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Overview

Microsoft ESP 1.0

Aircraft Configuration Files

The aircraft configuration file (aircraft.cfg) represents the highest level of organization within an aircraft container. Each aircraft has its own configuration file located in its container (aircraft folder). For example, the Cessna 172 aircraft.cfg can be found at:

SimObjects\Airplanes\C172\aircraft.cfg

The aircraft.cfg file specifies the versions of the aircraft included in the aircraft container, as well as the attributes (name, color, sound, panels, gauges, and so on) for each aircraft and where to find the files that define those attributes. Within the aircraft.cfg file there are a number of sections. Brackets enclosing the section name identify the various sections. In order for the simulation to make proper use of any variable, it is important that the variable be located in the correct section. While exact spelling is important, none of the terms is case-sensitive.


Normally aircraft containers are added to the SimObjects/Airplanes folder, however this is not a requirement. The ESP.cfg file has entries in the [Main] section determining which path to search for aircraft and other containers. For example:

[Main]
User Objects=Airplane, Helicopter
SimObjectPaths.0=SimObjects\Airplanes
SimObjectPaths.1=SimObjects\Rotorcraft

Additional paths can be added to this file. The paths are either relative to the root folder of the simulation, or absolute paths -- which can also point to locations on other computers (using the "\\computer name" notation). For Windows XP the ESP.cfg file should be in the C:\Documents and Settings\<user name>\Application Data\Microsoft\ESP folder. For Windows Vista the file should be in the C:\Users\<user name>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\ESP folder.

See Also

Table of Contents

Testing Changes to the aircraft.cfg file

To see the effects of a change, the aircraft must be reloaded (this is because aircraft are loaded into the memory cache from disk, so you have to flush the cache to enable your changes to take effect). This involves a couple of steps:
  1. Configure a key command to Reload User Aircraft (which will reload your aircraft from within the simulation). To do this go to Settings, Controls Assignments, and scroll down to the Reload User Aircraft event.  By default, it’s unassigned.  Use Change Assignment to configure a keystroke combination for this event.  Once assigned, you can use this key command to reload the aircraft within the simulation.
  2. Turn off AI Traffic. AI traffic aircraft are maintained in the cache and even if you update the aircraft you are currently piloting, if the same aircraft is being used by AI traffic, then your cache won’t get updated automatically by simply reloading the plane.  So to ensure your aircraft is reloaded from disk, you must also go to the Settings Screen, choose Traffic, and set the Air Traffic Density slider all the way to the left to 0%.
  3. Now you can test changes made to an aircraft.cfg within the simulation by using the Reload User Aircraft key command after each change, or set of changes, is made. 
Any errors made in creating or editing the aircraft.cfg file will show up, along with the following error messages, while an aircraft is being loaded. The error messages are listed in order; that is, the first error message represents an error early in the aircraft-loading process.
Error Message Description
Aircraft initialization failure.  Indicates that some essential files are missing from the aircraft container. If the files are missing, the aircraft will not usually be displayed in the Select Aircraft dialog box; as a result, this error is rare.
Failed to start up the flight model. The .air file was not loaded successfully.
This is not a Flight Simulator aircraft model.  The visual model (.mdl) file for this aircraft is not compatible with ESP.
Visual model could not be displayed.  An error occurred while loading the visual model (.mdl) file.

Datum Reference Point

Positions of aircraft components are given relative to the datum reference point for the aircraft, in the order: longitudinal, lateral, vertical. The convention for positions is positive equals forward, to the right, and vertically upward. Units are in feet.
The datum reference point itself is specified in the weight_and_balance section.

Sections of the Configuration File

[fltsim.n]

Each [fltsim.n] section of an aircraft configuration file represents a different version (configuration) of the aircraft, and is known as a configuration set. Configuration sets allow a single aircraft container to represent several aircraft, and allow those aircraft to share components.

If there is only one section (labeled [fltsim.0]), it is because there is only one configuration set in that aircraft container. If there is more than one configuration set (labeled [fltsim.0], [fltsim.1], [fltsim.2], and so on), each one refers to a different version of the aircraft.

For instance, there are several versions of the Cessna 172, all housed in the same C172 aircraft container (folder). The various versions must vary by their title, and may also vary other items such as the panel, description, and sounds.

While these configuration sets share many components, they can each use different panels. The panel= line in the respective fltsim sections thus refer to the respective panel folder for each aircraft:  For example, panel=ifr means that this version of the C172 uses the panel files in the panel.ifr subfolder.

When creating and referencing multiple model, panel, sound, and texture directories, use the naming convention foldername.extension, where the extension is a unique identifier for that configuration set (for example, .ifr). To refer to the folder from the relevant parameter in the aircraft.cfg file, just specify the extension (for example, panel=ifr). If a parameter is not explicitly set it automatically refers to the default (extension-less) folder.

The parameters in each configuration set can refer to the same files, to different files, or to a mix of files. While using different panels, all Cessna configurations use the same sounds, and thus the sound parameters in all the fltsim sections point to the single sound folder in the C172 folder.

Each aircraft defined by a configuration set will appear as a separate listing in the Select Aircraft dialog box. The fact that multiple aircraft share some components is hidden from the user. From a user’s perspective, they are distinct aircraft (just as if all the common files were duplicated and included in three distinct aircraft containers). From a developer’s perspective, the aircraft are really just different configuration sets of the same aircraft. Because they share some files, they make much more efficient use of disk space.

Within each [fltsim.n] section are parameters that define the details of that particular configuration set:

Property
Description
Examples
title The title of the aircraft. Airbus A321( title=Airbus A321 )
Aircreation582SL( title= Aircreation582SL )
Boeing 737-800( title=Boeing 737-800 )
Boeing 747-400( title=Boeing 747-400 )
sim Specifies which AIR (flight model) file to use. The file is located in the same folder as the aircraft configuration file. Refer to Flight Models for details on how to create an AIR file. Airbus A321( sim=Airbus_A321 )
Aircreation582SL( sim=trike )
Boeing 737-800( sim=Boeing737-800 )
Boeing 747-400( sim=Boeing747-400 )
model Specifies which model folder to reference. If no entry is made, the default folder is used. Airbus A321( model= )
panel Specifies which panel folder to reference. Airbus A321( panel= )
Beech Baron 58( panel=g1000 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( panel=G1000 )
sound Specifies which sound folder to reference. Airbus A321( sound= )
texture Specifies which texture folder to reference. Airbus A321( texture= )
Aircreation582SL( texture=1 )
Boeing 737-800( texture=2 )
Boeing 747-400( texture=3 )
kb_checklists Specifies which _check.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Checklists tab of the kneeboard. Boeing 737-800( kb_checklists=Boeing737-800_check )
Boeing 747-400( kb_checklists=Boeing747-400_check )
Beech Baron 58( kb_checklists=Beech_Baron_58_check )
kb_reference Specifies which _ref.txt file (located in the aircraft folder) to use on the Reference tab of the kneeboard. Boeing 737-800( kb_reference=Boeing737-800_ref )
Boeing 747-400( kb_reference=Boeing747-400_ref )
Beech Baron 58( kb_reference=Beech_Baron_58_ref )
atc_id The tail number displayed on the exterior of the aircraft. This parameter can also be edited from the Select Aircraft dialog (if the atc_id_enable parameter is set to 1). Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Boeing 737-800( atc_id=N737Z )
Boeing 747-400( atc_id=N747 )
Beech Baron 58( atc_id=N058BE )
atc_airline The ATC system will use the specified airline name with this aircraft. This is dependant on ATC recognizing the name. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_flight_number. Boeing 737-800( atc_airline=American Pacific )
Boeing 747-400( atc_airline=Global Freightways )
Cessna Grand Caravan( atc_airline=Landmark )
atc_flight_number The ATC system will use this number as part of the aircrafts callsign. ATC will treat this aircraft as an airliner when this is used in conjunction with atc_airline. Boeing 737-800( atc_flight_number=1123 )
ui_manufacturer This value identifies the manufacturer sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Airbus A321( ui_manufacturer="Airbus" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_manufacturer="AirCreation" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_manufacturer="Boeing" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_manufacturer="Beechcraft" )
ui_type This value identifies the type sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Airbus A321( ui_type="A321" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_type= "582 SL Trike" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_type="737-800" )
Boeing 747-400( ui_type="747-400" )
ui_variation This value identifies the variation sub-category used to group aircraft in the Select Aircraft dialog in ESP. Aircreation582SL( ui_variation="Green Wing" )
Boeing 737-800( ui_variation="American Pacific Airways" )
Boeing 747-400( ui_variation="Global Freightways" )
ui_typerole This value identifies the role of the aircraft. Airbus A321( ui_typerole="Commercial Airliner" )
Aircreation582SL( ui_typerole="Single Engine Prop" )
Beech Baron 58( ui_typerole="Twin Engine Prop" )
Beech King Air 350( ui_typerole="Twin Engine TurboProp" )
ui_createdby This value is used to identify the creator of the configuration file. Airbus A321( ui_createdby="Microsoft Corporation" )
description The aircraft description can be modified to say whatever you like about the aircraft. This information will be displayed in a description box when the aircraft is selected. (The \s is used to produce a semicolon ( ; ) punctuation mark within the description.). Boeing 737-800( description="One should hardly be surprised that the world's most prolific manufacturer of commercial aircraft is also the producer of the world's most popular jetliner. The 737 became the best-selling commercial jetliner worldwide when orders for it hit 1,831 in June 1987 (surpassing Boeing's own 727 as the previous champ). However, it wasn't always that way\s in the first few years of production, there were so few orders that Boeing considered canceling the program. They didn't, and the airplane has more than proven itself in over three decades of service." )

