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.NET Framework and Visual Studio Glossary

This glossary defines key terms in Visual Studio and the .NET Framework.  



.NET Compact Framework

A hardware-independent environment for running programs on resource-constrained computing devices. It inherits the full .NET Framework architecture of the common language runtime, supports a subset of the .NET Framework class library, and contains classes designed exclusively for the .NET Compact Framework. Supported devices include personal data assistants (PDAs) (such as the Pocket PC), mobile phones, set-top boxes, automotive computing devices, and custom-designed embedded devices built with the Microsoft Windows CE.NET operating system.

.NET Framework

An integral Windows component that supports building, deploying, and running the next generation of applications and XML Web services. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multilanguage environment for integrating existing investments with next generation applications and services, as well as the agility to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, a hierarchical set of unified class libraries, and a componentized version of ASP called ASP.NET. See also: .NET Framework class library, ASP.NET, common language runtime, WCF, WPF.

.NET Framework class library

A library of classes, interfaces, and value types that are included in .NET Framework. This library provides access to system functionality and is designed to be the foundation on which .NET Framework applications, components, and controls are built. See also: class, Common Language Specification.

.NET Framework data provider

A component of ADO.NET that provides access to data from a relational data source. A .NET Framework data provider contains classes to connect to a data source, execute commands at the data source, and return query results from the data source, including the ability to execute commands within transactions. A .NET Framework data provider also contains classes to populate a DataSet with results from a data source and propagate changes in a DataSet back to the data source.

accelerator editor

A resource editor that allows you to add, delete, change, or browse the shortcut key assignments for your project.

access control list (ACL)

In Windows-based systems, a list of access control entries (ACE) that apply to an entire object, a set of the object's properties, or an individual property of an object, and that define the access granted to one or more security principals.

Active Template Library (ATL)

A set of compact, template-based C++ classes that simplify the programming of Component Object Model objects. ATL provides the mechanism to use and create COM objects.


In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, the add-in application assembly that communicates with a host application over a communication pipeline. See also: host.

add-in view

In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains interfaces or abstract base classes, and represents the add-in's view of the methods and types used to communicate with a host. See also: add-in, host.

add-in-side adapter

In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains one or more classes, and converts data to and from the add-in view and the contract. Depending on the direction of the call, the adapter is either converting from a view to a contract or from a contract to a view. See also: add-in.

add-on package

An XML file in the addons folder of the Datastore. Add-on packages are used to deploy files or an application to a device or emulator.


The suite of data access technologies included in the .NET Framework class libraries that provide access to relational data and XML. ADO.NET consists of classes that make up the DataSet (such as tables, rows, columns, relations, and so on), .NET Framework data providers, and custom type definitions (such as SqlTypes for SQL Server).


A special glyph on the design surface. Adorners are usually attached to a target control, and they give the user a graphical means of adjusting the control's properties.

aggregate event

A type of event that is generated after a series of events of another type have occurred. An aggregate event is used to represent a series of events to avoid flooding the event consumer. See also: event, event consumer.

aggregate function

A function that performs a calculation on multiple values and returns a single value.

alpha channel

In GDI+, the portion of pixel color data reserved for transparency information.

anonymous method

A practical language construct that allows programmers to create code blocks that can be encapsulated in a delegate and executed at a later time. They are based on a language concept called a lambda function and are similar to those found in Lisp and Python.

anonymous type

A class type whose name is generated by the compiler and that inherits directly from Object. Members of an anonymous type are properties that are inferred from the object initializer that creates instances of the type.

application base

The directory where the .exe file that loads into the initial or default application domain is located. If you create your own application domain, the application base is the location you specify in the AppDomainSetup class.

application domain (AppDomain)

A boundary that the common language runtime establishes around objects created within the same application scope (that is, anywhere along the sequence of object activations beginning with the application entry point). Application domains help isolate objects created in one application from those created in other applications so that run-time behavior is predictable. Multiple application domains can exist in a single process.

application extension services

In Silverlight, classes that extend the application model by providing services that can participate in the application life cycle.

application library caching

In Silverlight, a feature that enables applications to use external library assemblies retrieved from the server or from the local browser cache.

application service

In ASP.NET, built-in functionality for common application tasks. ASP.NET includes application services for authentication (ASP.NET membership), persistent per-user information (profile properties), and more.

application state

In ASP.NET, a variable store that is created on the server for the current application and is shared by all users. Application state is typically used to store information that is used for all users, such as application-wide settings.

application-level add-in

A supplemental program that modifies or adds functionality to an existing program or application. The modifications are available to the application at all times.


A set of technologies in the Microsoft .NET Framework for building Web applications and XML Web services. ASP.NET pages execute on the server and generate markup (such as HTML, WML, or XML) that is sent to a desktop or mobile browser. ASP.NET pages use a compiled, event-driven programming model that improves performance and enables the separation of application logic and user interface. ASP.NET pages and XML Web services files created using ASP.NET contain server-side (rather than client-side) logic written in Visual Basic .NET, C# .NET, or any .NET-compatible language. Web applications and XML Web services take advantage of the features of the common language runtime, such as type safety, inheritance, language interoperability, versioning, and integrated security.

ASP.NET application services database

In ASP.NET, a database that stores the data for several ASP.NET application services, including membership, Web Parts personalization, roles, and profiles. The database can be a local database in the Web site's App_Data folder or a SQL Server or other database, depending on how the site is configured.

ASP.NET mobile control

One of a set of ASP.NET controls designed for mobile Web applications. ASP.NET mobile controls extend their ASP.NET server control counterparts. See also: mobile user control.

ASP.NET mobile Web Forms

An extension to the ASP.NET Web Forms framework that targets mobile devices from cell phones to Pocket PCs.

ASP.NET page

A component of an ASP.NET application.

ASP.NET server control

A server-side component that encapsulates user-interface and related functionality. An ASP.NET server control derives directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.Control class. The superset of ASP.NET server controls includes Web server controls, HTML server controls, and ASP.NET mobile controls. The page syntax for an ASP.NET server control includes a runat="server" attribute on the control's tag. See also: HTML server control, validation server control, Web server control.

ASP.NET Web application

An application that processes HTTP requests (Web requests) and executes on top ASP.NET. An ASP.NET Web application can include ASP.NET pages, XML Web services, HTTP handlers, and HTTP modules.


A collection of one or more files that are versioned and deployed as a unit. See also: friend assembly, private assembly, shared assembly.

assembly cache

A machine-wide code cache used for side-by-side storage of assemblies. There are two parts to the cache: the global assembly cache contains assemblies that are explicitly installed to be shared among many applications on the computer; the download cache stores code downloaded from Internet or intranet sites, isolated to the application that triggered the download so that code downloaded on behalf of one application/page does not impact other applications. See also: global assembly cache.

assembly manifest

An integral part of every assembly that renders the assembly self-describing. The assembly manifest contains the assembly's metadata. The manifest establishes the assembly identity, specifies the files that make up the assembly implementation, specifies the types and resources that make up the assembly, itemizes the compile-time dependencies on other assemblies, and specifies the set of permissions required for the assembly to run properly. This information is used at run time to resolve references, enforce version binding policy, and validate the integrity of loaded assemblies. The self-describing nature of assemblies also helps makes zero-impact install and XCOPY deployment feasible. See also: assembly, assembly metadata.

assembly metadata

Metadata that is part of the assembly manifest. See also: assembly manifest.


In .NET Framework security, a statement that helps ensure that a method has access to a particular resource even if the method's callers do not have the required permission. During a stack walk, if a stack frame that asserts the required permission is encountered, a security check for that permission will succeed. Assertions can create security holes and should be used only with extreme caution.


The definition of a relationship between entity types.

association class

A class that describes a relationship between two classes or between instances of two classes. The properties of an association class include pointers, or references, to the two classes or instances.

association line

In Class Designer, a line that shows that two types are related. The line represents a field or property and leads from the type that contains the member to the field or property’s type.

association set

A logical container for instances of associations of the same type.

asynchronous agent

A task that follows the actor pattern and uses an asynchronous message queue to communicate with other similar tasks. Agents let you take advantage of coarse-grained task parallelism in your applications.

asynchronous communication layer

The layer of AJAX functionality that takes care of communication between the browser and the server.

asynchronous method call

A method call that returns to the caller immediately regardless of whether processing has completed. The results of processing are returned through another call on another thread. Asynchronous methods free the caller from having to wait until processing has finished. See also: semisynchronous method call.

asynchronous postback

In ASP.NET, the process of sending Web page data (plus viewstate and other necessary metadata) from the browser to the server without a complete postback and without blocking the user from continuing to work in the page. Asynchronous postbacks are an important feature of AJAX technology.


Pertaining to a threading or multiprocessing operation that is performed in a single, uninterruptable step. Operations that are atomic do not require a threading synchronization device such as a critical section, mutex, or semaphore.

attached property

A property that is defined by XAML. An attached property can be set on any object, not just on the type that defines the property or its accessors. The attached property provider must provide static Get(PropertyName) and Set(PropertyName) methods as accessors for these attached properties.


A descriptive declaration that can be applied to programming elements such as types, fields, methods, and properties. See also: custom attribute.


The process of verifying the identity of a user, computer, process, or other entity by validating the credentials provided by the entity. Common forms of credentials are digital signatures, smart cards, biometric data, and a combination of user names and passwords. See also: principal.


