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Glossary

The following terms and definitions are used in Microsoft BizTalk RFID Help.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

active tag

A tag with an independent power source and an active transmitter. Active tags are not dependent on a reader to emit radio frequency signals. Active tags can generally communicate over much longer distances.

air protocol

Also known as air interface protocol. This protocol defines the mechanism for communication between an antenna and a tag.

alert

A type of event handler that is used in an RFID process that usually triggers an alarm.

antenna

An electronic component that is connected to an RFID device. It sends or receives electromagnetic waves, enabling the RFID tag and the RFID device to communicate with each other.

asynchronous event processing

An event-dependent model in which an object issues a request to another object that processes the request. The requesting object does not wait for a response from the processing object.

B

bar code

The special identification code printed as a set of vertical bars of differing widths on books, grocery products, and other merchandise. Used for rapid, error-free input in such facilities as libraries, hospitals, and grocery stores, bar codes represent binary information that can be read by an optical scanner. The coding can include numbers, letters, or a combination of the two; some codes include built-in error checking and can be read in either direction.

binding

Linking logical devices to physical devices and configuring event handlers with initial parameters.

Business Rule Composer

A graphical user interface (GUI) tool that is used to create and deploy specific versions of business policies.

Business Rule Engine

A run-time inference engine that evaluates rules against facts and initiates actions based on the results of that evaluation.

C

client

A client in the BizTalk RFID context is an application running on BizTalk Server RFID. The application may be a provider, an event handler component, or a stand-alone .NET application.

commission a tag

To add information (such as a tag ID) to a tag and, optionally, associate that number with a product in the database.

component

A logical entity that executes custom logic on events. Components include items such as filters, alerts, and event handlers.

component binding

Associating components to an RFID process. It is the process of associating the correct set of logical rules to an RFID process that acts on events to achieve a business function.

Contoso device simulator

An SDK component of BizTalk RFID that simulates a physical RFID device. It provides the ability to send tag reads and notifications, and to respond to commands. The Contoso device simulator helps a developer to design RFID applications by using BizTalk RFID, independent of physical devices.

custom source

A collection of devices and components that act on any source of data to filter, aggregate, transform, and provide intelligent data. You can also combine custom sources to achieve high-level, complex business tasks.

D

decommission a tag

To render the data that is stored within a tag unreadable.

deploy a process

To perform all activities that are required for an RFID process. During deployment, the deploy methods of all event handlers in the process are executed.

device

RFID hardware that reads/writes tags from/to tagged objects. A device communicates the tag data to BizTalk RFID through a device provider. Examples of devices are readers and printers.

device authentication

Allowing only specific users to connect and configure a device.

device binding

Binding a logical entity (logical device) to one or more physical devices. In device binding, a logical device is bound to one or more devices or device groups.

device group

A collection of devices that are grouped together for convenience of administration. Devices can be grouped together if they have similar characteristics such as device vendor or device location. This helps effectively manage several devices at one time, instead of individually.

device property

The configuration setting of a device, such as name, vendor, location, and source.

device provider

See DSPI provider.

Device Service Provider Interface (DSPI)

An abstract layer that facilitates device discovery, configuration, communication, and management of various RFID devices in a uniform way.

device simulator

See Contoso device simulator.

device state

The current working condition of a device, such as open, closed, failed, and retrying.

device template

A standard XML file that contains the configuration of a device. The device template can be used to save and apply configuration settings from or between devices.

distributed transaction coordinator (DTC)

A service, integrated with COM+, that makes distributed transactions work. DTC makes it possible to scale transactions from one to many computers without the need for special code.

DSPI provider

An implementation of the Device Service Provider Interface (DSPI) classes. Providers enable devices to interface with BizTalk RFID. They establish a uniform way to discover, configure, and manage devices and establish communication between devices and business applications through BizTalk RFID.

DTC

See distributed transaction coordinator.

E

Electronic Product Code (EPC)

A standard for electronically marking products so that they can be tracked by using radio frequency identification (RFID). An EPC is 96 bits divided into four partitions: header, manager number, object class, and serial number.

EPC

See Electronic Product Code.

event

An occurrence that has significance to a business. For example, if the dock door reader reads a tag on a case as it moves out of the shipping station, a TagRead event is generated. TagRead and Management are two common types of events in BizTalk RFID.

event handler

A component in an RFID business process that implements custom logic while processing incoming events. The custom logic could be a filter action, an alert action, or transformation of tag data.

event processing engine

The core component of BizTalk RFID. The event processing engine creates and manages an event processing pipeline by using the device and component bindings in each custom source.

event processing pipeline

The core component of the event processing engine. The pipeline describes the sequence in which events are handled and forwarded in an RFID business process.

export a device

To move device information into a file, either by copying the device information to another BizTalk RFID server or by making a backup of the device properties.

export processes

To move process information into a file, either by copying it to another BizTalk RFID server or by making a backup.

expression

See regular expression.

Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)

Evolved from the early Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) standard. XSL specifies a language definition for XML data presentation and data transformations. Data presentation means displaying data in some format and/or medium, and concerns style. Data transformation refers to parsing an input XML document into a tree of nodes, and then converting the source tree into a result tree. Transformation concerns data exchange.

F

filter

An event handler or a policy in an RFID process that implements logic to allow only certain events to be processed further in the pipeline.

frequency

The number of repetitions of a complete wave within one second. 1 Hertz (Hz) equals one complete waveform in one second. 1 kilohertz (kHz) equals 1000 waves in a second. RFID tags use low, high, ultra-high, and microwave frequencies. Each frequency range has advantages and disadvantages that make it more appropriate for some applications than for others.

H

hosting

Configuring RFID processes and providers to run within Internet Information Services (IIS) on computers running Windows Server 2003. This ensures that the BizTalk RFID service can continue to function, even when processes and providers do not function correctly.

I

import a device

To move device information and properties into the BizTalk RFID server from a file.

import processes

To move processes into the BizTalk RFID server from a file.

independent hardware vendor

A company that manufactures hardware devices and the associated device drivers.

independent software vendor

A third-party software developer; an individual or an organization that independently creates computer software.

K

kill a tag

To make a tag dysfunctional. After this occurs, no RFID device can detect it.

L

level

A way of representing an EPC identifier within a scheme. Possible levels are Binary, Tag encoding URI, Pure identity URI, and Legacy coding.

logical device

An entity that contains devices and/or device groups. A system administrator can create a logical device to provide a business context to a set of devices. Examples are shipping devices, shelf devices, and receiving devices.

logical source

See custom source.

Low Level Reader Protocol (LLRP)

An EPCglobal standard protocol (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=102485) for reader operations, such as reading tags. LLRP specifies an interface between RFID readers and clients, and provides the formats and procedures for communication between a client and a reader.

M

management event

An event designed for communicating status information or a threshold condition. Examples are failure of the reader, or the noise level being too high.

Message Queuing

A message queuing and routing system for Windows that enables distributed applications running at different times to communicate across heterogeneous networks and with computers that may be offline. Message Queuing provides guaranteed message delivery, efficient routing, security, and priority-based messaging. Formerly known as MSMQ.

Microsoft Management Console (MMC)

A framework for hosting administrative tools (called snap-ins) that you can use to administer networks, computers, services, and other system components. MMC does not perform administrative functions, but hosts tools that do. RFID Manager is an MMC-based administrative tool.

MMC

See Microsoft Management Console.

MSMQ

See Message Queuing.

N

notification

A type of event from a physical device with information that a business application can use for further processing. For example, a device provider notifies BizTalk RFID of tag-read events. A business application can use these tag-read notifications to look for out-of-stock inventory.

O

object model

A hierarchical set of objects and its members—methods, properties, and events—that a particular component provides.

offline device

A device that is physically disconnected from, or that is not available in, BizTalk RFID.

online device

A device that is physically connected to or is available in BizTalk RFID.

out-of-box (OOB) component

The components that are built into BizTalk RFID are: SQL Server Sink, Rule Engine Policy Executor, Duplicate Eliminator Filer, EPC Filter, Visibility Filter, Event Forwarder, EPCIS Forwarder, EPCIS Transform Handler, and EPCIS Event Forwarder . For more information, see Out-of-the Box Event Handlers.

P

policy

A versioned collection of business rules.

print tag

A synchronous command that is used to issue print requests to an RFID-enabled printer.

print template

Defines the layout and the data required for printing an RFID label.

private tag

A component that is not available for all RFID processes to use. To use a private component, the component needs to be registered for that process. A private component is not available in the global assembly cache (GAC).

protocol

A set of rules and conventions for sending information over a network. These rules govern the content, format, timing, sequencing, and error control of messages exchanged among network devices.

public component

A component that is available for all RFID processes to use.

R

radio frequency identification (RFID)

A technology that uses radio frequencies to identify goods. An RFID-capable product has an RFID tag that can transmit information, such as serial number, to an RF reader, which converts the information into digital data that can be sent to a computer.

reader

A device that reads RFID tags and passes tag information in a digital form to a computer system. The reader antenna emits radio waves and receives signals back from the tag. The reader is sometimes referred to as an interrogator because it "interrogates" the tag.

register a component

To register a class in a .dll file that derives from the RfidEventHandlerBase class. Once registered, a component is available to be used in an RFID process.

regular expression

An expression that contains mathematical and logical operators. RFID Manager uses a regular expression to bind devices whose names match the specified regular expression. For example, a binding action that uses the regular expression "AC*" binds all device names that begin with the letters "AC". For more information, see http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=82409.

RFID client console

The command-line utility that is used to configure BizTalk RFID.

RFID Manager

The BizTalk RFID user interface (UI) that is used to administer the BizTalk RFID server. RFID Manager is a snap-in that is based on MMC 3.0.

RFID OM

See object model.