Boeing 747-400( description="More than 30 years ago, the 747 made its first trip from New York to London. Since then, it's become the standard by which other large passenger jets are judged. Its size, range, speed and capacity were then, and are now, the best in its class." )
visual_damage Setting this flag to 1 enables visual damage (e.g. parts breaking off) to be seen when crashing the aircraft into the scenery. Note: visual damage will only work if it is built into the aircrafts .mdl file. Aircreation582SL( visual_damage=1 )
atc_heavy Setting this flag to 1 will result in the ATC system appending the phrase heavy to the aircrafts callsign. Aircreation582SL( atc_heavy=0 )
Boeing 747-400( atc_heavy=1 )
atc_parking_types Specifies the preferred parking for this aircraft, used by ATC. If this line is omitted, ATC will determine parking according to the type of aircraft and parking available. If multiple values are listed, preference will be given in the order in which they are listed. The valid values may be one or more of the following: RAMP, CARGO, GATE, DOCK, MIL_CARGO, MIL_COMBAT. Aircreation582SL( atc_parking_types=RAMP )
Boeing 747-400( atc_parking_types=CARGO )
de Havilland Dash 8-100( atc_parking_types=GATE,RAMP )
atc_parking_codes Specifies one or more ICAO airline designations so that ATC can direct the aircraft to a gate that has also been designated specifically for that same airline, for example, "AAL" for American Airlines. Refer to the example XML for the TaxiwayParking entry in the Compiling BGL document. The codes entered in the airlineCodes entry should match the text entered here. The ICAO codes do not have to be used, and can be as short as one character, as long as the text strings match, but for clarity use of the ICAO codes is recommended.
If mutliple parking codes are entered, separate them with commas.
atc_id_color Specifies, in RGB hexadecimal, the color of the tail number. The first two characters following the 0x specify the red value in hex, the second two characters the green, and the third set the blue. The final two characters are unused. Each value can be between 0 to ff hex, which is 0 to 255 decimal. Note that custom tail numbers burned into textures will not be modified by this. Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( atc_id_color=0xffffffff )
Cessna Grand Caravan( atc_id_color=0xff000000 )
Extra 300S( atc_id_color=0xffff0000 )
prop_anim_ratio The ratio of rotor revolutions rendered to the actual revolutions in the simulator. Bell 206B JetRanger( prop_anim_ratio=-1.76 )
atc_model This is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Bell 206B JetRanger( atc_model= )

[general]

In addition to the fltsim sections, the general section contains information related to all variations of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
atc_type This is the specific aircraft type that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Aircreation582SL( atc_type=Ultralight )
Boeing 737-800( atc_type=BOEING )
Beech Baron 58( atc_type=BARON )
atc_model This is the specific aircraft model that the ATC system recognizes for this type of aircraft. Aircreation582SL( atc_model=Trike )
Boeing 737-800( atc_model=B738 )
Boeing 747-400( atc_model=B744 )
editable Unused.  
performance The performance description for the aircraft can be edited. The \t is a tab character, and the \n is a new-line character. As the flight model for all variations is the same, the performance of each variation should also be identical. Aircreation582SL( performance="Wing span: 10.6 m\nLength: 2.57 m\nWeight: 1.96 m\nHeight: 2.57 m\nEngine: 582 Rotax 1 x CDI 53 hp\nPropeller: 2 wood blades\nFuel tank composite 52 liters ( 8 US Gal)\nDesigner: MJPP Design\nDate: 15\/11\/02\n\n" )

Boeing 737-800( performance="Cruise Speed \n477 kts 550 mph 885 km\/h\n\nEngines \nCFM56-3C1\n\nMaximum Range \n2,059 nm 2,370 mi 3,810 km\n\nService Ceiling \n36, 089 ft 11,000 m\n\nFuel Capacity \n5,311 U.S. gal 20,104 L\n\nEmpty Weight-Standard \n76,180 lb 34,550 kg\n\nMaximum Gross Weight\n150,000 lb 68,039 kg\n\nLength \n120 ft 36.45 m\n\nWingspan \n94 ft, 9 in 25.9 m\n\nHeight \n36.5 ft 11.13 m\n\nSeating \nSeats 147 to 168\n\nCargo Capacity \n1,373 ft3 38.93 m3\n\n" )

Boeing 747-400( performance="Cruise Speed\n0.85 Mach 565 mph 910 km\/h\n\nEngine options\nPratt & Whitney PW4062\nRolls-Royce RB211-524H\nGeneral Electric CF6-80C2B5F\n\nMaximum Range\n7,325 nm 13,570 km\n\nMaximum Certified Operating Altitude 45,100 ft 13,747 m\n\nFuel Capacity\n57,285 gal 216,840 L\n\nBasic Empty Weight\n394,088 lb 178,755 kg\n\nMax Gross Weight 875,000 lb 396,893 kg\n\nLength\n231 ft, 10 in 70.6 m\n\nWingspan\n211 ft, 5 in 64.4 m\n\nHeight\n63 ft, 8 in 19.4 m\n\nSeating Typical 3-class configuration - 416\nTypical 2-class configuration - 524" )
category For aircraft, one of airplane or helicopter. Airbus A321( Category = airplane )
Maule M7 260C( category = Airplane )
Bell 206B JetRanger( Category = Helicopter )

[pitot_static]

The vertical_speed_time_constant parameter can be used to tune the lag of the Vertical Speed Indicator for the aircraft:

  • Increasing the time constant decreases the lag, making the gauge react more quickly.
  • Decreasing the time constant increases the lag, making the gauge react more slowly.
  • A value of 0 effectively causes the indication to freeze. If an instantaneous indication is desired, use an excessively large value, such as 99.
  • If the line is omitted, the default value is 2.0.
Property
Description
Examples
vertical_speed_time_constant Increases or decreases the lag of the vertical speed indicator. Increasing will cause a more instantaneous reaction in the VSI. Airbus A321( vertical_speed_time_constant = 1 )
Beech Baron 58( vertical_speed_time_constant = 1.0 )
Sailplane( vertical_speed_time_constant = 4 )
pitot_heat Scale of heat effectiveness, or 0 if not available. Airbus A321( pitot_heat = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( pitot_heat=0.000000 )
Sailplane( pitot_heat = 0.0 )

[weight_and_balance]

The weight and center of gravity of the aircraft can be affected through the following parameters.

Note
In the stock aircraft, the station_load.0, 1, etc. parameters are enclosed in quotation marks. These are used by internal language translation tools.
Moments of Inertia

A moment of inertia (MOI) defines the mass distribution about an axis of an aircraft. A moment of inertia for a particular axis is increased as mass is increased and/or as the given mass is distributed farther from the axis. This is largely what determines the inertial characteristics of the aircraft.