The process of granting a person, computer process, or device access to certain information, services or functionality. Authorization is derived from the identity of the person, computer process, or device requesting access, which is verified through authentication. See also: authentication, principal.

auto-hide button

A button that appears on the edge of a frame when a window is in auto-hide mode. The hidden window pane appears when the mouse cursor hovers over the button.

auto-implemented property

A Visual Basic and C# property that can be declared in a single line of code.


A process in which the control submits the page when the user interacts with the control. (By default, only button controls cause a postback.) For example, if a DropDownList control is set to perform autopostback, the page is submitted as soon as a user selects an item from the list. See also: ASP.NET server control.

background compilation

Compilation that occurs while the developer is writing code, before an explicit build command is made through the IDE. Background compilation enables error reporting while the developer is writing code.

backing field

A private variable that holds the value of a property. The property's Get and Set procedures access the backing field.

backing variable

See: backing field.

Binary Application Markup Language (BAML)

A binary representation of the objects and properties declared in an Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML) file.

binding source

In data binding, the object from which the value is obtained. See also: binding target.

binding target

In data binding, the object that consumes the value of the binding. See also: binding source.


The conversion of a value type instance to an object, which implies that the instance will carry full type information at run time and will be allocated in the heap. The Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) instruction set's box instruction converts a value type to an object by making a copy of the value type and embedding it in a newly allocated object. See also: Common Intermediate Language, unboxing, value type.


In Windows Presentation Foundation, an event routing strategy where the event instance moves up the element tree (starting with the source and ending at the root of the visual tree). See also: event routing, tunneling.

build log

The recorded text output of a Visual Studio build, often indicating command lines issued and status of each step in the build process. For a C++ build, this file is called BuildLog.htm.

caption bar

The horizontal bar at the top of a window that displays the name of the window. Title bars can contain different buttons, such the Minimize, Maximize, and Close buttons, so that you can control how you want to view the window.

caption button

A button that is displayed on the caption bar of a dockable pane or mini-frame window.


A Web page in WML. WML devices can either display the contents of a card on a single screen or, when necessary, provide scroll bars so that the entire contents of the card can be viewed. Developers need not worry about manipulating cards or decks because ASP.NET mobile controls handle formatting, including pagination, for targeted devices. See also: deck, WML.


A list of Web Parts controls (or other Web server, custom server, or user controls), created by a System.Web.UI.WebControls.CatalogPart control, that users can add to a Web Parts page. See also: Web Parts control, Web Parts page.


The double angle bracket denoting an overflow button control.


A language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting the language to native code.

CIM Object Manager

A component in the Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) infrastructure that handles the interaction between management applications and providers. The CIM Object Manager supports services such as event notification, remote access, and query processing. The CIM Object Manager also grants access to the WMI repository.

CIM schema

A collection of class definitions used to represent managed objects that occur in every management environment.


A named descriptor for a set of objects that share the same attributes, operations, methods, relationships, and behaviors. See also: encapsulation, indexer, property, reference type.

Class Designer

A visual design environment that enables you to visualize the structure of classes and other types. The Class Designer also enables you to edit the source code of classes and types through these visual representations.


A deployment method that enables you to publish Windows-based applications to a Web server or network file share for simplified installation.

client application service

In Windows-based applications, built-in functionality to access ASP.NET application services for common application tasks, including remote login, roles, and application settings.

client area

The portion of a Windows-based application excluding toolbars, menus, and status bars.

closed generic type

A constructed generic type that has no unspecified generic type parameters, either of its own or of any enclosing types or methods. Closed generic types can be instantiated. See also: generic type, generic type parameter, generics, open generic type.

CLR metadata

Information that describes every element managed by the common language runtime: an assembly, loadable file, type, method, and so on. This can include information required for debugging and garbage collection, as well as security attributes, marshaling data, extended class and member definitions, version binding, and other information required by the runtime. See also: common language runtime.


Pertaining to code that publicly exposes only language features that are in the Common Language Specification. CLS compliance can apply to classes, interfaces, components, and tools. See also: Common Language Specification.

code access security

A mechanism provided by the common language runtime whereby managed code is granted permissions by security policy and these permissions are enforced, helping to limit the operations that the code will be allowed to perform.

code page

A table that maps a particular character set to specific character codes.

code point

A 21-bit numeric value that represents a particular Unicode character. See also: Unicode.

code-behind class

A class that is accessed by an .aspx file, but resides in a separate file (such as a .dll or .cs file). For example, you can write a code-behind class that creates an ASP.NET custom server control, contains code that is called from an .aspx file, but does not reside within the .aspx file.

code-behind file

A code file containing the page class that implements the program logic of a Web Forms or ASP.NET mobile Web Forms application.

code-behind page

See: code-behind file.

collectible assembly

A transient dynamic assembly that you generate at run time by using the classes in the System.Reflection.Emit namespace, subject to certain restrictions. When you have released all references to all instances of the types in the collectible assembly and to all objects that were used to create the assembly, the common language runtime unloads the assembly from memory without unloading the application domain. This is the only circumstance in which an assembly can be unloaded without unloading the application domain.

collection initializer

A sequence of object initializers that are assigned to the collection elements in the same statement in which the collection is constructed.

color menu button

A button that drops down to expose a color palette when a user clicks it.

color picker

An interface control for setting the color of a brush or the color of a property on an object (such as Background).

COM callable wrapper (CCW)

A proxy object generated by the common language runtime so that existing COM applications can use managed classes, including .NET Framework classes, transparently.

COM interop

A service that enables .NET Framework objects to communicate with COM objects.

Common Information Model (CIM)

The model that describes how to represent real-world managed objects. CIM uses an object-oriented paradigm, where managed objects are modeled using the concepts of classes and instances. The CIM is divided into the metamodel and the standard schema. The metamodel describes what types of entities make up the schema. It also defines how these entities can be combined into objects that represent real-world devices.

Common Intermediate Language

A language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting the language to native code.

common language runtime (CLR)

The engine at the core of managed code execution. The runtime supplies managed code with services such as cross-language integration, code access security, object lifetime management, and debugging and profiling support.

common language runtime host

An unmanaged application that uses a set of APIs, called the hosting interfaces, to integrate managed code into the application. Common language runtime hosts often require a high degree of customization over the runtime that is loaded into the process. See also: application domain, common language runtime, managed code.

Common Language Specification (CLS)

A subset of language features supported by the common language runtime, including features common to several object-oriented programming languages. CLS-compliant components and tools are guaranteed to interoperate with other CLS-compliant components and tools. See also: CLS-compliant.

common object file format (COFF)

A format in 32-bit programming for executable (image) and object files that is portable across platforms. The Microsoft implementation is called portable executable (PE) file format. See also: portable executable file.

common type system (CTS)

The specification that determines how the common language runtime defines, uses, and manages types.

comparison evaluator

A filter that compares a device capability name to a value.

component tray

A rectangular region that appears at the bottom of the Windows Forms Designer when it is in Design view. The component tray is a container for components, which are controls that are not visible. It appears only after a component is added to the current form and provides a way for users to access and set the properties of those components.

composite control

A custom server control that consists of a custom collection of other server controls as child controls.

conceptual model

An abstract specification for the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets in the domain of an application built on an Entity Data Model.

conceptual schema definition language (CSDL)

An XML-based language that is used to define the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets of a conceptual model.

configuration file

A file that contains machine-readable operating specifications for a piece of hardware or software or that contains information on another file or on a specific user, such as the user's logon ID.


In a Web Parts connection, a server control that receives data from a provider control and processes or displays it. A consumer can be any type of server control, but must be designed to function as a consumer. A consumer must have a special callback method marked with a ConnectionConsumerAttribute attribute in the source code. This method receives data from the provider in the form of an interface instance. See also: provider, Web Parts connection.

container control

A type of ASP.NET mobile control that contains other controls and provides visual groupings of controls and content.

content page

A page that contains the content to be merged with a master page in order to render as complete web page. See also: master page.


In the Concurrency Runtime, an abstraction of an operating system thread.

context property

The implicit state, and code to manage that state, held on behalf of an object instance. For example, the transaction context property holds the transaction identifier of the transaction that the object is participating in.


The behavior and state that a class provides, which is matched with what a client of that class can expect to hold. A contract is expressed partly by the signatures for all public fields, methods, properties, and events of that class. This is augmented by a description (usually in simple descriptive text) of what each field or property represents, together with what each method does. In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, a non-versioning interface that defines the methods and specifies the data types for transferring data over the communication pipeline between the host and the add-in. The contract is in the middle of the communication pipeline between the add-in and the host. The contract assembly is loaded into the application domains of both the add-in and the host. See also: add-in, host.


In programming languages, the ability to use a less derived type than that originally specified. Contravariance in generic interfaces and delegates allows for implicit conversion of generic type parameters. Contravariance is also supported for non-generic delegates for matching method signatures with delegate types. See also: covariance.

control state

A field in an ASP.NET Web page that stores the current property settings for server controls on the page. Control state is used to recreate the page and reestablish previous settings on each postback. See also: ASP.NET page, ASP.NET server control, postback.

cooperative blocking

In multithreading, the act of one task yielding processing resources to other tasks.