RFID process

A high-level object that is used to put together custom sources.

RFID Service account

The Windows account whose identity is used to run the BizTalk RFID service.

RFIDsink

A database in which the out-of-box SQL Server Sink event handler stores all tag-read events that are processed by a process.

RFID solution

An RFID application that is designed for a specific business activity, such as tracking inventory in a warehouse.

RFID store

The database that stores settings related to BizTalk RFID, such as device information and processes.

RFID Tray

An application that resides in the notification area. This application receives alerts from the RFID server and displays them as popups.

RFID Worker Process account

The Windows account whose identity is used to run worker processes that in turn execute event handlers and providers. This is applicable for Windows Server 2003 only.

rule

A statement that is used to compose components. Rules are the event-condition-action (ECA) type of declarative statements that act upon data that matches the requirement specified in the rule.

S

scheme

An EPC encoding system. EPC supports several schemes including GID (Global Identifier), SGTIN (Serialized Global Trade Item Number), SSCC (Serial Shipping Container), GLN (Global Location Number), GRAI (Global Returnable Asset Identifier), DOD (Department of Defense), and GIAI (Global Individual Asset Identifier).

sensor

A device that detects or measures something by converting nonelectrical energy to electrical energy. A photocell, for example, detects or measures light by converting it to electrical energy.

setting a checkpoint

Creating a new version of device properties in the BizTalk RFID database.

SI

See system integrator.

silent installation

An installation that runs unattended and does not require any user input after it has been started.

source

A source of input that sends data to BizTalk RFID. For example, this could be the antenna of an RFID device, or the sensing element of a temperature sensor.

SQL Server Sink EH

See SQL Server Sink event handler.

SQL Server Sink event handler

An out-of-box event handler that is included with BizTalk RFID. It saves all incoming tag data to the RFIDsink database.

strong typing

The process of ensuring a match between adjacent components in an RFID process. The output type of a component must match the acceptable input type of the next component. If there is no match, the component cannot be added.

synchronous command model

A request-response mechanism in which an object issues a request to another object and waits until it receives a response, before it sends another request. In BizTalk RFID, a synchronous command can be used to send commands and to set properties on physical devices.

system integrator (SI)

A person or organization that uses BizTalk RFID to integrate devices that independent hardware vendors (IHVs) provide and solutions that independent software vendors (ISVs) provide, with the goal of developing enterprise applications.

T

tag

A marker used to identify a physical object. An RFID tag is an electronic marker that stores identification data.

Tag and Ship

A scenario that involves putting an RFID label on a case just before it is shipped from a supplier's to a retailer's facility. The purpose of using RFID in this context is strictly to meet retailer's RFID mandates.

tag commissioning

See commission a tag.

Tag Data Translation (TDT)

The Tag Data Translation standard by EPCglobal (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=102482) defines a process to convert an EPC code from one level to another level for a scheme.

tag decommissioning

See decommission a tag.

tag ID

A number that is on the tag and is used to identify a tag. It can contain item information, such as the type of the commodity and the company that produces it.

tag read

The process of retrieving data that is stored in an RFID tag.

The tag-read process involves sending radio waves to the tag and converting the waves that the tag returns back into data.

U

undeploy a process

To "uninstall" an RFID process. When a process is undeployed, the UnDeploy methods of all event handlers in the process are executed.

V

vocabulary

A collection of definitions consisting of friendly names for the facts used in rule conditions and actions. Vocabulary definitions make the rules easier to read, understand, and share by people in a particular business domain.

vocabulary element

A human-readable name for facts.

W

Web services

A unit of application logic that provides data and services to other applications. Applications access XML Web services by using standard Web protocols and data formats such as HTTP, XML, and SOAP, independent of how each XML Web service is implemented. XML Web services combine the best aspects of component-based development and the Web, and are a cornerstone of the Microsoft .NET Framework programming model.

Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI)

A component of the Microsoft Windows operating system and the Microsoft implementation of Web-Based Enterprise Management (WBEM) that is used to automate administrative tasks in an enterprise environment.

WMI

See Windows Management Instrumentation.

write a tag

To write and save information, such as an electronic product code (EPC) number, to a tag.

WS-Discovery

The Web services-based WS-Discovery protocol uses SOAP and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) multicast to enable devices and services to be discovered by a client. With BizTalk RFID, a provider must incorporate and use the WS-Discovery library to discover devices that it is interested in.

WS-Discovery has four types of messages: Hello, Bye, Probe, and Resolve. The detailed specification for the WS-Discovery protocol can be found at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=107376.

X

XML Schema definition language (XSD)

A schema language. An XML Schema defines the elements, attributes, and data types that conform to the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) XML Schema Part 1: Structures Recommendation for the XML Schema Definition Language. The W3C XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes Recommendation is the recommendation for defining data types that are used in XML schemas. The XML Schema definition language enables you to define the structure and data types for XML messages.

XSD

See XML Schema definition language.

XSLT

See Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations.

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