The following weight and balance parameters define the MOIs of the empty aircraft, so the values should not reflect fuel, passengers or baggage. The simulation engine determines the total MOIs with these additional, and variable, influences. The units are slugs per foot squared. Omission of a parameter will result in the use of a default value set in the .air file, if one exists.
These values can be estimated with the following formula:
  • MOI = EmptyWeight * (D^2 / K)
Where:
Pitch Roll Yaw
D =  Length (feet) Wingspan (feet)   0.5* (Length+Wingspan)
K = 810 1870 770
This formula yields only rough estimates. Actual values vary based on aircraft material, installed equipment, and number of engines and their positions.
Property
Description
Examples
max_gross_weight Maximum design gross weight of the aircraft. Airbus A321( max_gross_weight = 150000 )
Aircreation582SL( max_gross_weight= 600.000 )
Boeing 747-400( max_gross_weight = 875000 )
Beech Baron 58( max_gross_weight = 5524 )
empty_weight Total weight (in pounds) of the aircraft minus usable fuel, passengers, and cargo. If not specified, the value previously set in the .air file will be used. Airbus A321( empty_weight = 74170 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight= 310.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight = 394088 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight = 3911 )
reference_datum_position Offset (in feet) of the aircraft's reference datum from the standard center point, which is on the centerline chord aft of the leading edge. By adjusting this position, actual aircraft loading data can be used directly according to the aircraft's manufacturer. If not specified, the default is 0,0,0. Aircreation582SL( reference_datum_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( reference_datum_position = 83.5, 0, 0 )
Beech Baron 58( reference_datum_position = 6.96, 0, 0 )
empty_weight_cg_position Offset (in feet) of the center of gravity of the basic empty aircraft (no fuel, passengers, or baggage) from the datum reference point . Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_CG_position= 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_CG_position = -90.5, 0, 0 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_CG_position = -6.06, 0, 0 )
max_number_of_stations Specifies the maximum number of stations (specific locations) for the aircraft when it is loaded. This does allow an unlimited number of stations to be specified, but note that an excessively large number here results in a longer load time for the aircraft when selected, although there is no effect on real-time performance. Airbus A321( max_number_of_stations = 50 )
Aircreation582SL( max_number_of_stations=50 )
Douglas DC-3( max_number_of_stations =50 )
station_load.0
to
station_load.n
Specifies the weight and position of passengers or payload at a station specified with a unique number, station_load.N. The first parameter number on each line specifies the weight (in pounds), followed by the offset relative to datum reference point. The addition of stations results in a corresponding change in aircraft flight dynamics due to the change of the total weight and moments of inertia. Airbus A321( station_load.0 = 170.0, 41.0, -1.5, 0.0 )
Aircreation582SL( station_load.0=0.000000,0.000000,0.000000,0.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( station_load.0 = 170.0, -19.0, -2.0, 8.0 )
Beech Baron 58( station_load.0 = 170, -6.54, -1.20, 0.0 )

Airbus A321( station_load.8 = 4000.0, -27.5, 0.0, 0.0 )
Boeing 747-400( station_load.8 = 23800.0, -160.0, 0.0, 0.0 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( station_load.8 = 0, -23.2, -1.5, 0.0 )
Douglas DC-3( station_load.8 = 340.0, -33.7, 0.0, 0.0 )
station_name.0
to
station_name.n
This field is the string name that is used in the Payload dialog (15 character limit). Omission of this will result in a generic station name being used.

Note that the station name can also follow the station_load information, for example:
Airbus A321( station_load.0 = 170.0, 41.0, -1.5, 0.0, Pilot)
McDonnell-Douglas/Boeing MD-83( station_name.0 = "Payload" )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( station_name.1 = "Front Passenger" )

Airbus A321( station_name.0 = "Pilot" )
Airbus A321( station_name.1 = "Co-Pilot" )
Airbus A321( station_name.2 = "Crew" )
Airbus A321( station_name.3 = "First Class" )
Airbus A321( station_name.4 = "Coach 3-10" )
Airbus A321( station_name.5 = "Coach 11-18" )
Airbus A321( station_name.6 = "Coach 19-25" )
Airbus A321( station_name.7 = "Forward Baggage" )
Airbus A321( station_name.8 = "Aft Baggage" )
empty_weight_pitch_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the lateral axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3172439 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_pitch_MOI= 230.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 24223159 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_pitch_MOI = 3905.65 )
empty_weight_roll_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the longitudinal axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2262183 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_roll_MOI= 205.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 13352310 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_roll_MOI = 2718.64 )
empty_weight_yaw_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the vertical axis. Airbus A321( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 3337024 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_yaw_MOI= 290.000 )
Boeing 747-400( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 39531785 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_yaw_MOI = 5291.04 )
empty_weight_coupled_moi The moment of inertia (MOI) about the roll and yaw axis (usually zero). Airbus A321( empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0 )
Aircreation582SL( empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.000 )
Beech Baron 58( empty_weight_coupled_MOI= 0.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( empty_weight_coupled_MOI = 0.0 )

[flight_tuning]

Flight control effectiveness parameters

The elevator, aileron and elevator effectiveness parameters are multipliers on the default power of the control surfaces. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the effectiveness by 10 percent. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the effectiveness by 10 percent. A negative number reverses the normal effect of the control. Omission of a parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

Stability parameters

The pitch, roll and yaw parameters are multipliers on the default stability (damping effect) about the corresponding axis of the airplane. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the damping by 10%. Likewise, a value of 0.9 decreases the damping by 10%. A negative number results in an unstable characteristic about the axis. A positive damping effect is simply a moment in the direction opposite of the rotational velocity. Omission of a parameter will result in the default value of 1.0.

Lift parameter

The cruise_lift_scalar parameter is a multiplier on the coefficient of lift at zero angle of attack Cruise lift in this context refers to the lift at relatively small angles of attack, which is typical for an airplane in a cruise condition. This scaling is decreased linearly as angle of attack moves toward the critical (stall) angle of attack, which prevents destabilizing low speed and stall characteristics at high angles of attack. Modify this value to set the angle of attack (and thus pitch) for a cruise condition. A negative value is not advised, as this will result in extremely unnatural flight characteristics. Omission of this parameter results in the default value of 1.0.

High Angle of Attack parameters

The hi_alpha_on_roll and hi_alpha_on_yaw  parameters are multipliers on the effects on roll and yaw at high angles of attack.  The default values are 1.0.

Propeller-induced turning effect parameters

The p_factor_on_yaw, torque_on_roll, gyro_precession_on_pitch and gyro_precession_on_yaw parameters are multipliers on the effects induced by rotating propellers. These are often called “left turning tendencies” for clockwise rotating propellers. The simulation correctly handles counter-clockwise rotating propellers. The default values are 1.0.

Drag parameters

Drag is the aerodynamic force that determines the aircraft speed and acceleration. There are two basic types of drag that the user can adjust here. Parasitic drag is composed of two basic elements: form drag, which results from the interference of streamlined airflow, and skin friction. Parasite drag increases as airspeed increases. Induced drag results from the production of lift. Induced drag increases as angle of attack increases.

The parasite_drag_scalar and induced_drag_scalar parameters are multipliers on the two respective drag coefficients. For example, a value of 1.1 increases the respective drag component by 10 percent. A value of 0.9 decreases the drag by 10 Percent. Negative values are not advised, as extremely unnatural flight characteristics will result.  The default values are 1.0.

Property
Description
Examples
cruise_lift_scalar CL0. Airbus A321( cruise_lift_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( cruise_lift_scalar=1.000 )
parasite_drag_scalar Cd0. Airbus A321( parasite_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( parasite_drag_scalar=1.000 )
induced_drag_scalar Cdi. Airbus A321( induced_drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( induced_drag_scalar=1.000 )
elevator_effectiveness Cmde. Airbus A321( elevator_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_effectiveness=1.000 )
aileron_effectiveness Clda. Airbus A321( aileron_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_effectiveness=1.000 )
rudder_effectiveness Cndr. Airbus A321( rudder_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_effectiveness=0.501 )
pitch_stability Cmq. Airbus A321( pitch_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( pitch_stability=1.000 )
roll_stability Clp. Airbus A321( roll_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( roll_stability=1.000 )
yaw_stability Cnr. Airbus A321( yaw_stability = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( yaw_stability=1.000 )
elevator_trim_effectiveness Cmdetr. Airbus A321( elevator_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
aileron_trim_effectiveness Cldatr. Airbus A321( aileron_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
rudder_trim_effectiveness Cndrtr. Airbus A321( rudder_trim_effectiveness = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_trim_effectiveness=1.000 )
hi_alpha_on_roll See notes above.
hi_alpha_on_yaw
p_factor_on_yaw See notes above. Douglas DC-3( p_factor_on_yaw = 0.5 )
Piper Cub( p_factor_on_yaw = 0.3 )
torque_on_roll Douglas DC-3( torque_on_roll = 1.0 )
Extra 300S( torque_on_roll = 0.5 )
Piper Cub( torque_on_roll = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_yaw See notes above. Douglas DC-3( gyro_precession_on_yaw = 1.0 )
Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_yaw = 0.3 )
gyro_precession_on_pitch Douglas DC-3( gyro_precession_on_pitch = 1.0 )
Piper Cub( gyro_precession_on_pitch = 0.3 )

[generalenginedata]

Every type of aircraft, even a glider, should have this section in the aircraft.cfg file.  Basically, this section describes the type of engine, the number of engines, where the engines are located, and a fuel flow scalar to modify how much fuel the engine requires to produce the calculated power.