In programming languages, the ability to use a more derived type than that originally specified. Covariance in generic interfaces and delegates allows for implicit conversion of generic type parameters. Covariance is also supported for non-generic delegates for matching method signatures with delegate types. See also: contravariance.

cross-page posting

In ASP.NET Web pages, the process of submitting a page to a specified target page in contrast to submitting the page to itself. See also: postback.

custom attribute

A class used to represent custom metadata. See also: attribute.

custom build rule

A build rule defined by the user, typically to call a tool that is not part of the normal Visual Studio build process.

custom control

A control authored by a user or a third-party software vendor.

data binding

The process of creating a link between a property and a source. The source can be local or external.

data source control

An object that can be added to an ASP.NET Web page that encapsulates the logic required to connect to a data source, such as a database or XML file, and that can execute queries or other data-access commands. A data source control can in turn provide data to other controls on that page.

Dataset Designer

A set of visual tools for creating and editing typed datasets and the individual items that make up datasets.


A group of one or more cards. See also: card, Wireless Markup Language.

declarative security check

Declarative security information in metadata. Developers can use such declarations, which are usually written as custom attributes, to invoke several kinds of security functionality - require permissions to bind reference to the code, require permissions to derive a type, demand that callers have certain permissions, and so on. See also: imperative security check.

decoupled provider

A provider hosted in a separate process from WMI. Decoupled providers are the recommended way to instrument an application because the provider can control its own lifetime instead of being launched every time a user accesses the provider through WMI. See also: provider.

Deep Zoom

In Silverlight, a technology that enables users to interactively view high-resolution images. With Deep Zoom, users can zoom in, zoom out, and pan images rapidly.

deferred loading

A pattern of data loading where related objects are not loaded until a navigation property is accessed.

deferred query

A LINQ query that is not evaluated until it is iterated over, either with a foreach statement (C#) or a For Each statement (Visual Basic), or by manually using the underlying GetEnumerator and MoveNext methods.


A type that references a method. Once a delegate is assigned a method, it behaves exactly like that method. Delegates are roughly similar to function pointers in C++; however, they are type-safe and secure.


The event in which a permission is not granted. By denying a permission, a method can prevent its callers from exercising the privilege represented by that permission. If a method on the call stack denies permission A, a stack walk checking for permission A will fail unless a valid assertion is found on the stack between the method doing the denial and the method that initiated the check for permission A. See also: assertion.

denial-of-service attack

An attempt by a malicious (or unwitting) user, process, or system to prevent legitimate users from accessing a resource (usually a network service) by exploiting a weakness or design limitation in an information system.

dependency property

In Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight, a property represented by a DependencyProperty identifier that is registered with the property system. Dependency properties can be defined only by DependencyObject types, which typically expose the identifier as a public static field. The property system determines their effective value based on a precedence evaluation of all possible value sources.

deployment manifest

The file used in ClickOnce applications that describes the current version of this deployment, and whether it should be installed on the client computer or only run online.

desktop alert window

A window that pops up on the Windows desktop in response to an event, for example, receiving email.

device adapter

An ASP.NET page framework class that adapts the behavior of mobile pages and controls based on the target device.

device agent

An application that a desktop application deploys and executes on a smart device. Usually, a device agent communicates or exchanges data with the desktop application that deployed it.

device capability

A device functionality available through the HasCapability method or the <Choice> element. See also: comparison evaluator.

device coordinate

The coordinate used by the physical device being drawn on, such as a screen or sheet of paper.

device definition

The characteristics of a device available through the MobileCapabilities class and the DeviceSpecific control.

device filter

A section of the Web.config file where you specify values for specific mobile devices. These values are used to create device-specific content.

Device Security Manager

A feature in Visual Studio that allows you to configure device security and manage certificates on Windows Mobile-based devices.

direct access

A way of accessing properties and methods supplied by WMI in a script as if they were automation properties and methods of an object instance.

discriminator property

A column in a database table that contains a value that determines which class any given record belongs to.

display mode

The mode in which a Web Parts page can be displayed. It enables users to modify a page in specified ways. The states that ship with the Web Parts control set are: catalog, connect, design, edit, and browse. The default or normal mode for a Web page is browse. Developers can extend this display mode feature by adding custom display modes, which requires extending the WebPartManager class. See also: Web Parts control set, Web Parts page.

document colors

A portion of the color bar that allows the user to select one color from the set of colors in the current document.

document-level customization

A supplemental program that modifies or adds functionality to an existing program or application, but only when a specific document is open.

download cache

A cache that is part of the assembly cache and stores code downloaded from Internet or intranet sites, isolated to the application that caused the download so that code downloaded on behalf of one application or page does not impact other applications. See also: assembly cache.

dynamic binding

Binding (converting symbolic addresses in the program to storage-related addresses) that occurs during program execution. The term often refers to object-oriented applications that determine, during run time, which software routines to call for particular data objects.

dynamic control

A Web Parts control that is persisted in a personalization store; it does not appear in the declarative markup of an .aspx page. After it has been added to a page, the WebPartManager control automatically creates an instance of the control from the personaization store on future requests. See also: Web Parts control.

Dynamic Data

In ASP.NET, a framework that facilitates the creation of data-driven Web applications. Dynamic Data uses customizable page and field templates, scaffolding, user-definable metadata, and convention-based naming to create UI that displays data, lets users navigate relationships between tables, and lets users edit and create data (create, read, update and delete (CRUD) operations). See also: scaffolding.

dynamic method invocation

A technique that defers until runtime the decision as to which specific method to call. See also: dynamic binding.

eager loading

A pattern of loading where a specific set of related objects are loaded along with the objects that were explicitly requested in the query.

edit browse control

An edit box control that allows the user to browse and select files and directories.

elevated trust

In Silverlight, a security level that gives out-of-browser applications greater access to the local system.

embedded resource

The files used by an application that are stored in binary format in the compiled application.


The ability of an object to hide its internal data and methods, making only the intended parts of the object programmatically accessible.


A participating entity in an association.


A class or object that represents application data such as customers, products, and orders.

entity container

A container of specified entity sets and association sets that will be implemented in a specified namespace.

Entity Data Model

A data model for defining application data as sets of entities and relationships to which CLR types and storage structures can be mapped.

Entity Framework

A set of technologies that supports development of data-oriented software applications by enabling developers to work with conceptual models that are mapped to logical schemas in data sources.

Entity SQL

A storage-independent dialect of SQL that works directly with conceptual entity schemas and that supports entity data model features such as inheritance and relationships.

entity type

The specification for a data type that includes a named set of properties and represents a top-level item in a data model.


A list of named constants.


An action or occurrence to which a program might respond. Examples include state changes, data transfers, key presses, and mouse movements.

event consumer

A recipient of notifications that report an occurrence of an event. An event consumer is either temporary or permanent. See also: event, event consumer provider, permanent consumer, temporary consumer.

event consumer provider

A provider that determines which permanent event consumer handles a given event. See also: event, event consumer, permanent consumer, temporary consumer.

event filter

A filter that registers to receive notification of a specific type of event. See also: event.

event provider

A provider that monitors a source of events and notifies the event table when events occur. See also: event.

event query

A WMI Query Language statement that event consumers use to register to receive notification of specific events. An event provider uses an event query to register to generate notifications of specific events. See also: event, event consumer.

event routing

In Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight, the movement of an event in a tree of elements. There are three types of event routing: direct, bubbling, and tunneling. With direct routing, the event does not move in the tree. With bubbling, the event moves up to the top of the tree. With tunneling, the event starts at the top of the tree and moves down to the source of the event. In Silverlight, event routing and routed events are used, but tunneling is not implemented. See also: bubbling, tunneling.

Event Tracing for Windows (ETW)

A general-purpose, high-speed tracing feature of Windows.

event-based asynchronous pattern

A design pattern that uses events to expose asynchronous features of a class.


The properties of code, such as a digital signature or the zone or site of its origin, that are used by security policy to grant permissions to code. See also: security policy.

Exception Assistant

A Visual Studio debugging tool that provides information about the cause of an exception in a Visual Basic or Visual C# program.

executable file

A file in portable executable (PE) file format that can be loaded into memory and executed by the operating system loader. It can be either an .exe or a .dll file. In the .NET context, a PE file must be translated by the common language runtime into code before it can be executed by the operating system. See also: portable executable file.

explicit interface implementation

The implementation of a class or structure member that is accessible only through the interface that the class or structure implements.

explicit loading

A pattern of loading where related objects are not loaded until explicitly requested by using the Load method on a navigation property.

expression tree

A tree-form data representation of the structure of language-level code expressions.

extender control

In ASP.NET, a control that encapsulates functionality that is implemented in JavaScript and that defines behavior in the browser. Extender controls are associated with existing Web server controls to add the extender's behavior to that control. For example, an extender control can add a watermark to any TextBox control or drag-and-drop behavior to a variety of ASP.NET Web server controls.

Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML)

A markup language for declarative application programming. XAML simplifies creating a UI for the Windows Presentation Foundation programming model. You can create visible UI elements in the declarative XAML markup, and then separate the UI definition from the run-time logic by using code-behind files, which are joined to the markup through partial class definitions.

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

A markup language for describing and exchanging structured data in a format that is independent of operating systems and applications. XML is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification and is a subset of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

extension method

A static method that can be invoked by using instance method syntax. In effect, extension methods make it possible to extend existing types and constructed types with additional methods.

external context

In the Concurrency Runtime, a context that is created by an application component that is external to the Task Scheduler. An external context generates parallel work for a Task Scheduler and participates in that work.

external style

A style in an external style sheet.

external style sheet

A style sheet defined in a user control in an .ascx file.


