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Random Constructor (Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the Random class, using the specified seed value.

Namespace: System
Assembly: mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

'Declaration
Public Sub New ( _
	Seed As Integer _
)
'Usage
Dim Seed As Integer

Dim instance As New Random(Seed)
public Random (
	int Seed
)
public function Random (
	Seed : int
)

Parameters

Seed

A number used to calculate a starting value for the pseudo-random number sequence. If a negative number is specified, the absolute value of the number is used.

Exception typeCondition

OverflowException

Seed is Int32.MinValue, which causes an overflow when its absolute value is calculated.

If your application requires different random number sequences, invoke this constructor repeatedly with different seed values. One way to produce a unique seed value is to make it time-dependent. For example, derive the seed value from the system clock.

However, if your application runs on a fast computer the system clock might not have time to change between invocations of this constructor; the seed value might be the same for different instances of Random. In that case, apply an algorithm to differentiate the seed value in each invocation.

For instance, the following C# expressions use a bitwise complement operation to generate two different seed values even if the system time value is the same.

Random rdm1 = new Random(unchecked((int)DateTime.Now.Ticks));
Random rdm2 = new Random(~unchecked((int)DateTime.Now.Ticks));

The following code example creates Random objects with the class constructor that takes a seed parameter and generates a sequence of random integers and doubles. The example illustrates that the same sequence is generated when the Random object is created again with the constructor and seed parameter.

' Example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( ) 
' method.
Imports System
Imports System.Threading
Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

Module RandomObjectDemo

    ' Generate random numbers from the specified Random object.
    Sub RunIntNDoubleRandoms( randObj As Random )

        ' Generate the first six random integers.
        Dim j As Integer
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write( " {0,10} ", randObj.Next( ) )
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine( )
            
        ' Generate the first six random doubles.
        For j = 0 To 5
            Console.Write( " {0:F8} ", randObj.NextDouble( ) )
        Next j
        Console.WriteLine( )
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a Random object with the specified seed.
    Sub FixedSeedRandoms( seed As Integer )

        Console.WriteLine( vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object with " & _
            "seed = {0}:", seed )
        Dim fixRand As New Random( seed )
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( fixRand )
    End Sub 
        
    ' Create a random object with a timer-generated seed.
    Sub AutoSeedRandoms( )

        ' Wait to allow the timer to advance.
        Thread.Sleep( 1 )
            
        Console.WriteLine( vbCrLf & _
            "Random numbers from a Random object " & _ 
            "with an auto-generated seed:" )
        Dim autoRand As New Random( )
            
        RunIntNDoubleRandoms( autoRand )
    End Sub 
        
    Sub Main( )
        Console.WriteLine( _
            "This example of the Random class constructors " & _
            "and Random.NextDouble( ) " & vbCrLf & _
            "generates the following output." & vbCrLf )
        Console.WriteLine( "Create Random " & _
            "objects, and then generate and display six " & _
            "integers and " & vbCrLf & "six doubles from each." )
            
        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 )
        FixedSeedRandoms( 123 )
            
        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 )
        FixedSeedRandoms( 456 )
            
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
        AutoSeedRandoms( )
    End Sub
End Module 

' This example of the Random class constructors and Random.NextDouble( )
' generates the following output.
' 
' Create Random objects, and then generate and display six integers and
' six doubles from each.
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 123:
'  2114319875  1949518561  1596751841  1742987178  1586516133   103755708
'  0.01700087  0.14935942  0.19470390  0.63008947  0.90976122  0.49519146
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with seed = 456:
'  2044805024  1323311594  1087799997  1907260840   179380355   120870348
'  0.21988117  0.21026556  0.39236514  0.42420498  0.24102703  0.47310170
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'  1920831619  1346865774  2006582766  1968819760   332463652   110770792
'  0.71326689  0.50383335  0.50446082  0.66312569  0.94517193  0.58059287
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   254927927  1205531663  1984850027   110020849  1438111494  1697714106
'  0.19383387  0.52067738  0.74162783  0.35063667  0.31247720  0.38773733
' 
' Random numbers from a Random object with an auto-generated seed:
'   736507882  1064197552  1963117288   398705585   396275689  1137173773
'  0.67440084  0.53752140  0.97879483  0.03814764  0.67978248  0.19488178

Windows 98, Windows 2000 SP4, Windows CE, Windows Millennium Edition, Windows Mobile for Pocket PC, Windows Mobile for Smartphone, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows XP SP2, Windows XP Starter Edition

The .NET Framework does not support all versions of every platform. For a list of the supported versions, see System Requirements.

.NET Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.1, 1.0

.NET Compact Framework

Supported in: 2.0, 1.0

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