Property
Description
Examples
engine_type Integer that identifies what type of engine is on the aircraft. 0 = piston, 1 = Jet, 2 = None, 3 = Helo-turbine, 4 = Rocket (not supported) 5 = Turboprop. Airbus A321( engine_type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( engine_type= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( engine_type = 0 )
Beech King Air 350( engine_type = 5 )
engine.0
to
engine.n
Offset of the engine from the datum reference point. Each engine location specified increases the engine count (maximum of four engines allowed). Airbus A321( Engine.0 = 4.75, -16.1, -4.5 )
Aircreation582SL( Engine.0= -3.000, 0.000, 2.000 )
Beech Baron 58( Engine.0 = -1.4, -5.3, 0.0 )

Boeing 747-400( Engine.0 = -107.5, -69.5, -6.9 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.1 = -76.0, -38.9, -10.4 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.2 = -76.0, 38.9, -10.4 )
Boeing 747-400( Engine.3 = -107.5, 69.5, -6.9 )
fuel_flow_scalar Scalar for modifying the fuel flow required by the engine(s). A value of less than 1.0 causes a slower fuel consumption for a given power setting, a value greater than 1.0 causes the aircraft to burn more fuel for a given power setting. Airbus A321( fuel_flow_scalar = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( fuel_flow_scalar= 1.000 )
Boeing 747-400( fuel_flow_scalar = 1.0 )
Beech Baron 58( fuel_flow_scalar= 0.9 )
min_throttle_limit Defines the minimum throttle position (percent of max). Normally 0 for piston aircraft and -0.25 for turbine airplane engines with reverse thrust. Airbus A321( min_throttle_limit = -0.25 )
Aircreation582SL( min_throttle_limit=0.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( min_throttle_limit = -0.25; )
Beech Baron 58( min_throttle_limit = 0.0; )
max_contrail_temperature Ambient temperature, in celsius, in which engine vapor contrails will turn on. The default value is about -39 degrees celsius for turbine engines. For piston engines, the contrail effect is turned off unless a temperature value is set here. Airbus A321( max_contrail_temperature = -30 )
master_ignition_switch 1=Available, 0=Not Available (default). If available, this switch must be on for the ignition circuit, and thus the engines, to be operable. Turning it off will stop all engines. Douglas DC-3( master_ignition_switch = 1 )
starter_type Set to 1 for a Manual Starter Curtiss Jenny( starter_type = 1 )
thrustanglepitchheading.0 Thrust pitch and heading angles in degrees ( positive pitch down, positive heading right). Cessna Skyhawk 172SP Paint1 ( ThrustAnglePitchHeading.0 = 0,0 )

[turbineenginedata]

A turbine engine ignites fuel and compressed air to create thrust.  These parameters define the power (thrust) output of a given jet turbine engine.

Property
Description
Examples
fuel_flow_gain Fuel flow gain constant. Airbus A321( fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 )
Boeing 747-400( fuel_flow_gain = 0.002 )
Beech King Air 350( fuel_flow_gain = 0.011 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_flow_gain = 0.0025 )
inlet_area Engine nacelle inlet area, (in square feet). Airbus A321( inlet_area = 19.6 )
Boeing 747-400( inlet_area = 60.0 )
Beech King Air 350( inlet_area = 1.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( inlet_area = 9.4 )
rated_n2_rpm Second stage compressor rated rpm. Airbus A321( rated_N2_rpm = 29920 )
Boeing 747-400( rated_N2_rpm = 29920 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( rated_N2_rpm = 33000 )
static_thrust Maximum rated static thrust at sea level (lbs). Airbus A321( static_thrust = 23500 )
Boeing 747-400( static_thrust = 56750 )
Beech King Air 350( static_thrust = 158 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( static_thrust = 12670 )
afterburner_available A number, indicating the number of afterburner stages available. Airbus A321( afterburner_available = 0 )
Boeing 747-400( afterburner_available = 0 )
FA-18 Hornet ( afterburner_available = 6 )
reverser_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated reverse thrust effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal reverse thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. Airbus A321( reverser_available = 1 )
Boeing 747-400( reverser_available = 1 )
thrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies at all speeds. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.6 )
Boeing 747-400 Paint1( ThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.4 )
afterburnthrustspecificfuelconsumption Jet thrust specific fuel consumption. The ratio of fuel used in pounds per hour, to thrust in pounds. Applies only when the afterburner is active. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0 )
FA-18 Hornet ( AfterBurnThrustSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.5 )
afterburner_throttle_threshold Percentage of throttle range when the afterburner engages. FA-18 Hornet ( afterburner_throttle_threshold = 0.76 )

[jet_engine]

The thrust_scalar parameter scales the calculated thrust for jet engines (thrust taken from the [TurbineEngineData] section).
Property
Description
Examples
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. Airbus A321( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )

[electrical]

These parameters configure the characteristics of the aircraft's electrical system and its components. Each aircraft has a battery as well as an alternator or generator for each engine.

Below is a table of electrical section parameters shown with default values for Bus Type, Max Amp Load and Min Voltage (the values applied if the parameters are omitted). The default Min Voltage equals 0.7*Max Battery Voltage. The list of components also reflects all of the systems currently linked to the electrical system. If a component is included in the list but the aircraft does not actually have that system, the component is simply ignored.
Bus Type
Specifies which bus in the electrical system the component is connected to, according to the following bus type codes:
Bus Type Bus
0 Main Bus (most components connected here)
1 Avionics Bus
2 Battery Bus
3 Hot Battery Bus (bypasses Master switch)
4 Generator/Alternator Bus 1 (function of engine 1)
5 Generator/Alternator Bus 2 (function of engine 2)
6 Generator/Alternator Bus 3 (function of engine 3)
7 Generator/Alternator Bus 4 (function of engine 4)
Max Amp Load

Max Amp Load is the current required to power the component, and of course becomes the additional load on the electrical system.

Min Voltage

Min Voltage is the minimum voltage required from the specified bus for the component to function.

Property
Description
Examples
flap_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( flap_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
gear_motor Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( gear_motor = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
autopilot Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( autopilot = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
avionics_bus Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( avionics_bus = 0, 5, 17.0 )
Boeing 747-400( avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics_bus = 0, 5 , 9.5 )
avionics Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( avionics = 1, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( avionics = 1, 5 , 9.5 )
pitot_heat Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( pitot_heat = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
additional_system Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( additional_system = 0, 2, 17.0 )
Beech King Air 350( additional_system = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( additional_system = 0, 2 , 9.5 )
marker_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( marker_beacon = 1, 2 , 9.0 )
gear_warning Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( gear_warning = 0, 2 , 17.0 )
fuel_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( fuel_pump = 0, 5 , 9.0 )
starter1 Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( starter1 = 0, 20, 17.0 )
starter2 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter3 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
starter4 Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_nav Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_nav = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_beacon Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_beacon = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_landing Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_landing = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_taxi Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_taxi = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_strobe Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_strobe = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_panel Bus type, max amp, min voltage Airbus A321( light_panel = 0, 5 , 17.0 )
light_cabin Bus type, max amp, min voltage
prop_sync Bus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_feather Bus type, max amp, min voltage
auto_brakes Bus type, max amp, min voltage
standby_vacuum Bus type, max amp, min voltage
hydraulic_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage
fuel_transfer_pump Bus type, max amp, min voltage
propeller_deice Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_recognition Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_wing Bus type, max amp, min voltage
light_logo Bus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyro Bus type, max amp, min voltage
directional_gyro_slaving Bus type, max amp, min voltage
max_battery_voltage The maximum voltage to which the battery can be charged. It is also the voltage available from the battery when the aircraft is initialized. The battery voltage will decrease from this if the generators or alternators are not supplying enough current to meet the demand of the active components. Beech Baron 58( max_battery_voltage = 24.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_battery_voltage = 24 )
Extra 300S( max_battery_voltage = 12.0 )
Maule M7 260C( max_battery_voltage = 12.0 )
generator_alternator_voltage Voltage of the generators or alternators. Beech Baron 58( generator_alternator_voltage = 28.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( generator_alternator_voltage = 25.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( generator_alternator_voltage = 28 )
Douglas DC-3( generator_alternator_voltage = 25 )
max_generator_alternator_amps Maximum generator/alternator amps. Beech Baron 58( max_generator_alternator_amps = 60.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_generator_alternator_amps = 40.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_generator_alternator_amps = 50 )
Douglas DC-3( max_generator_alternator_amps = 100 )
engine_generator_map List of flags, corresponding to the number of engines, indicating whether there is a generator configured with the engine. Ford 4-AT-E Tri-Motor( engine_generator_map= 0,1,0 )
electric_always_available Set to 1 if electric power is available regardless of the state of the battery or circuit.