A member that represents a variable associated with an object or class.

flow layout

A way of designing a form in which all elements are positioned one immediately after the other.

foreign key

A key in a database table that comes from another table (also know as the "referenced table") and whose values match the primary key (PK) or unique key in the referenced table.

form region

A customizable extension to Microsoft Office Outlook forms.

friend assembly

An assembly that can access another assembly’s internal types and members. Ordinarily, types and members with internal scope (in C#) and friend scope (in Visual Basic) are visible only in the assembly in which they are defined. In the .NET Framework, you can make the types and members visible to additional (friend) assemblies by using the InternalsVisibleToAttribute attribute. See also: assembly.

gamma correction

The process of adjusting an image input signal to correctly display on a particular device.

garbage collection (GC)

A process for automatic recovery of heap memory. Blocks of memory that had been allocated but are no longer in use are freed, and blocks of memory still in use may be moved to consolidate the free memory into larger blocks. See also: heap.


A class-based API for C/C++ programmers that enables applications to use graphics and formatted text on both the video display and the printer. Applications based on the Microsoft Win32 API do not access graphics hardware directly. Instead, GDI+ interacts with device drivers on behalf of applications. GDI+ is also supported by Microsoft Win64.

generic method

A method whose definition has placeholders, called generic type parameters, for one or more types used in the body of the method or as the types of the method's parameters. A user specifies real types (generic type arguments) for the type parameters when calling the generic method. Note that a method is not generic just because it is declared in a generic type. A method is generic only if it has type parameters of its own. See also: generic type, generics.

generic type

A class, interface, or structure whose definition has placeholders, called generic type parameters, for one or more types that are used in its member definitions. A user specifies real types (generic type arguments) for the type parameters when creating an instance of a generic type. See also: generic method, generic type argument, generic type definition, generic type parameter, generics, parameterized type.

generic type argument

The type that the user specifies when creating instances of a generic type or when calling a generic method. See also: generic method, generic type, generics.

generic type definition

The definition of a generic type, in which type parameters act as placeholders for types that the user supplies when creating instances to use. These instances are not instances of the generic type definition, but of the constructed type formed by specifying type arguments. See also: generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter, generics.

generic type parameter

In a generic type definition, a placeholder for a type that the user specifies (generic type argument) when creating instances of a generic type or when calling a generic method. See also: generic method, generic type, generics.

generic type parameter constraint

A way of limiting the types that can be specified for a generic type parameter. For example, types substituted for the type parameter can be constrained to inherit from a particular type, to implement a specific interface, to provide a parameterless constructor, and so on. See also: generic type parameter, generics.

generic type parameter list

The list of generic type parameters of a generic type or method, specified as part of the definition of the generic type or generic method. See also: generic type, generic type parameter, generics.


A feature of the common language runtime, conceptually similar to C++ templates, that allows classes, structures, interfaces, and methods to have placeholders (generic type parameters) for the data types they store and manipulate. Generic types are a form of parameterized types. See also: generic method, generic type, parameterized type.

global assembly cache

A computer-wide code cache that stores assemblies specifically installed to be shared by many applications on the computer. See also: assembly cache, strong name.


The process of designing and developing a software product to function in multiple locales. Globalization involves identifying the locales that must be supported, designing features that support those locales, and writing code that functions equally well in any of the supported locales. See also: locale, localization.


A graphical representation of either a character, a part of a character, or a sequence of characters.

granted permissions

The permissions, determined by security policy, that code will be given, allowing it access to resources and giving it identity. The granted permissions are determined by both the requested permissions and what is allowed by the security policy configuration. See also: security policy.

hardware thread

A hardware element that executes a stream of instructions.


A portion of memory reserved for a program to use for the temporary storage of data structures whose existence or size cannot be determined until the program is running.


In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, a host application assembly that communicates with an add-in over the communication pipeline. See also: add-in.

host application

An application that has some sort of customization, such as an application-level add-in or a document-level customization, for which the application acts as a host.

host control

An object that is native to a host application (such as Microsoft Office Word or Microsoft Office Excel) to which data binding and events have been added. Examples of host controls include Bookmark controls and ListObject controls.

host item

An object that is native to a host application (such as Microsoft Office Word or Microsoft Office Excel) to which you can add host controls. Examples of host items include Document and Worksheet.

host view of the add-in

In the .NET Framework add-in programming model, an assembly that contains interfaces or abstract base classes, and represents the host's view of the methods and types used to communicate with an add-in. See also: add-in, host.


In the .NET Framework, the loading and activation of the common language runtime in a process, and the subsequent communication between the loaded runtime and the host application.

HTML Bridge

In Silverlight, an integrated set of types and methods that enable you to expose managed types to JavaScript and call JavaScript event handlers from managed types.

HTML server control

An ASP.NET server control that belongs to the System.Web.UI.HtmlControls namespace. An HTML server control maps directly to an HTML element and is declared on an ASP.NET page as an HTML element marked by a runat="server" attribute, for example <button runat="server" />. In contrast to Web server controls, HTML server controls do not have an asp tag prefix. See also: ASP.NET server control, validation server control, Web server control.

HTTP handler

A component registered with ASP.NET (typically with an .axd extension) that produces Web output dynamically.

HTTP module

A component that can be registered as part of the ASP.NET request lifecycle and that can read or change the request or response as it is processed. HttpModules are often used to perform special tasks that need to monitor each request, such as security or site statistics.

image codec

Software or an algorithm that converts images to a specified file format (encoder) or from file format to displayed image (decoder).

image well

A collection of images of the same size and color depth that are stored as a row of images in a single bitmap.

imperative security check

A security check that occurs when a security method is called within the code that is being protected. This type of check can be data-driven and can be isolated to a single location within an object or method. For example, if the name of a file to be protected is known only at run time, an imperative security check can be invoked by passing the file name as a parameter to a security method. See also: declarative security check.


In programming, a scalar value that allows direct access into a multi-element data structure such as an array without the need for a sequential search through the collection of elements.


A class member that permits instances of a class or structure to be accessed in the same way as arrays. Indexers are similar to properties, except that the get and set accessor methods of indexers take parameters, whereas property accessor methods do not. See also: class, property, structure.

injected source

Code that is inserted into the symbol store by an attribute provider or by another component of the compiler. Can also refer to code that the compiler or linker generates automatically.

inline function

In a program, a function whose code is inserted completely within the code of the calling function.


A profiling technique that involves inserting diagnostic probes into the program being profiled. See also: Common Information Model.

Integrated mode

A compatibility mode for managed content. When an application pool is configured to use Integrated mode, the server will use the integrated, request-processing pipelines of IIS and ASP.NET to process the request.

integrated pipeline

A unified request processing pipeline that is running in Integrated mode. In the integrated pipeline, custom modules and handlers in a Web application can be configured to subscribe to notifications for all requests to the application, not just requests for ASP.NET-specific resources.


A Microsoft technology that allows you to analyze your source code by showing class definitions and comments when you hover your cursor over a function. IntelliSense can also complete function names when you type them in the IDE.


A reference type that defines a contract. Other types implement an interface to guarantee that they support certain operations. The interface specifies the members that must be supplied by classes or other interfaces that implement it. Like classes, interfaces can contain methods, properties, indexers, and events as members. See also: contract, indexer, property, reference type.

internal context

In the Concurrency Runtime, a context that the Task Scheduler creates and uses to run tasks.

internal style

A style in an internal style sheet. See also: internal style sheet.

internal style sheet

A style sheet contained in an ASP.NET mobile Web Forms page.

internationalized domain name (IDN)

An Internet domain name that can accommodate non-ASCII characters such as the diacritical marks of European language or non-Latinate characters such as those found in Chinese, Korean or Arabic.

interop assembly

An assembly containing definitions of COM types described in metadata. An interop assembly is typically produced by the Type Library Importer (Tlbimp.exe). See also: assembly, primary interop assembly.

intrinsic event

An event that occurs in response to a change in the standard WMI data model. Each intrinsic event class represents a specific type of change and occurs when WMI or a provider creates, deletes, or modifies a namespace, class, or class instance.

item template

The portion of a DataRepeater control that is used to provide a visual interface for the repeated items in the control. At design time, controls can be added to the item template, and properties can be set to modify the appearance of the DataRepeater.

just-in-time compilation (JIT compilation)

The compilation that converts Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) into machine code at the point when the code is required at run time.

language-integrated query (LINQ)

A query syntax that defines a set of query operators that allow traversal, filter, and projection operations to be expressed in a direct, declarative way in any .NET-based programming language.

lazy initialization

The deferral of object initialization or instantiation until the first time the object is referenced.


The time period that begins when an object is allocated in memory and ends when the garbage collector deletes the object from memory.

lightweight task

In the Concurrency Runtime, an asynchronous function call. A lightweight task is typically shorter-running and contains less internal state than an asynchronous agent, and the caller is not notified when the task is completed.

LINQ pattern

The set of standard query operators that is available in all LINQ queries, and the rules that define the structure of a LINQ query.

LINQ to DataSet

A LINQ technology that makes it easier and faster to query over data cached in a DataSet object. The queries are expressed in the programming language itself and not as string literals embedded in the application code.

LINQ to Objects

The use of LINQ to query in-memory data such as arrays and lists.


A LINQ technology that provides a run-time infrastructure for managing relational data as objects. In LINQ to SQL, the data model of a relational database is mapped to an object model expressed in the programming language of the developer.


