Export (0) Print
Expand All

about_Execution_Policies

Updated: January 26, 2011

Applies To: Windows PowerShell 2.0

TOPIC
    about_Execution_Policies

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Describes the Windows PowerShell execution policies and explains
    how to manage them.

LONG DESCRIPTION
    Windows PowerShell execution policies let you determine the
    conditions under which Windows PowerShell loads configuration files
    and runs scripts.

    You can set an execution policy for the local computer, for the current
    user, or for a particular session. You can also use a Group Policy
    setting to set execution policy for computers and users.

    Execution policies for the local computer and current user are stored
    in the registry. You do not need to set execution policies in your
    Windows PowerShell profile. The execution policy for a particular session
    is stored only in memory and is lost when the session is closed.

    The execution policy is not a security system that restricts user actions.
    For example, users can easily circumvent a policy by typing the script 
    contents at the command line when they cannot run a script. Instead, the
    execution policy helps users to set basic rules and prevents them from 
    violating them unintentionally.


 WINDOWS POWERSHELL EXECUTION POLICIES
 -------------------------------------

    The Windows PowerShell execution policies are as follows:

    "Restricted" is the default policy.

        Restricted
            - Default execution policy.

            - Permits individual commands, but will not run
              scripts. 

            - Prevents running of all script files, including
              formatting and configuration files (.ps1xml), module
              script files (.psm1), and Windows PowerShell
              profiles (.ps1).  
    
        AllSigned
            - Scripts can run.

            - Requires that all scripts and configuration files
              be signed by a trusted publisher, including scripts
              that you write on the local computer.

    	    - Prompts you before running scripts from publishers
              that you have not yet classified as trusted or
              untrusted.

            - Risks running signed, but malicious, scripts.

      
        RemoteSigned
            - Scripts can run.

            - Requires a digital signature from a trusted
              publisher on scripts and configuration files that
              are downloaded from the Internet (including
              e-mail and instant messaging programs).

    	    - Does not require digital signatures on scripts that you have run
              and that you have written on the local computer (not
              downloaded from the Internet).

            - Risks running unsigned scripts from sources other
              than the Internet and signed, but malicious, scripts.

        Unrestricted
            - Unsigned scripts can run. (This risks running malicious
              scripts.)

            - Warns the user before running srcipts and configuration
              files that are downloaded from the Internet.  

        Bypass
            - Nothing is blocked and there are no warnings or
              prompts.

            - This execution policy is designed for configurations
              in which a Windows PowerShell script is built in to a
              a larger application or for configurations in which
              Windows PowerShell is the foundation for a program
              that has its own security model.

        Undefined
            - There is no execution policy set in the current scope.

            - If the execution policy in all scopes is Undefined, the
              effective execution policy is Restricted, which is the
              default execution policy.


    Note: On systems that do not distinguish Universal Naming Convention (UNC)
          paths from Internet paths, scripts that are identified by a UNC path
          might not be permitted to run with the RemoteSigned execution policy. 

 

 EXECUTION POLICY SCOPE
 ----------------------
    You can set an execution policy that is effective only in a 
    particular scope. 

    The valid values for Scope are Process, CurrentUser, and
    LocalMachine. LocalMachine is the default when setting an
    execution policy. 

    The Scope values are listed in precedence order.

        - Process 
             The execution policy affects only the current session
             (the current Windows PowerShell process). 

             The execution policy is stored in the 
             $env:PSExecutionPolicyPreference environment variable,
             not in the registry, and it is deleted when the
             session is closed. You cannot change the policy by
             editing the variable value.

        - CurrentUser 
             The execution policy affects only the current user. It
             is stored in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER registry subkey. 

        - LocalMachine
             The execution policy affects all users on the current
             computer. It is stored in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
             registry subkey.

    The policy that takes precedence is effective in the current
    session, even if a more restrictive policy was set at a lower
    level of precedence.

    For more information, see Set-ExecutionPolicy.



 GET YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
 ------------------------------
    To get the Windows PowerShell execution policy that is in
    effect in the current session, use the Get-ExecutionPolicy cmdlet. 

    The following command gets the current execution policy:

	get-executionpolicy    


    To get all of the execution policies that affect the current
    session and displays them in precedence order, type:

        get-executionpolicy -list

    The result will look similar to the following sample output:

                  Scope    ExecutionPolicy
                  -----    ---------------
          MachinePolicy          Undefined
             UserPolicy          Undefined
                Process          Undefined
            CurrentUser       RemoteSigned
           LocalMachine          AllSigned
     
    In this case, the effective execution policy is RemoteSigned
    because the execution policy for the current user takes precedence
    over the execution policy set for the local computer.    
    
    To get the execution policy set for a particular scope, use the 
    Scope parameter of Get-ExecutionPolicy. 

    For example, the following command gets the execution policy for
    the current user scope.

        get-executionpolicy -scope CurrentUser	
        




 CHANGE YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
 ------------------------------
    To change the Windows PowerShell execution policy on your
    computer, use the Set-ExecutionPolicy cmdlet. 

    The change is effective immediately; you do not need to restart
    Windows PowerShell. 