[contact_points]

You can configure and adjust the way aircraft reacts to different kinds of contact, including landing gear contact and articulation, braking, steering, and damage accrued through excessive speed. You can also configure each contact point independently for each aircraft, and there is no limit to the number of points you can add. When importing an aircraft that does not contain this set of data, the program will generate the data from the .air file the first time the aircraft is loaded, and then write it to the aircraft.cfg.

Each contact point contains a series of values that define the characteristics of the point, separated by commas. A contact point has 16 parameters, described in the following table:

Contact Point Parameter (and example) Element Description
1  (1) Class Integer defining the type of contact point: 0 = None, 1 = Wheel, 2 = Scrape, 3 = Skid, 4 = Float, 5 = Water Rudder
2 (-18.0) Longitudinal Position The longitudinal distance of the point from the datum reference point.
3 (0) Lateral Position The lateral distance of the point from the datum reference point.
4 (-3.35) Vertical Position The vertical distance of the point from the datum reference point.
5 (3200) Impact Damage Threshold The speed at which an impact with the ground can cause damage (feet/min).
6 (0) Brake Map Defines which brake input drives the brake (wheels only).
0 = None, 1 = Left Brake, 2 = Right Brake.
7 (0.50) Wheel Radius Radius of the wheel (feet).
8 (180) Steering Angle The maximum angle (positive and negative) that a wheel can pivot (degrees).
9 (0.25) Static Compression This is the distance a landing gear is compressed when the empty aircraft is at rest on the ground (feet). This term defines the “strength” of the strut, where a smaller number will increase the “stiffness” of the strut.
10 (2.5) Ratio of Maximum Compression to Static Compression Ratio of the max dynamic compression available in the strut to the static value. Can be useful in coordinating the “compression” of the strut when landing.
11 (0.90) Damping Ratio This ratio describes how well the ground reaction oscillations are damped. A value of 1.0 is considered critically damped, meaning there will be little or no osciallation. A damping ratio of 0.0 is considered undamped, meaning that the oscillations will continue with a constant magnitude. Negative values result in an unstable ground handling situation, and values greater than 1.0 might also cause instabilities by being “over” damped. Typical values range from 0.6 to 0.95.
12 (1.0) Extension Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully extend under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
13 (4.0) Retraction Time The amount of time it takes the landing gear to fully retract under normal conditions (seconds). A value of zero indicates a fixed gear.
14 (0) Sound Type This integer value will map a point to a type of sound:
    0 = Center Gear,
    1 = Auxiliary Gear,
    2 = Left Gear,
    3 = Right Gear,
    4 = Fuselage Scrape,
    5 = Left Wing Scrape,
    6 = Right Wing Scrape,
    7 = Aux1 Scrape,
    8 = Aux2 Scrape,
    9 = Tail Scrape.
15 (0) Airspeed Limit This is the speed at which landing gear extension becomes inhibited (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
16 (200) Damage from Airspeed The speed above which the landing gear accrues damage (knots). Not used for scrape points or non-retractable gear.
Each contact point's data set takes the form “point.n=”, where “n” is the index to the particular point, followed by the data.
Property
Description
Examples
point.0
to
point.n
Contact points that match the format described above. Airbus A321( point.0=1, 40.00, 0.00, -8.40, 1181.1, 0, 1.442, 55.92, 0.6, 2.5, 0.9, 4.0, 4.0, 0, 220.0, 250.0 )
Aircreation582SL( point.0= 1.000, 2.583, 0.000, -1.000, 1574.803, 0.000, 0.504, 31.860, 0.235, 2.500, 0.731, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000 ) Beech Baron 58( point.0 = 1, 0.82, 0.00, -3.77, 1600, 0, 0.633, 40, 0.42, 4.0, 0.90, 3.0, 3.0, 0, 152, 180 )

Boeing 747-400( point.0 = 1, -25.0, 0.0, -17.5, 1000.0, 0, 2.0, 70.0, 0.5, 3.5, 0.900, 9.0, 8.0, 0, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.1 = 1, -114.0, -18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 1, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 2, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.2 = 1, -114.0, 18.0, -21.3, 2000.0, 2, 2.0, 13.0, 3.0, 2.5, 0.900, 11.0, 9.0, 3, 220, 250 )
Boeing 747-400( point.3 = 2, -152.6, -103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 5, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.4 = 2, -152.6, 103.5, 3.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 6, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.5 = 2, 3.0, 0.0, 0.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 9, 0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( point.6 = 2, -222.7, 0.0, 4.0, 700.0, 0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.000, 0.0, 0.0, 4, 0, 0 )

max_number_of_points Integer value indicating the maximum number of contact points the program will look for. Airbus A321( max_number_of_points = 21 )
static_pitch The static pitch of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (degrees). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Airbus A321( static_pitch=0.04 )
Aircreation582SL( static_pitch= 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( static_pitch = -1.5 )
Beech Baron 58( static_pitch = 1.56 )
static_cg_height The static height of the aircraft when at rest on the ground (feet). The program uses this value to position the aircraft at startup, in slew, and at any other time when the simulation is not actively running. Airbus A321( static_cg_height=7.67 )
Aircreation582SL( static_cg_height= 1.000 )
Boeing 747-400( static_cg_height = 18.6 )
Beech Baron 58( static_cg_height = 3.43 )
gear_system_type This parameter defines the system type which drives the gear extension and retraction.
0 = electrical
1 = hydraulic
2 = pneumatic
3 = manual
4 = none
Airbus A321( gear_system_type=1 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_system_type=0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( gear_system_type=3 )
emergency_extension_type One of:
None=0,Pump=1,Gravity=2.
Bombardier CRJ 700( emergency_extension_type=2 )
tailwheel_lock Boolean defining if a tailwheel lock is available (applicable only on tailwheel airplanes). Douglas DC-3( tailwheel_lock = 1 )

[gear_warning_system]

The following parameters define the functionality of the aircraft’s gear warning system. This is generally a function of the throttle lever position and the flap deflection.

Property
Description
Examples
gear_warning_available Sets the type of gear warning system available on the aircraft, one of:
0 = None, 1 = Normal, 2 = Amphibian (audible alert for water vs. land setting).
Airbus A321( gear_warning_available = 1 )
pct_throttle_limit The throttle limit, below which the gear warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the flaps are deflected to at least the setting for flap_limit_idle below. This flap limit can be 0 so that the warning effectively is a function of the throttle. A value between: 0 (idle) and 1.0 (Max throttle). Airbus A321( pct_throttle_limit = 0.1 )
flap_limit_idle In conjunction with the throttle limit specified above, this limit is the flap deflection, above which the warning will activate if the gear is not down and locked while the throttle is below the limit specified above. By setting this limit to a value greater than zero, the pilot can reduce the throttle to idle without activating the warning. This is often utilized in jets to decelerate/descend the aircraft. Airbus A321( flap_limit_idle = 5.0 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_idle = 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_idle = 15.0 )
flap_limit_power The flap limit, above which the warning will activate (regardless of throttle position). Airbus A321( flap_limit_power = 25.5 )
Beech Baron 58( flap_limit_power = 31.5 )
Beech King Air 350( flap_limit_power = 30.0 )
Douglas DC-3( flap_limit_power = 16.0 )

[brakes]

The following parameters define the aircraft's braking system:

Property
Description
Examples
parking_brake Boolean setting if a parking brake is available on the aircraft. Airbus A321( parking_brake = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( parking_brake=1 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( parking_brake = 0 )
toe_brakes_scale Sets the scaling of the braking effectiveness. 1.0 is the default. 0.0 scales the brakes to no effectiveness. Airbus A321( toe_brakes_scale = 0.885 )
Aircreation582SL( toe_brakes_scale=1.000031 )
Boeing 747-400( toe_brakes_scale = 1.24 )
Beech Baron 58( toe_brakes_scale = 1.0 )
auto_brakes The number of increments that the auto-braking switch can be turned to. Airbus A321( auto_brakes = 3 )
Boeing 737-800( auto_brakes = 4 )
Beech Baron 58( auto_brakes = 0 )
hydraulic_system_scalar The ratio of hydraulic system pressure to maximum brake hydraulic pressure. Airbus A321( hydraulic_system_scalar = 1 )
differential_braking_scale Differential braking is a function of the normal both brakes on and the rudder pedal input. The amount of difference between the left and right brake is scaled by this value. 1.0 is the normal setting if differential braking is desired (particularly on tailwheel airplanes). 0.0 is the setting if no differential braking is desired. Douglas DC-3( differential_braking_scale = 1.0 )

[hydraulic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's hydraulic system:

Property
Description
Examples
normal_pressure The normal operating pressure of the hydraulic system, in pounds per square inch. Airbus A321( normal_pressure = 3000.0 )
Aircreation582SL( normal_pressure=0.000000 )
Beech Baron 58( normal_pressure = 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( normal_pressure = 1000.0 )
electric_pumps The number of electric hydraulic pumps the aircraft is configured with. Airbus A321( electric_pumps = 0 )
Boeing 737-800( electric_pumps = 1 )
engine_map This series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with hydraulic pumps. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. By default, all engines are equipped to drive a hydraulic pump. Airbus A321( engine_map = 1,1,0,0 )
Boeing 747-400( engine_map = 1,1,1,1 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( engine_map = 1,0,0,0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( engine_map = 1 )

[views]

The following parameter define the pilot's viewpoint.