An in-memory programming interface that makes it possible to work with XML from within the .NET Framework programming languages.

local messaging

In Silverlight, a feature that enables communication between two Silverlight-based applications running on the same computer.

local type inference

A process in which the compiler infers the type of a local variable that is declared with the var keyword in C# or without an As clause in Visual Basic. The compiler infers the type of the variable from the type of the initializer expression.


A collection of rules and data specific to a language and a geographic area. Locales include information on sorting rules, date and time formatting, numeric and monetary conventions, and character classification. See also: globalization, localization.


The process of adapting a product and/or content (including text and non-text elements) to meet the language, cultural, and political expectations and/or requirements of a specific local market (locale). See also: globalization, locale.

logical tree

In Windows Presentation Foundation, the tree containing all the elements and content that are directly created by an application and used for a user interface element. For the specified element, the logical tree is not a strict subset of its visual tree, because elements derived from the Visual base class might contain elements that are not derived from the Visual class. For example, the elements might contain a String, a TextElement, or any other common language runtime object. See also: visual tree.

managed code

Code that is executed by the common language runtime environment rather than directly by the operating system. Managed code applications gain common language runtime services such as automatic garbage collection, runtime type checking and security support, and so on. These services help provide uniform platform- and language-independent behavior of managed-code applications. See also: unmanaged code.

managed code extension

An application-level add-in or document-level customization. Generally, an extension to Microsoft Office that is created by using Visual Studio Tools for Office.

managed data

Objects whose lifetimes are managed by the common language runtime. The runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to these objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. See also: common language runtime, garbage collection.

Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF)

A composition layer for the .NET Framework that improves the flexibility, maintainability, and testability of large applications. MEF can be used for third-party plug-in extensibility, or it can bring the benefits of a loosely coupled architecture that is similar to a plug-in to regular applications.

Managed Object Format (MOF)

The file type, based on the Interface Definition Language (IDL), that describes management information. The MOF syntax is a way to describe object definitions in textual form.

management application

An application or Windows 2000/Windows NT service that uses information originating from one or more managed objects in a managed environment. Management applications retrieve this information through calls to the CIM Object Manager API from the CIM Object Manager and from providers. See also: CIM Object Manager, provider.


See: assembly manifest.

mapping specification language (MSL)

An XML-based language that is used to map items defined in a conceptual model to items in a storage model.


The space between a control and the other, adjoining controls on a form or page.

mask placeholder

A character used in a masked control when there is no user input to display.

master page

A page that defines the layout and common elements for a set of web pages. It is merged at run time with content pages that define page-specific content.

media link entry

An entry in a data feed that contains a reference to a related media resource. This is the Open Data Protocol (OData) representation of an entity that has related binary large object data that is not serialized in the data feed.

media resource

Any media item that can be transferred over any network as a binary stream. One media item could have multiple binary streams depending on the encoding features. For example, some media items could have three streams (or resources): WMV encoded stream for a 2 Mbps throughput, WMV encoded stream for a 500 Kbps throughput, and MPEG-2 encoded stream for a 5 Mbps throughput.

MEF catalog

An object that provides a collection of MEF parts from a specific source, such as a type, an assembly, or a directory, to a MEF composition container. A catalog is responsible for discovering MEF parts that a MEF composition container can make available to MEF apps. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF composition, MEF composition container, MEF part.

MEF composition

The process of matching MEF imports to MEF exports, performed by the MEF composition engine. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF composition container, MEF composition engine, MEF export, MEF import, MEF part.

MEF composition container

A MEF composition engine that is based on MEF catalogs and MEF part instances. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF catalog, MEF composition, MEF composition engine.

MEF composition engine

An object that resolves a MEF part’s dependencies and exposes its capabilities to other MEF parts and apps through composition, that is, by binding MEF imports to MEF exports. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF composition, MEF composition container, MEF export, MEF import, MEF part.

MEF contract

An identifier that determines how MEF imports and exports are matched. The contract consists of a name that identifies the contract and a type, which specifies the exported type. Both the contract name and the contract type can be either automatically generated or specified. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF export, MEF import, MEF part.

MEF export

An object that a MEF part provides to make its services available to other MEF parts. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF contract, MEF import, MEF part.

MEF import

A dependency that a MEF part specifies and fulfills from exports provided by other MEF parts. For example, common services can be provided in a MEF part and declared as an import by other MEF parts. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF contract, MEF export, MEF part.

MEF part

An object that is the basic building block of a MEF application. Each MEF part declares its dependencies (imports) and capabilities (exports), which are matched with the imports and exports of other MEF parts and made available to MEF apps. See also: Managed Extensibility Framework, MEF export, MEF import.


In ASP.NET, an application feature that manages a store of user credentials for a Web site. Membership can be integrated with login controls or other ASP.NET authentication features to provide login security for your site.

metadata workspace

A class that represents the metadata runtime service component that provides support for retrieving metadata.

mobile code

Any code placed on a central server that is meant to be downloaded and run by multiple clients. Mobile code can be distributed using Web servers, FTP servers, file shares, and so on. Typically, users run mobile code from the intranet and Internet zones.

mobile user control

An ASP.NET mobile control derived from the System.Web.UI.MobileControls.MobileUserControl class. User controls provide containers for custom controls built from other ASP.NET mobile controls. See also: ASP.NET mobile control.


A loadable unit, which can contain type declarations and type implementations. The module contains enough information to enable the common language runtime to locate all implementation bits when the module is loaded. The format for modules is an extension of the Windows portable executable (PE) file format. When deployed, a module is always contained in an assembly.


A short name that locates a namespace, class, or instance in WMI.


The ability to target code to specific versions (for example, 2.0, 3.5, 4, or 4.5) of the .NET Framework.


Running several processes in rapid sequence within a single program, regardless of which logical method of multitasking is being used by the operating system. Because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of a computer, multitasking appears to be simultaneous, even though only one task at a time can use a computer processing cycle.

naming container

Any ASP.NET control that implements the INamingContainer interface. This is a marker interface that enables a control to create a new naming scope under itself so that ID attributes assigned to its child controls are unique within the entire ASP.NET page that contains the control.

native image generation (NGen)

A pre-compilation technology for managed code that compiles Common Intermediate Language (CIL) to native code on the end-user computer prior to application run time. It is an alternative to JIT compilation. See also: Common Intermediate Language, JIT compilation.

native language

Code that has been compiled to processor-specific machine code.

navigation property

A property of entity types that uses an association to reference related entities.

nested type

A type defined within the scope of another type. A nested type is typically used for encapsulating implementation details of the top-level type.

O notation

An indication of the relative performance of an algorithm. An algorithm or the method that implements it is said to be O(1) if its execution is a constant, O(log n) if its execution is proportional to the natural log of n, or O(n) if its execution is proportional to n. O notation is frequently used as a way to compare the relative performance of operations on collections, in which case n is usually the number of elements in the collection.

object path

A formatted string used to access namespaces, classes, and instances. Each object on the system has a unique path that identifies it locally or over the network. Object paths are conceptually similar to Universal Resource Locators (URL).

Object Services

The services provided by the Entity Framework that enable application code to operate on entities in terms of .NET Framework objects.


A technology for transferring and sharing information among applications. When an object, such as an image file created with a paint program, is linked to a compound document, such as a spreadsheet or a document created with a word processing program, the document contains only a reference to the object; any changes made to the contents of a linked object will be seen in the compound document. When an object is embedded in a compound document, the document contains a copy of the object; any changes made to the contents of the original object will not be seen in the compound document unless the embedded object is updated.

one-click publish

A feature in Visual Studio that lets you deploy a Web application from the development computer to a server by clicking a button on a toolbar, and to deploy changes by clicking the button again, without having to redeploy the full application. You can create multiple publishing profiles to define the settings for different publishing scenarios, such as deploying to a test server, to a production server, and so on.

open generic type

A constructed generic type in which one or more of the generic type arguments substituted for its generic type parameters is a type parameter of an enclosing generic type or method. Open generic types cannot be instantiated. See also: closed generic type, generic type argument, generic type parameter, generics.


The alignment of an item, such as a control.


Pertaining to, or characteristic of, a Silverlight-based application that a user installs from a Web page and runs outside the browser.

owner draw mode

A rendering mode in which you take responsibility for drawing a control, rather than relying on the control's default rendering behavior.

package resource index file (PRI)

A binary file used in Windows Store apps to store resources for all languages, cultures, and scale factors.


The space between the inside edge of a child element and its content.

page coordinate

A coordinate used by a drawing surface, such as a form or control. See also: world coordinate.


A mechanism that automatically separates the content in ASP.NET mobile Web Forms into smaller groups of rendered pages that are targeted to fit a specific device. It also renders user interface elements that can be used to browse to other pages.

parameterized type

A type whose definition has placeholders for actual types that the user specifies when creating and using instances of the type. C++ templates and common language runtime generics are examples of parameterized types. See also: generics.

parameterless constructor constraint

A restriction on a generic type parameter, such that types substituted for that type parameter must provide a parameterless or default constructor. See also: generic type parameter constraint, generics.

part control

A control in the Web Parts control set that inherits directly or indirectly from the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.Part class and is used to create the primary user interface of Web Parts applications. See also: Web Parts control set.

partial-page rendering

The process of refreshing only a region of a Web page during an asynchronous postback. This is typically accomplished by using UpdatePanel controls. Partial-page rendering is an important feature of AJAX technology.

permanent consumer

An event consumer whose registration lasts until it is explicitly cancelled.

permission class

A class that defines access to a resource or defines an indentity by supporting authorization checks.

permission object

An instance of a permission class that represents access rights to resources or identity. A permission object can be used to specify a request, demand, or a grant of permission. See also: permission class.


