaintext.

Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A methodology that was established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to facilitate the traversal of network address translation (NAT) by media.

interactive report: A visualization that has a presentation mode that provides sort, filter, and pivot capabilities for displaying different views of the data. The underlying data can be stored either in the workbook or in an external data source.

intermediate NAT: A network address translation (NAT) address that is present in the communication path of two endpoints (5).

internal identifier: (1) An integer that uniquely identifies any item in a term store.

(2) A Folder ID or Message ID, as described in [MS-OXCDATA].

internal property: A predefined, searchable field that can appear in query results and cannot be modified by changing the configuration settings for managed properties.

internal version number: A number that increases monotonically and is used to identify conflicts when saving an item.

Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI): An extension of the URI syntax to include Unicode characters, as described in [RFC3987].

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): A central repository for the protocol name and number registries that are used in many Internet protocols.

Internet Information Services (IIS): Microsoft web server software that uses the HTTP protocol to deliver web resources.

Internet message: A message, such as an email message, that conforms to the syntax that is described in [RFC2822].

inverted index: For each token that is encountered in a corpus of indexed items, a data structure that stores a list of postings that identify which documents matched and a list of occurrences that identify which position in each document.

INVITE: A Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) method that is used to invite a user or a service to participate in a session.

IRM protector: An application that converts a file to an encrypted format when a user downloads the file and to a nonencrypted format when a user uploads a rights-managed file. See also Information Rights Management (IRM).

item: A unit of content that can be indexed and searched by a search application.

item identifier: An integer that uniquely identifies an item in a SharePoint list.

item order field: A field in a list (1) that is used to store an integer that specifies the display position of each item in that list.

item processing: In a search service application, a series of operations that are performed before an item is indexed. This includes mapping content from source document formats, linguistic processing of textual content, and converting content to an appropriate output format.

iterative calculation: A calculation mode in which calculations are performed until a specific numeric condition is met or a maximum number of iterations is reached.

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