Property
Description
Examples
eyepoint Position relative to datum reference point. Airbus A321( eyepoint=48.2, -1.35, 1.7 )
Aircreation582SL( eyepoint=-0.205052,0.000000,3.604314 )
Boeing 747-400( eyepoint = -18.55, -1.97, 10.7 )
Beech Baron 58( eyepoint = -8.213, -0.8612, 2.220 )
zoom Zoom the view in or out from the viewpoint. Default( zoom=1.0 )

[flaps.n]

For each flap set that is on the aircraft, a corresponding [flaps.n] section should exist.  Most general aviation aircraft and smaller jets only have one set of flaps (trailing edge), but it is typical for the larger commercial aircraft to have a set of leading edge flaps in addition to the trailing edge flaps.  The number of flap sets are determined by the number of [flaps.n] sections contained in the aircraft.cfg file.

Property
Description
Examples
type Integer value that indicates if this is a leading edge or trailing edge flap set:
0 = no flaps 1 = trailing edge, 2 = leading edge.
Airbus A321( type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( type=0 )
Boeing 737-800( type = 2 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( type=1 )
span-outboard The percentage of half-wing span the flap extends to (from the wing-fuselage intersection). Airbus A321( span-outboard = 0.8 )
Aircreation582SL( span-outboard=0.500000 )
Beech Baron 58( span-outboard = 0.41 )
Beech King Air 350( span-outboard = 0.5 )
extending-time Time it takes for the flap set to extend to the fullest deflection angle specified (seconds). Airbus A321( extending-time = 20 )
Aircreation582SL( extending-time=0.000000 )
Boeing 737-800( extending-time = 2 )
Boeing 747-400( extending-time = 25 )
flaps-position.0
to
flaps-position.n
Each element of the flaps-position array indicates the deflection angle to which the flaps will deflect (in degrees). The largest deflection angle will be the one used for full flap deflection. Cessna Grand Caravan( flaps-position.0= 0 )
Sailplane( flaps-position.0 = -9.0 )
Maule M7 260C( flaps-position.0 = -7 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.0 = 0 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.1 = 1 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.2 = 2)
Airbus A321( flaps-position.3 = 5 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.4 = 10 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.5 = 15 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.6 = 25 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.7 = 30 )
Airbus A321( flaps-position.8 = 40 )
damaging-speed Speed at which the flaps begin to accrue damage (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Airbus A321( damaging-speed = 250 )
Boeing 747-400( damaging-speed = 200 )
Beech Baron 58( damaging-speed = 152 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( damaging-speed = 120 )
blowout-speed Speed at which the flaps depart the aircraft (Knots Indicated Airspeed, KIAS). Airbus A321( blowout-speed = 300 )
Boeing 747-400( blowout-speed = 250 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( blowout-speed = 150 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( blowout-speed = 175 )
lift_scalar The percentage of total lift due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( lift_scalar = 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( lift_scalar = 0.7 )
drag_scalar The percentage of total drag due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( drag_scalar = 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( drag_scalar = 0.9 )
pitch_scalar The percentage of total pitch due to flap deflection that this flap set is responsible for at full deflection. Airbus A321( pitch_scalar= 1.0 )
Boeing 747-400( pitch_scalar= 0.9 )
system_type Integer value that indicates what type of system drives the flaps to deflect:, one of:
0 = Electric
1 = Hydraulic
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Manual
4 = None
Airbus A321( system_type = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( system_type=0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( system_type = 0 )
Sailplane( system_type = 3 )

[radios]

There should be a radio section in each aircraft.cfg.  This section configures the radios for each individual aircraft.  Each of the following keywords has a flag or set of flags, that determine if the particular radio element is available in the aircraft.  A “1” is used for true (or available), and 0 for false (or not available). 

Property
Description
Examples
audio.1 Is there an audio panel, set to 1. Airbus A321( Audio.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Audio.1 = 0 )
com.1 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com1 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. Airbus A321( Com.1 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.1 = 1, 0 )
com.2 Two flags, set the first one to 1 if a Com2 radio is available, and the second if it supports a standby frequency. You cannot have Com2 without Com1. Airbus A321( Com.2 = 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Com.2 = 1, 0 )
nav.1 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav1 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. Airbus A321( Nav.1 = 1, 1, 1 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.1 = 1, 0, 1 )
Sailplane( Nav.1 = 0, 0, 0 )
nav.2 Three flags, set the first to 1 if there is a Nav2 receiver, the second if it supports a standby frequency, and the third if it supports a glideslope indication. You cannot have Nav2 without Nav1. Airbus A321( Nav.2 = 1, 1, 0 )
Beech King Air 350( Nav.2 = 1, 0, 0 )
adf.1 If there is an ADF receiver, set to 1. Airbus A321( Adf.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Adf.1 = 0 )
adf.2 If there is an ADF2 receiver, set to 1. Bombardier CRJ 700( Adf.2 = 1 )
transponder.1 If there is a transponder, set to 1. Airbus A321( Transponder.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Transponder.1 = 0 )
marker.1 If there is a marker beacon receiver, set to 1. Airbus A321( Marker.1 = 1 )
Sailplane( Marker.1 = 0 )

[lights]

Each light that requires a special effect should be entered in this section. The following table gives the codes for the switches that will turn on the lights.

Code Switch
1 Beacon
2 Strobe
3 Navigation or Position
4 Cockpit
5 Landing
6 Taxi
7 Recognition
8 Wing
9 Logo
10 Cabin

Property
Description
Examples
light.0
to
light.n
The first entry of the line defines which circuit, or switch, the light is connected to (see the code table above). Multiple lights may be connected to a single switch. The next three entries are the position relative to datum reference point. The final entry is the special effect file name that is triggered (for example, fx_navred). These files have .fx extensions and should be placed in the root effects folder. Airbus A321( light.0 = 3, -19.14, -47.24, 1.38, fx_navredm , )
Boeing 747-400( light.0 = 3, -150.30, -102.56, 3.22, fx_navredh , )
Beech Baron 58( light.0 = 3, -6.60, -19.29, 0.79, fx_navred , )

Beech King Air 350( light.0 = 3, 0.56, -28.41, 1.97, fx_navred , )
Beech King Air 350( light.1 = 3, 0.56, 28.41, 1.97, fx_navgre , )
Beech King Air 350( light.2 = 3, -31.20, 0.00, 9.09, fx_navwhi , )
Beech King Air 350( light.3 = 2, 0.89, -28.48, 1.87, fx_strobe , )

[keyboard_response]

The aircraft flight controls can be manipulated by the keyboard. Because flight controls naturally become more sensitive as airspeed increases, it can become quite difficult to control the aircraft via the keyboard at high speeds.  To address this problem, the amount a single keypress increments a flight control is decreased by a factor of 1/2 at the first airspeed (in knots) listed on the line for the control, and to 1/8 at the second airspeed, and to  a scale interpolated from these values for all airspeeds in between. The example below shows that an elevator will increment by one degree when the airspeed is zero, by ¾ of one degree at 50 knots, ½ of one degree at 100 knots, 5/16 of one degree at 140 knots, and 1/8 of one degree at 180 knots or greater speed.