A feature of the Web Parts control set that enables end users to personalize (modify) Web Parts controls and save the personalized settings. Personalization can apply to individual users (user scope) or to all users (shared scope). See also: Web Parts control, Web Parts control set.

personalization scope

The state of a Web Parts page that determines the range of users to which personalization changes apply. The WebPartManager control determines the personalization scope for a Web Parts page. The PersonalizationScope enumeration provides two possible scopes (Shared and User) that a page can be in at any given time. In shared scope, personalization changes made to shared controls apply to all users. In user scope, personalization changes made to shared and per-user controls apply only to the specific user. See also: personalization, Web Parts page.

per-user control

A dynamic Web Parts control that can be personalized and permanently deleted from a page for an individual user only. A per-user control appears on the page only when the page is in user scope. Note that a per-user control can have properties that are both user-scope and shared-scope for personalization purposes. See also: personalization, Web Parts control.

platform invoke

The functionality provided by the common language runtime to enable managed code to call unmanaged native DLL entry points.

portable executable file (PE file)

The file format used for executable programs and for files to be linked together to form executable programs.


The process in which a Web page sends data back to the same page on the server.


The process of submitting an entire Web site to a compiler. The resulting Web site output runs without needing to be compiled on first request and does not require source code to be deployed to a production server.

primary interop assembly

An assembly containing definitions of COM types that is distributed and digitally signed by the author of the COM component. Visual Studio uses a registered primary interop assembly by default when a developer references a type in the corresponding type library. See also: assembly, interop assembly.


In Windows-based computers, an account (such as a user, security group, device, or computer) that can be granted or denied access to resources. See also: role.

private assembly

An assembly that is available only to clients in the same directory structure as the assembly. See also: assembly, shared assembly.

private view state

State information that is written as a hidden field, such as the form that is currently active or the pagination information for a form.


The collection of detailed performance data, such as memory, stack frame, and CPU utilization, during application execution. Analysis of the resulting data often leads to code optimizations that substantially improve application run-time behavior.


The selection in a query of a subset of the properties or columns in the data source.


The machine code between the entry point for an assembly language routine and the code for its first executable statement. Prolog sets up the stack frame and preserves certain register values.


Attribute or characteristic of an object that is used to define its state, appearance, or value.


In a Web Parts connection, a server control that sends data to a consumer control. A provider can be a WebPart control or any type of server control, but must be designed to function as a provider. A provider must have a special callback method marked with a ConnectionProviderAttribute attribute in the source code. This method provides data to consumer controls in the form of an interface instance. See also: consumer, Web Parts connection.


An ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) syntax that transforms strings containing Unicode characters into strings consisting of a limited set of ASCII characters allowable for DNS. Used to transform internationalized domain names.

qualifier flavor

A flag that provides additional information about a qualifier, such as whether a derived class or instance can override the qualifier's original value.


An expression in the form of a query expression or a Standard Query Operator method call (or a combination of the two) that extracts information from a data source.

query clause

A single clause of a query expression. There are several different query clauses, each identified by its initiating query keyword. For instance, the "from/From clause" refers to clauses like "From c In customers" in Visual Basic, or "from c in customers" in C#.

query keyword

A contextual keyword in C# and Visual Basic that designates the query clause of a query expression. For example, from, join, and select are query keywords in C#, and From, Join, and Select are query keywords in Visual basic.

query pattern

The set of standard query operators that is available in all LINQ queries, and the rules that define the structure of a LINQ query.

query variable

A variable that stores a query, as opposed to the results of a query.

queryable type

The type of the query variable in a LINQ query. The type of the variable that represents the data source is also a queryable type. A queryable type can be implicitly or explicitly typed, but in either case it must be a generic IEnumerable or IQueryable type.

Quick Info tooltip

The pop-up window that displays the complete declaration for an identifier when the pointer rests on the identifier in a code editor window.

race condition

A condition in which two or more threads can reach and execute a block of code, and the program outcome changes radically depending on which thread reaches the code first. A race condition is benign if all outcomes are valid. However, race conditions can be associated with synchronization errors that can result in one process interfering with another process and possibly introduce a vulnerability. Frequently, a potential outcome of a race condition leaves the program in an unstable or invalid state.

range variable

A variable that provides access to each element in a sequence in a LINQ query.

reference type

A data type that is represented by a reference (similar to a pointer) to the type's actual value. If a reference type is assigned to a variable, that variable references (or "points to") the original value. No copy is made. Reference types comprise classes, interfaces, delegates, and boxed value types. See also: value type.

referential constraint

An element of an SSDL schema that specifies the direction of an association with FromRole and ToRole attributes. A referential constraint corresponds to a CSDL navigation property. See also: conceptual schema definition language, store schema definition language.


The process of obtaining information about assemblies and the types defined within them, and creating, invoking, and accessing type instances at run time.

regular expression

A concise and flexible notation for finding and replacing patterns of text. The notation comprises two basic character types: literal (normal) text characters, which indicate text that must exist in the target string, and metacharacters, which indicate the text that can vary in the target string. You can use regular expressions to quickly parse large amounts of text to find specific character patterns; extract, edit, replace, or delete text substrings; or to add the extracted strings to a collection in order to generate a report.

relational model

The logical model used to define the tables, columns, and constraints in a relational database.

relative virtual address

An offset from the address of a module that is loaded in memory.


The process of communication between different operating system processes, regardless of whether they are on the same computer. See also: application domain, context.


The creation of an image containing geometric models, using color and shading to give the image a realistic look. Usually part of a geometric modeling package such as a CAD program, rendering uses mathematics to describe the location of a light source in relation to the object and to calculate the way in which the light would create highlights, shading, and variations in color. The degree of realism can range from opaque, shaded polygons to images approximating photographs in their complexity.

requested permissions

Optionally specified permissions in an assembly that represent the minimum required, optionally desired, and always refused permissions for all code in the assembly. If there is no request, the code is granted the maximum that security policy allows. See also: security policy.


Any nonexecutable data that is logically deployed with an application. A resource might be displayed in an application as error messages or as part of the user interface. Resources can contain data in a number of forms, including strings, images, and persisted objects.

retargetable assembly

An assembly that belongs to more than one implementation of the .NET Framework, or an assembly that has been built on more than one implementation of the .NET Framework with the same strong name and with appropriate attributes. Applications that use retargetable assemblies can run on any .NET Framework implementation where those assemblies have been built. For example, applications that are built to use the .NET Compact Framework can run on the desktop implementation of the .NET Framework. See also: assembly.


An area in a window in which commands and other controls are displayed in functionally related groups. A ribbon can be divided into multiple views, known as tabs, and every tab can contain multiple groups of controls. Typically, a ribbon appears at the top of a window.

ribbon launch button

The button at the bottom right corner of a ribbon group. Typically, a click of the button opens a dialog box or other element that is related to the group.

ribbon pane default button

The button that appears when a ribbon is reduced to its minimum size. A click of the button displays the ribbon commands on a menu.

ribbon tab

When a ribbon is divided into multiple views, any one of the views. Every tab contains functionally related commands and other controls that are organized in groups. Typically, ribbon tabs are labeled.

right-to-left (RTL)

Pertaining to keyboard settings, document views, user interface objects, languages, etc. for which text is displayed in a right-to-left direction.


A defined set of application access privileges. The security role assigned to a user determines which tasks the user can perform and which parts of the user interface the user can view. All users must be assigned at least one security role in order to access the system.

role-based authorization

A type of authorization that uses roles to determine access rights and privileges. A role is a symbolic category of users that share the same security privilege. See also: authentication, authorization, principal, role.

routed event

An event instance that propagates through a tree of related elements rather than just targeting to a single element. See also: bubbling, tunneling.


See: common language runtime.

runtime callable wrapper (RCW)

A .NET Framework object that acts as a proxy for a reference-counted COM object.

safe mode

A specific version policy that requests a given assembly be run with the exact version of its dependencies that it was compiled against.

sandboxed application

In Silverlight, an in-browser application or an out-of-browser application that has not been granted elevated trust. See also: elevated trust, trusted application.

satellite assembly

A .NET Framework assembly containing resources specific to a given language. Using satellite assemblies, you can place the resources for difference languages in different assemblies, and the correct assembly is loaded into memory only if the user elects to view that application in that language.


The process of generating Web-page templates based on database schemas. In ASP.NET, Dynamica Data uses scaffolding to facilitate the generation of Web-based UI that lets a user view and update a database.

schedule group

In the Concurrency Runtime, a container for related tasks that are queued to a Task Scheduler.

security descriptor

A data structure that contains security information associated with a protected object. Security descriptors include information about who owns the object, who can access it and in what way, and what types of access are audited.

security hole

An unintentionally unprotected entry point into an otherwise secure computer, component, application, or other online resource.

security identifier (SID)

In Windows-based systems, a unique value that identifies a user, group, or computer account within an enterprise. Every account is issued a SID when it is created.

security policy

The active policy established by the administrator that programmatically generates granted permissions for all managed code based on the code's requested permissions. Code that requires more permissions than policy will grant is not allowed to run. See also: evidence, requested permissions.