    If you set the execution policy for the local computer (the default)
    or the current user, the change is saved in the registry and remains
    effective until you change it again.

    If you set the execution policy for the current process, it is 
    not saved in the registry. It is retained until the current
    process and any child processes are closed. 

    
    Note: In Windows Vista and later versions of Windows, to run
          commands that change the execution policy for the local
          computer (the default), start Windows PowerShell with the
          "Run as administrator" option.
    

    To change your execution policy, type:
 
        Set-ExecutionPolicy <policy-name>

    For example: 

        Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned



    To set the execution policy in a particular scope, type:

        Set-ExecutionPolicy <policy-name> -scope <scope>

    For example: 

        Set-ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned -scope CurrentUser


    A command to change an execution policy can succeed but
    still not change the effective execution policy.

    For example, a command that sets the execution policy for
    the local computer can succeed but be overridden by the 
    execution policy for the current user.
    


 REMOVE YOUR EXECUTION POLICY
 ----------------------------
    To remove the execution policy for a particular scope, set
    the value of the value of the execution policy to Undefined.

    For example, to remove the execution policy for all the users of
    the local computer, type:

        set-executionpolicy Undefined

    Or, type:

        set-executionpolicy Undefined -scope LocalMachine

    If no execution policy is set in any scope, the effective
    execution policy is Restricted, which is the default.    



 SET A DIFFERENT EXECUTION POLICY FOR ONE SESSION
 ------------------------------------------------
    You can use the ExecutionPolicy parameter of PowerShell.exe to
    set an execution policy for a new Windows PowerShell session.
    The policy affects only the current session and child sessions.

    To set the execution policy for a new session, start Windows PowerShell
    at the command line (such as Cmd.exe or Windows PowerShell), and then use
    the ExecutionPolicy parameter of PowerShell.exe to set the execution
    policy.

    For example:

	powershell.exe -executionpolicy allsigned
    
    
    The execution policy that you set is not stored in the registry.
    Instead, it is stored in the $env:PSExecutionPolicyPreference
    environment variable. The variable is deleted when you close
    the session in which the policy is set. You cannot change the
    policy by editing the variable value.

     
    During the session, the execution policy that is set for the session takes
    precedence over an execution policy that is set in the registry for the 
    local computer or current user. However, it does not take precedence over 
    the execution policy set by using a Group Policy setting (discussed below).
    
           

 USE GROUP POLICY TO MANAGE EXECUTION POLICY
 -------------------------------------------
    You can use the "Turn on Script Execution" Group Policy setting
    to manage the execution policy of computers in your enterprise. 
    The Group Policy setting overrides the execution policies set in Windows
    PowerShell in all scopes. 

    The "Turn on Script Execution" policy settings are as follows:
    
    -- If you disable "Turn on Script Execution", scripts do not run. 
       This is equivalent to the "Restricted" execution policy.

    -- If you enable "Turn on Script Execution", you can select an
       execution policy. The Group Policy settings are equivalent to
       the following execution policy settings.

        Group Policy                Execution Policy  
        ------------                ----------------
        Allow all scripts.          Unrestricted

        Allow local scripts         RemoteSigned
        and remote signed
        scripts. 

        Allow only signed           AllSigned
        scripts. 

    -- If "Turn on Script Execution" is not configured, it has no
       effect. The execution policy set in Windows PowerShell is
       effective.


    The PowerShellExecutionPolicy.adm and PowerShellExecutionPolicy.admx 
    files add the "Turn on Script Execution" policy to the Computer
    Configuration and User Configuration nodes in Group Policy Editor in
    the following paths.

        For Windows XP and Windows Server 2003:
        Administrative Templates\Windows Components\Windows PowerShell

        For Windows Vista and later versions of Windows:
        Administrative Templates\Classic Administrative Templates\
        Windows Components\Windows PowerShell

    Policies set in the Computer Configuration node take precedence
    over policies set in the User Configuration node.

    The PowerShellExecutionPolicy.adm file is available on the 
    Microsoft Download Center. For more information, see "Administrative 
    Templates for Windows PowerShell" at 
    http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=131786.
    

 EXECUTION POLICY PRECEDENCE
 ---------------------------
    When determining the effective execution policy for a 
    session, Windows PowerShell evaluates the execution policies
    in the following precedence order:

        - Group Policy: Computer Configuration
        - Group Policy: User Configuration
        - Execution Policy: Process (or PowerShell.exe -ExecutionPolicy)
        - Execution Policy: CurrentUser
        - Execution Policy: LocalMachine    


 MANAGE SIGNED AND UNSIGNED SCRIPTS
 ----------------------------------
    If your Windows PowerShell execution policy is RemoteSigned,
    Windows PowerShell will not run unsigned scripts that are
    downloaded from the Internet (including e-mail and instant
    messaging programs).
 
    You can sign the script or elect to run an unsigned script
    without changing the execution policy.

    For more information, see about_Signing.


SEE ALSO
    about_Environment_Variables
    about_Signing
    Get-ExecutionPolicy
    Set-ExecutionPolicy
    "Administrative Templates for Windows PowerShell" 
        (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=131786)
    "PowerShell.exe Console Help"
        (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=113439)

Community Additions

Show:
© 2014 Microsoft