Property
Description
Examples
elevator Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Airbus A321( elevator = 150, 250 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator=150.000000,250.000000 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( elevator = 100, 180 )
Sailplane( elevator = 160, 360 )
aileron Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Airbus A321( aileron = 150, 250 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron=150.000000,250.000000 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( aileron = 200, 1000 )
Sailplane( aileron = 160, 360 )
rudder Two breakpoint speeds for keypress increments. Airbus A321( rudder = 150, 250 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder=150.000000,250.000000 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( rudder = 200, 1000 )
Sailplane( rudder = 160, 360 )

[direction_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the direction indicators on the instrument panels, but does not include the magnetic compass (which has a separate section).  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 
Property
Description
Examples
direction_indicator.0
to
direction_indicator.n
One or two codes. If the indicator is type 4, then there must be two entries here (the indicator, and the indicator to which this one is slaved).  The indicator codes are:
0 = None
1 = Vacuum gyro
2 = Electric gyro
3 = Electro-mag slaved compass
4 = Slaved to another indicator
Airbus A321( direction_indicator.0=3,0 )
Aircreation582SL( direction_indicator.0 = 0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( direction_indicator.0=1,0 )
Sailplane( direction_indicator.0=0,0 )

Douglas DC-3( direction_indicator.1=2,0 )
induction_compass.0
to
induction_compass.n
If there is an induction compass, one of:
1 = Electric
2 = Anemometer driven
Ryan NYP( induction_compass.0=2 )

[attitude_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the attitude indicators on the instrument panels. The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,...n. 

Property
Description
Examples
attitude_indicator.0
to
attitude_indicator.n
The system which drives the attitude indicator. One of:
0 = none
1 = Vacuum driven gyro
2 = Electrically driven gyro
Airbus A321( attitude_indicator.0 = 2 )
Aircreation582SL( attitude_indicator.0=1 )
Beech Baron 58( attitude_indicator.0 = 1 )
Sailplane( attitude_indicator.0 = 0 )

Boeing 747-400( attitude_indicator.1 = 1 )
Douglas DC-3( attitude_indicator.1 = 2 )

[altimeters]

Property
Description
Examples
altimeter.0
to
altimeter.n
If the parameter is set to 1, a separate altimeter is instantiated, which will operate independently of other altimeters, and can have failures applied to it. Airbus A321 Paint2( altimeter.0=1 )
Learjet 45( altimeter.0 = 1 )
Airbus A321 Paint2( altimeter.1=1 )
Learjet 45( altimeter.1 = 1 )

[turn_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the turn indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n. 

Property
Description
Examples
turn_indicator.0 Two code values, which define the system on which the turn indicators are dependant. The first value is for turn, the second for bank. The codes are:
0 = None
1 = Electrically driven gyro
2 = Vacuum driven gyro
Airbus A321( turn_indicator.0=0,0 )
Aircreation582SL( turn_indicator.0=1,0 )
Beech Baron 58( turn_indicator.0=1,1 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( turn_indicator.0=1 )

[vacuum_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's vacuum system:

Property
Description
Examples
max_pressure Maximum pressure in psi. Airbus A321( max_pressure=5.15 )
Aircreation582SL( max_pressure=5.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( max_pressure=5.150000 )
Sailplane( max_pressure=0 )
vacuum_type Vacuum type, one of:
0 = None
1 = Engine pump (default)
2 = Pneumatic
3 = Venturi.
Airbus A321( vacuum_type=2 )
Aircreation582SL( vacuum_type=1 )
Sailplane( vacuum_type=0 )
electric_backup_pressure Backup pressure in psi. Aircreation582SL( electric_backup_pressure=0.000000 )
Beech Baron 58( electric_backup_pressure=4.900000 )
Mooney Bravo( electric_backup_pressure=4.9 )
Bell 206B JetRanger( electric_backup_pressure=5.15 )
engine_map This series of flags sets whether the corresponding engines of the aircraft are configured with vacuum systems. The flags correspond in order of the engines, starting with the left-most engine first and moving right. Beech Baron 58( engine_map=1,1 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( engine_map=1 )

[pneumatic_system]

The following parameters define the aircraft's pneumatic pressure system:

Property
Description
Examples
max_pressure The maximum pressure of the pneumatic system. Airbus A321( max_pressure=18.000000 )
Aircreation582SL( max_pressure=0.000000 )
Grumman Goose G21A( max_pressure = 21.5 )
Piper Cub( max_pressure=0 )
bleed_air_scalar The ratio of bleed-air pressure from the engines to pneumatic air pressure in the pneumatic system. Airbus A321( bleed_air_scalar=1.000000 )
Aircreation582SL( bleed_air_scalar=0.000000 )
Beech Baron 58( bleed_air_scalar=0.00000 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( bleed_air_scalar=0.150000 )

[exits]

The following parameters define the aircraft's exits:

Property
Description
Examples
number_of_exits This value defines the number of simulated exits, or doors, on the aircraft. Airbus A321( number_of_exits = 3 )
Aircreation582SL( number_of_exits =1 )
Beech Baron 58( number_of_exits = 1 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( number_of_exits = 2 )
exit.0
to
exit.n
Five values: the open and close rate percent per second (where 1.0 is fully open), the position relative to datum reference point, and the type of exit, one of:
0 = Main
1 = Cargo
2 = Emergency
Airbus A321( exit.0 = 0.4, 40.50,-6.0, 7.0, 0 )
Boeing 737-800( exit.0 = 0.4, 41.3, -6.0, 4.0, 0 )
Boeing 747-400( exit.0 = 0.4, -30.30, -9.5, 1, 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.0 = 0.4, -16.50, -4.5, 0.5, 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.1 = 0.4, -74.00, -4.5, 0.5, 1 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( exit.2 = 0.4, -36.50, -2.5, -1.0, 1 )

[effects]

The effects section of the file refers to the visual effects that result from various systems or reactions of the aircraft. An effect file associated with a keyword in this section will be used when the corresponding action is triggered.  If no entry is made a default effect file will be used. The table below outlines the aircraft effects currently supported, though of course not all effects are supported on all aircraft.

Each entry can be followed by a 1 if the effect is to be run for a single iteration. Set this number to zero or leave blank (the default), for the effect to continue as long as the respective action is active. Make an entry in the configuration file to replace any of these effects with a new one. Or to turn off the effect add an entry that references the fx_dummy effect (which does nothing).

Property
Description
Default
Single Iteration
Examples
wake The wake effect name. fx_wakeFalseAirbus A321( wake=fx_wake )
water The landing, taxiing or taking off from water effect.fx_sprayFalseAirbus A321( water=fx_spray )
waterspeed Traveling at speed on the water.fx_spray False
dirt Moving on dirt.fx_tchdrt False Airbus A321( dirt=fx_tchdrt )
concrete Moving on concrete.fx_sparks False Airbus A321( concrete=fx_sparks )
Sailplane( concrete=fx_tchdwn_s )
touchdown The touchdown effect, which usually is followed by an optional 1 to indicate the effect is to be run once only.fx_tchdwn True Airbus A321( touchdown=fx_tchdwn, 1 )
Aircreation582SL( touchdown=fx_tchdwn_s, 1 )
contrail Contrail effect, applies to jets flying above 29000ft.fx_contrail_l False
startup Engine startup.fx_engstrt TrueDouglas DC-3( startup=fx_engstrt_jenny)
Piper Cub( startup=fx_engstrt_cub )
landrotorwash Rotor wash. Helicopters only.fx_rtr_lnd False
waterrotorwash Water rotor wash. Helicopters only.fx_rtr_wtr False
vaportrail_l Left wing vapor trail.fx_vaportrail_l False
vaportrail_r Right wing vapor trail.fx_vaportrail_r False
l_wingtipvortice Left wingtip vortice (contrails off the wingtip, usually from a jet such as the F18).fx_wingtipvortice_l True
r_wingtipvortice Right wingtip vortice.fx_wingtipvortice_r True
fueldump Fuel dump active.No default effect False
EngineFire Engine fire.fx_engfire False Bell 206B JetRanger( EngineFire=fx_heliFire )
EngineDamage Engine damage.fx_engsmoke False
EngineOilLeak Oil leak.fx_OilLeak False
SkidPavement Skid on tarmac, leaves a mark.fx_skidmark False
SnowSkiTrack Skid on snow.No default effect False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( SnowTrack = fx_snowtrack )
WheelSnowSpray Taking off on snow.fx_WheelSnowSpray False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( WheelSnowSpray = fx_WheelSnowSpray )
WheelWetSpray Taking off on wet runway.fx_WheelWetSpray False Maule M7 260C Ski paint1( WheelWetSpray = fx_WheelWetSpray )
WetEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on wet terrain when flying below 20m.fx_WetEngineWash False
SnowEngineWash Similar to waterrotorwash, the effect a propeller has on snow covered terrain, or when it is snowing, when flying below 20m.fx_SnowEngineWash False
WaterBallastDrain Draining the water ballast, applies only to sailplanes.fx_WaterBallastDrain False
PistonFailure One or more pistons failed.fx_PistonFailure True
 
windshield_rain_effect_availableSpecial case, set this to 0 to turn off the effect of rain on the windshield.Curtiss Jenny( windshield_rain_effect_available = 0 )

[autopilot]

The following parameters determine the functionality of the aircraft’s autopilot system, including the flight director.