Pertaining to a type or member that accesses secure resources and can only be used by fully trusted code in the .NET Framework. See also: security-safe-critical, security-transparent.


Pertaining to a type or member that accesses secure resources and can be safely used by partially trusted code in the .NET Framework. See also: security-critical, security-transparent.


Pertaining to a type or member that is partially trusted and that cannot expose access to any protected resources or functionality. See also: security-critical, security-safe-critical.

semisynchronous method call

A method call that returns immediately and allows the application or script to enumerate the returned objects as a collection. A semisynchronous method call does not require setting up an object sink, but an asynchronous method call does require setting up an object sink. See also: asynchronous method call.


An instance of a queryable type.


The process of converting an object's state information into a form that can be stored or transported. During serialization, an object writes its current state to temporary or persistent storage. Later, the object can be recreated by reading, or deserializing, the object's state from storage.

session state

In ASP.NET, a variable store created on the server for the current user; each user maintains a separate Session state on the server. Session state is typically used to store user-specific information between postbacks. See also: postback.

set difference

The collection of elements in one set that do not appear in the other set.

shared assembly

An assembly that can be referenced by more than one application. An assembly must be explicitly built to be shared by giving it a cryptographically strong name. See also: assembly, private assembly, strong name.

shared control

A Web Parts control that can appear on a Web page and be personalized when the page is in either shared or user-level personalization scope. Note that a shared control can have properties that are both user-scope and shared-scope for personalization purposes. See also: personalization, personalization scope, Web Parts control.

shared name

See: strong name.

SharePoint Object Model Adapter

A component assembly that translates calls between 32-bit SharePoint project code and 64-bit SharePoint Object Model code, and helps maintain isolation between the two sides and facilitate versioning.

side-by-side execution

The ability to install and use multiple versions of an assembly in isolation at the same time. Side-by-side execution can apply to applications and components as well as to the .NET Framework. Allowing assemblies to coexist and to execute simultaneously on the same computer is essential to support robust versioning in the common language runtime.

side-by-side hosting

The loading and activation of multiple versions of the common language runtime within the same process.


The list of types involved in the definition of a method, field, property, or local variable. For a method, the signature includes its name, number of parameters and their types, the type it returns (if any), and its calling convention (default or vararg). The signature for a property is similar to that of a method. The signature for fields and local variables is simply their type (for example, array [0..5] of int).

Silverlight plug-in

A plug-in that users download to run a Silverlight-based application in their browser. This term also refers to the component embedded in a Web page that renders Silverlight content.

site navigation

In ASP.NET Web sites, the process of displaying controls such as menus, a tree view, or SiteMapPath (breadcrumb) controls that assist users in finding pages of interest. Site navigation is typically driven from a sitemap.

skin file

A file containing one or more control properties that define how the controls should look. Skin files are part of ASP.NET themes. See also: theme.


A simple, XML-based protocol for exchanging structured data and type information on the World Wide Web. The protocol is currently the de facto standard for XML messaging.

SOAP header

The extensibility elements of a SOAP message. The SOAP header allows additional information to be sent with a SOAP request.

SOAP message

The data encapsulated in a SOAP envelope that flows back and forth between a client and a Web service.

split stack layout

A layout style in which each end of the ToolStrip is the base of a stack, with some items stacked at the head and other items stacked at the tail. Items are stacked from the ends in.

stack layout

A layout style in which adjacent items align against each other as though they were stacked, always taking up the free space in between the items.

standard consumer

One of several preinstalled permanent consumers that perform an action, such as sending an e-mail or writing to a log when configured by a managed object format (MOF) file or a script. See also: permanent consumer.

standard query operator

A method that constitutes a query pattern and that is implemented by a LINQ provider for a specific domain. Standard query operators are defined in the System.Linq.Enumerable class.

static control

A Web Parts control that is part of the declarative "page persistence" markup in an .aspx page; it exists only as part of the .aspx page, not in a personalization store like a dynamic Web Parts control. Unlike a dynamic control, a static control is added to an .aspx page on every request. A static Web Parts control is always a shared control, which means that although users can both personalize and "close" the control when the page is in either shared or user scope, the control can never be permanently deleted. See also: personalization, personalization scope, shared control, Web Parts control.

step clause

A clause that specifies the amount by which the loop counter is incremented each time a For...Next loop is traversed. In the following example, "Step 2" is the step clause: For loopCounter = 1 to 100 Step 2

store schema definition language (SSDL)

An XML-based language that is used to define the entity types, associations, entity containers, entity sets, and association sets of a storage model, often corresponding to a database schema.


To adjust the size of an item to fit its container.

strong name

A name that consists of an assembly's identity-its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)-strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly. Because the assembly manifest contains file hashes for all the files that constitute the assembly implementation, it is sufficient to generate the digital signature over just the one file in the assembly that contains the assembly manifest. Assemblies with the same strong name are expected to be identical. See also: assembly, assembly manifest.


A user-defined value type that, similar to a class, can contain constructors, constants, fields, methods, properties, indexers, operators, and nested types. Unlike classes, however, structures do not support inheritance. See also: class, field, indexer, nested type, property, value type.

structured parallelism

In the Concurrency Runtime, parallel code that is scheduled and finished in the lexical scope from which it starts. Under the structured parallelism model, a task does not finish until its child tasks finish.


In regular expressions, a concatenation or an alternation, depending on the regular expression grammar being used.

system class

A class that the CIM Object Manager defines to support core features such as event notification, security, and localization. A system class is automatically defined in each namespace. See also: CIM Object Manager.

tabbed docking bar

The host control for a group of dockable windows. Once docked, each window changes form, becoming a tab.

tabbed group

In a multiple document interface (MDI) application, a set of child windows that have tab borders and are docked together in the client area of the application. To undock a child window from the group, drag it by its tab.

table layout

The layout of a form in which all elements are positioned in cells within a table.

table-per hierarchy (TPH)

A method of modeling a type hierarchy in a database that includes the attributes of all the types in the hierarchy in one table.

table-per-type (TPT)

A method of modeling a type hierarchy in a database that uses multiple tables with one-to-one relationships to model the various types.

target framework

The version of the .NET Framework or of Silverlight for which a particular application has been created.

task group

In the Concurrency Runtime, a construct that enables related, fine-grained tasks to be queued to a Task Scheduler. A task group can be used to schedule tasks, wait for tasks to finish, and cancel tasks that have not started.

Task Scheduler

In the Concurrency Runtime, a component that schedules and coordinates tasks at run time. Sometimes referred to as a scheduler.


In ASP.NET: A declarative page fragment that is used to provide a visual interface for a templated ASP.NET server control. A template contains presentation elements that include literal text, HTML, and data-binding expressions, as well as declarative syntax elements that represent ASP.NET server controls.

template node

The design-time access point to the Items Collection Editor for a ToolStrip, MenuStrip, ContextMenuStrip, or StatusStrip control.

template set

In ASP.NET mobile controls: A collection of templates associated with a templated control. See also: template, templated control.

templated control

An ASP.NET server control that does not itself provide a visual interface but allows its users (page developers) to supply templates that provide a visual interface. When the ASP.NET page parser encounters a templated control, it parses the control's template and dynamically creates child controls that supply the visual interface. The Repeater and DataList ASP.NET server controls are templated controls. The DataGrid control is not strictly a templated control, but uses templates to customize its user interface. See also: ASP.NET server control, template.

temporary consumer

An event consumer that receives event notifications only while the consumer is active. See also: permanent consumer.

text writer

In ASP.NET mobile controls: A mechanism that allows device adapters to write their output through an object. A text writer object is created from the TextWriter base class. See also: device adapter.


In ASP.NET, a collection of control properties, stylesheets, and images that can be applied as a unit to a page or Web site to define an overall appearance. See also: skin file.


A small section of code that performs a translation or conversion during a call or indirection. For example, a thunk is used to change the size or type of function parameters when calling between 16-bit and 32-bit code.


The process of capturing and displaying debugging information about a Web page as the page is running. Tracing information includes HTTP headers and control state. You can display trace output in the page or in a separate trace viewer.


A security model that helps developers write and deploy secure libraries and applications by isolating code depending on privilege. Level 1 transparency was introduced in the .NET Framework version 2.0. It enables developers to annotate code to declare which types and members can perform security elevations and other trusted actions (security-critical) and which cannot (security-transparent). Level 2 transparency, which was introduced in the .NET Framework 4, refines this model. It adds a third group of code, security-safe-critical code, which are types or members that access secure resources and can be safely used by partially-trusted code in the .NET Framework.

trust license

The file used in ClickOnce applications to grant an elevated level of trust to a managed application. Trust licenses must be signed by trust license issuers, which must be installed on a client computer prior to deploying the ClickOnce application.

trusted application

In Silverlight, an out-of-browser application to which a user grants elevated trust upon installation, providing greater access to the local system. See also: elevated trust, sandboxed application.


In Windows Presentation Foundation, an event routing strategy where the event instance moves down the element tree (starting at the root of the visual tree and ending with the source). The names of events that use this routing strategy are prefixed with the word "Preview". These events have the same signature as their counterparts that use the bubbling event routing strategy. See also: bubbling, event routing.


An ordered collection of members that uniquely identifies a cell, based on a combination of attribute members from every attribute hierarchy in the cube.

type inference

A process in which the compiler determines the data type of a local variable that has been declared without an explicit data type declaration. The type is inferred from the initial value provided for the variable.


