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Inheritance (F#)

Inheritance is used to model the "is-a" relationship, or subtyping, in object-oriented programming.

You specify inheritance relationships by using the inherit keyword in a class declaration. The basic syntactical form is shown in the following example.

type MyDerived(...) =
   inherit MyBase(...)

A class can have at most one direct base class. If you do not specify a base class by using the inherit keyword, the class implicitly inherits from Object.

If a class inherits from another class, the methods and members of the base class are available to users of the derived class as if they were direct members of the derived class.

Any let bindings and constructor parameters are private to a class and, therefore, cannot be accessed from derived classes.

The keyword base is available in derived classes and refers to the base class instance. It is used like the self-identifier.

Virtual methods (and properties) work somewhat differently in F# as compared to other .NET languages. To declare a new virtual member, you use the abstract keyword. You do this regardless of whether you provide a default implementation for that method. Thus a complete definition of a virtual method in a base class follows this pattern:

abstract member method-name : type

default self-identifier.method-name argument-list = method-body

And in a derived class, an override of this virtual method follows this pattern:

override self-identifier.method-name argument-list = method-body

If you omit the default implementation in the base class, the base class becomes an abstract class.

The following code example illustrates the declaration of a new virtual method function1 in a base class and how to override it in a derived class.

type MyClassBase1() =
   let mutable z = 0
   abstract member function1 : int -> int
   default u.function1(a : int) = z <- z + a; z

type MyClassDerived1() =
   inherit MyClassBase1()
   override u.function1(a: int) = a + 1

The constructor for the base class must be called in the derived class. The arguments for the base class constructor appear in the argument list in the inherit clause. The values that are used must be determined from the arguments supplied to the derived class constructor.

The following code shows a base class and a derived class, where the derived class calls the base class constructor in the inherit clause:

type MyClassBase2(x: int) =
   let mutable z = x * x
   do for i in 1..z do printf "%d " i


type MyClassDerived2(y: int) =
   inherit MyClassBase2(y * 2)
   do for i in 1..y do printf "%d " i

In the case of multiple constructors, the following code can be used. The first line of the derived class constructors is the inherit clause, and the fields appear as explicit fields that are declared with the val keyword. For more information, see Explicit Fields: The val Keyword.

type BaseClass =
    val string1 : string
    new (str) = { string1 = str }
    new () = { string1 = "" }

type DerivedClass =
    inherit BaseClass
    val string2 : string
    new (str1, str2) = { inherit BaseClass(str1); string2 = str2 }
    new (str2) = { inherit BaseClass(); string2 = str2 }

let obj1 = DerivedClass("A", "B")
let obj2 = DerivedClass("A")

In cases where a minor modification of a type is required, consider using an object expression as an alternative to inheritance. The following example illustrates the use of an object expression as an alternative to creating a new derived type:

open System

let object1 = { new Object() with 
      override this.ToString() = "This overrides object.ToString()"
      }

printfn "%s" (object1.ToString())

For more information about object expressions, see Object Expressions (F#).

When you are creating object hierarchies, consider using a discriminated union instead of inheritance. Discriminated unions can also model varied behavior of different objects that share a common overall type. A single discriminated union can often eliminate the need for a number of derived classes that are minor variations of each other. For information about discriminated unions, see Discriminated Unions (F#).

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