Pertaining to programming languages that can exchange information through commonly agreed upon definitions and usage patterns for types.


The conversion of an object instance to a value type. See also: boxing, value type.


A character-encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium that represents almost all of the written languages of the world. The Unicode character repertoire has multiple representation forms, including UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32. Most Windows interfaces use the UTF-16 form.

unicode escape sequence

In regular expressions, a backslash followed by the letter 'u' followed by four hexadecimal digits. It matches a character in the target sequence that has the value that is specified by the four digits.

Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)

A character string used to identify a resource (such as a file) from anywhere on the Internet by type and location. The set of Uniform Resource Identifiers includes both Uniform Resource Names (URNs) and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs).

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI)

A specification for publishing and locating information about Web services. It defines a standards-based way to store and retrieve information about services, service providers, binding information, and technical interface definitions, all classified using a set of standard or custom classification schemes.

unmanaged code

Code that is executed directly by the operating system, outside the .NET Framework common language runtime. Unmanaged code must provide its own memory management, type checking, and security support, unlike managed code, which receives these services from the common language runtime. See also: managed code.

unstructured parallelism

In the Concurrency Runtime, parallel code that can start in one context and finish in a different context. For example, a set of tasks in a task group can start in one context, and then finish in a different context.

user interface virtualization

In Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight, a technique by which a subset of UI elements are generated from a larger number of data items based on which items are visible on the screen. Virtualization is a performance enhancement, because it is intensive, both in terms of memory and processor, to generate a large number of UI elements when only a few may be on the screen at a given time.

validation server control

A server control, included with ASP.NET, that verifies user input. The input is checked as it comes from HTML server controls and Web server controls (for example, a Web page form) against programmer-defined requirements. Validation controls perform input checking in server code. If the user is working with a browser that supports DHTML, the validation controls can also perform validation using client script. See also: ASP.NET server control, HTML server control, Web server control.


See: validation server control.

value type

A data type that is represented by the type's actual value. If a value type is assigned to a variable, that variable is given a fresh copy of the value. (This is in contrast to a reference type, where assignment does not create a copy.) Value types are usually created on a method's stack frame, rather than in the garbage-collected heap. A value type can be boxed, which is a process that creates a corresponding reference type.


A user interface element in a Web Parts application that an end user can click to perform actions such as closing, minimizing, restoring, editing, or deleting a Web Parts control. Developers can also add custom verbs to controls. Web Parts verbs are based on the System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartVerb class. See also: Web Parts control.

verbs menu

A menu in the title bar of a part control that contains various verbs (UI actions that apply to an individual control) such as Close, Minimize, Restore, Delete, Export, Edit, Help, and others, as well as custom verbs implemented by developers. See also: part control, verb.


A part of the compilation process in which code is checked for conformance to a specific set of rules defined to allow proof of certain security requirements. The common language runtime can verify Common Intermediate Language (CIL).

version policy

The rules that specify which version of dependent assemblies to bind to. Version polices are expressed using configuration files.


A virtual window, used for controls that display content, through which all or part of the content is visible. A viewport is typically used to display a particular portion of content when all of the content will not fit in the available display space. Compare to the extent size, which is the total width and height of the content.

virtual address

In a virtual memory system, the address the application uses to reference memory. The kernel and the memory management unit (MMU) translate this address into a physical address before the memory is actually read or written.

virtual processor

In the Concurrency Runtime, in the Task Scheduler, an abstraction of a physical processing resource. Just one context executes at any given time on a virtual processor. Every scheduler instance contains a collection of virtual processors, and every virtual processor maps to a virtual processor root in the Resource Manager.

virtual processor root

In the Concurrency Runtime, in the Resource Manager, an abstraction of a physical processing resource. To enable oversubscription of hardware threads, multiple virtual processor roots can map to one physical processing resource.


See: user interface virtualization.

virtual-mode data binding

A type of data binding in which a data-bound control retrieves only as many rows from the database as the user will be able to see on the screen.

visual manager

A class that provides support for changing the appearance of an application at a global level.

visual tree

In Windows Presentation Foundation, the element tree containing all visual elements (elements that derive from the type System.Windows.Media.Visual) used for a piece of the user interface. This tree is the accumulation of all visual elements created directly by the application (whether in code or in markup) and all visual elements created by the template expansion of elements such as controls and data objects. See also: logical tree.

WCF Data Services

A component of the .NET Framework that enables the user to create services that use the Open Data Protocol (OData) to expose and consume data over the Web or intranet by using the semantics of representational state transfer (REST).

Web deployment package

A compressed (.zip) file or a folder that contains web site files, that is used to deploy a web site in IIS.

Web Forms

The ASP.NET page framework, which consists of programmable Web pages (called Web Forms pages) that contain reusable server controls. See also: ASP.NET server control.

Web method

A procedure that is exposed to Web service clients as an operation that can be called on the Web service.

Web Parts

An integrated set of controls for creating Web sites that enable end users to modify the content, appearance, and behavior of Web pages directly from a browser.

Web Parts connection

An association between two server controls residing in a WebPartZoneBase zone that enables them to share data, with one control acting as the provider of data and the other control acting as the consumer. A connection is encapsulated within a System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebPartConnection object. See also: consumer, provider, zone.

Web Parts control

A control that is part of the Web Parts control set. See also: Web Parts control set.

Web Parts control set

The integrated set of ASP.NET software components that provide personalization, structural components such as zones and the WebPartManager control, Web Parts UI controls, and other components for building Web Parts controls and applications. See also: personalization, Web Parts control, zone.

Web Parts page

An ASP.NET Web page that includes Web Parts controls that let users personalize the page, such as selecting the information to display. See also: Web Parts control set.

Web server control

An ASP.NET server control that belongs to the System.Web.UI.WebControls namespace. Web server controls are richer and more abstract than HTML server controls. A Web server control has an asp tag prefix on an ASP.NET page, such as <asp:Button runat="server" />. See also: ASP.NET server control, HTML server control, validation server control.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

An XML format for describing Web services. WSDL allows Web service providers and users of such services to work together easily by enabling the separation of the description of the abstract functionality offered by a service from concrete details of a service description such as "how" and "where" that functionality is offered.

Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM)

An initiative undertaken by the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) to provide enterprise system managers with a standard solution for management.

Windows Communication Foundation (WCF)

A managed technology that is used to build and manage service-oriented Windows systems.

Windows Forms

A Microsoft .NET Framework programming model for developing graphical user interfaces.

Windows Forms Designer

A tool that enables the rapid development of Windows-based applications. It allows you to add controls to a form, arrange them, and write code for their events.

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)

The Microsoft extension to the Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) Web-based Enterprise Management (WBEM) initiative.

Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF)

A new strategic graphics subsystem in Windows Vista that provides a unified approach to user interface, 2D and 3D graphics, documents and media. Built on the .NET Framework foundation and utilizing Direct3D for vector-based rendering, it provides a powerful solution for building immersive applications of all kinds.

Windows Runtime

An environment in which COM objects are activated using a fully qualified namespace and a class name within the namespace. Also refers to the set of APIs that is provided by the Windows Runtime. See also: Windows Runtime component.

Windows Runtime component

A reusable software component that can be used in multiple applications, regardless of the programming languages in which the applications are written. See also: Windows Runtime.

Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)

A standard protocol for providing Internet communications and advanced telephony services on phones, pagers, PDAs, and other wireless terminals.

Wireless Markup Language (WML)

An XML-based markup language used to specify content and the user interface for narrowband devices, including cellular phones and pagers. WML is part of WAP.

WMI class

A template for a type of managed object. WMI classes define the basic units of management. For example, the Win32_LogicalDisk class is a template for all logical disks that occur in the Windows environment. In this case, WMI uses the class template to generate an instance of Win32_LogicalDisk for each disk installed on a computer.

word boundary

In regular expressions, a boundary that occurs when the current character is at the beginning of the target string and is one of the word characters A-Za-z0-9_, or when the current character position is past the end of the target string and the last character in the string is one of the word characters, or when the current character is one of the word characters and the preceding character is not, or when the current character is not one of the word characters and the preceding character is.

word boundary assert

In regular expressions, an assert that matches when the current position in the target string is immediately after a word boundary.

workflow application

A set of programs that aids in the tracking and management of all the activities in a project from start to finish.

world coordinate

A coordinate used to model a particular graphic world. See also: page coordinate.

world transformation

The transformation that converts world coordinates to page coordinates. See also: page coordinate, world coordinate.

XML literal

A Visual Basic coding construct that enables direct incorporation of XML into code, instead of requiring that it be stored in a string.

XML schema (XSD)

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard language used for creating XML schema documents. The XML schema contains two parts: a set of predefined types (for example, string, dateTime, decimal), and an XML language for defining new types (for example, complexType, minOccurs, element).

XML Schema Document

A specification that describes the complex types used in a Web method and thereby enables interoperability between clients and Web services built on different platforms by adhering to a common type system, as defined by the W3C.

XML Web service

A unit of application logic providing data and services to other applications that can invoke Web protocols.

XSD Browser

In Visual Studio, an object browser that displays the structure of XML schema definitions (XSD).


A region that contains Web Parts controls on a page, and provides layout management and a consistent UI for the contained controls. A zone in the Web Parts control set is a composite control that contains other controls and is rendered as an HTML table. All Web Parts zones inherit from System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts.WebZone. See also: Web Parts control.

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