Navigation Modes:

The navigation and glideslope controllers utilize standard proportional/integral /derivative feedback controllers (PID).  The integrator and derivative controllers have boundaries, which are the maximum error from the controlled parameter in which these are active.  It is not necessary to have all three components active.  Setting the respective control constant to 0 effectively disables that component, allowing PI or PD controllers to be utilized. Navigation mode parameters begin with nav_ or gs_.

Property
Description
Examples
autopilot_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autopilot system on the aircraft. Airbus A321( autopilot_available=1 )
Aircreation582SL( autopilot_available=0 )
flight_director_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available a flight director on the aircraft. Airbus A321( flight_director_available=1 )
Aircreation582SL( flight_director_available=0 )
default_vertical_speed The default vertical speed, in feet per second, that the autopilot will command when selecting a large altitude change. Airbus A321( default_vertical_speed=1800 )
Boeing 747-400( default_vertical_speed = 1800.0 )
Beech Baron 58( default_vertical_speed= 700.0 )
Beech King Air 350( default_vertical_speed= 1800.0 )
autothrottle_available Setting this flag to a 1 makes available an autothrottle system on the aircraft. Boeing 747-400( autothrottle_available = 1 )
Beech Baron 58( autothrottle_available= 0 )
autothrottle_arming_required Setting this flag to 1 will require that the autothrottle be armed prior to it being engaged. Setting it to zero allows the autothrottle to be engaged directly. Boeing 747-400( autothrottle_arming_required = 1 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( autothrottle_arming_required= 0 )
autothrottle_max_rpm This sets the maximum engine speed, in percent, that the autothrottle will attempt to maintain. Airbus A321( autothrottle_max_rpm = 90 )
Boeing 747-400( autothrottle_max_rpm = 90 )
autothrottle_takeoff_ga Setting this flag to 1 enables takeoff / go-around operations with the autothrottle. Boeing 747-400( autothrottle_takeoff_ga = 1 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( autothrottle_takeoff_ga= 0 )
default_pitch_mode This determines the default pitch mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Pitch Hold (current pitch angle)
2 = Altitude Hold (current altitude)
If no value is set, Pitch Hold will be the default.
pitch_takeoff_ga The default pitch that the Takeoff/Go-Around mode references. Beech Baron 58( pitch_takeoff_ga=8.0 )
Douglas DC-3( pitch_takeoff_ga=0.0 )
max_pitch The maximum pitch angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either up or down. Airbus A321( max_pitch=10.0 )
max_pitch_acceleration The maximum angular pitch acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command up or down. Airbus A321( max_pitch_acceleration=1.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude below that specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint. Airbus A321( max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt=2.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt The maximum angular pitch velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command when at an altitude above the altitude specified by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints. Airbus A321( max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt=1.5 )
max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint The altitude below which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt. Airbus A321( max_pitch_velocity_lo_alt_breakpoint=20000.0 )
max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint The altitude above which the autopilot maximum pitch velocity is limited by the variable max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt. The maximum velocity is interpolated between the hi and lo altitude velocities when between the hi and lo altitude breakpoints. Airbus A321( max_pitch_velocity_hi_alt_breakpoint=28000.0 )
max_bank The maximum bank angle in degrees that the autopilot will command either left or right.
Airbus A321( max_bank=25.0 )
Boeing 737-800( max_bank=30,25,20,15,10 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_bank=30,15 )
Douglas DC-3( max_bank=25.000000 )
max_bank_acceleration The maximum angular bank acceleration, in degrees per second squared, that the autopilot will command left or right. Airbus A321( max_bank_acceleration=1.8 )
max_bank_velocity The maximum angular bank velocity, in degrees per second, which the autopilot will command left or right. Douglas DC-3( max_bank_velocity=3.000000 )
max_throttle_rate This value sets the maximum rate at which the autothrottle will move the throttle position. In the example, the maximum rate is set to 10% of the total throttle range per second. Douglas DC-3( max_throttle_rate=0.100000 )
nav_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Airbus A321( nav_proportional_control=12.00 )
Boeing 747-400( nav_proportional_control=16.00 )
Beech Baron 58( nav_proportional_control=9.00 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( nav_proportional_control=11.00 )
nav_integrator_control Integral controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Airbus A321( nav_integrator_control=0.25 )
Boeing 747-400( nav_integrator_control=0.17 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( nav_integrator_control=0.20 )
Douglas DC-3( nav_integrator_control=0.250000 )
nav_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in lateral navigation modes. Airbus A321( nav_derivative_control=0.00 )
Douglas DC-3( nav_derivative_control=0.000000 )
nav_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -2.5 and +2.5 degrees from the centerline of the navigation signal. Airbus A321( nav_integrator_boundary=2.50 )

nav_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0. Airbus A321( nav_derivative_boundary=0.00 )

gs_proportional_control Proportional controller constant in glideslope mode. Airbus A321( gs_proportional_control=25.0 )
Boeing 747-400( gs_proportional_control = 18.0 )
Beech Baron 58( gs_proportional_control=9.52 )
Douglas DC-3( gs_proportional_control=9.520000 )
gs_integrator_control Integral controller constant in glideslope mode. Airbus A321( gs_integrator_control=0.53 )
Boeing 747-400( gs_integrator_control = 0.33 )
Beech Baron 58( gs_integrator_control=0.26 )
Douglas DC-3( gs_integrator_control=0.260000 )
gs_derivative_control Derivative controller constant in glideslope mode. Boeing 747-400( gs_derivative_control = 0.00 )
gs_integrator_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the glideslope integrator function is active. In the example, the integrator is active when the error is between -0.7 and +0.7 degrees from the centerline of the glideslope signal. Boeing 747-400( gs_integrator_boundary = 0.70 )
gs_derivative_boundary The boundary, or maximum signal error, in degrees in which the derivative function is active. In the example, the derivative controller is not active because the maximum error is set to 0. Boeing 747-400( gs_derivative_boundary = 0.00 )
yaw_damper_gain The proportional gain on the yaw dampers yaw rate error. Airbus A321( yaw_damper_gain = 1.0 )
Beech Baron 58( yaw_damper_gain = 0.0 )
direction_indicator Indicates which direction indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
Douglas DC-3( direction_indicator=1 )
attitude_indicator Indicates which attitude indicator system on the aircraft is being referenced by the autopilot.
0 = the first, and is the default.
Douglas DC-3( attitude_indicator =1 )
default_bank_mode This determines the default bank mode when the autopilot logic is turned on.
0 = None
1 = Wing Level Hold
2 = Heading Hold (current heading).
If no value is set, Wing Level Hold will be the default.
Douglas DC-3( default_bank_mode=2 )

Miscellaneous default AP modes:

The following flags are legacy, and were enabled to allow aircraft to be configured with no pitch and/or bank modes.  While these flags are still supported, the preferred flags are included above in the respective vertical and lateral sections. 


Property Description Examples
use_no_default_pitch Setting this flag to 1 will cause the default pitch mode to be "None". It will actually set the variable default_pitch_mode to zero, so that there is no default pitch mode when the autopilot logic is activated.
The preferred method is to tset the default_pitch_mode directly.
use_no_default_bank Setting this flag to 1 will cause the default bank mode to be "None". It will actually set the variable default_bank_mode to zero, so that there is no default bank mode when the autopilot logic is activated.
The preferred method is to tset the default_bank_mode directly.
See examples for default_bank_mode

[fuel]

This section defines the characteristics of the fuel system, including the tanks, fuel type, and the number of fuel selectors. The number of fuel selectors is intended to match the number of visual selectors on the instrument panel.

Property
Description
Examples
center1
center2
center3
leftmain
leftaux
lefttip
rightmain
rightaux
righttip
external1
external2
Position of the tank relative to datum reference point, followed by the usable and unusable capacities of the tanks, in gallons. Boeing 747-400( Center1 = -83.5, 0.0, -7.0, 17164.0, 0.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( Center1 = -48.7, 0.0, -4.0, 982.0, 0.0 )
Boeing 747-400( Center2 = -193.5, 0.0, 6.0, 3300.0, 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Center3=-10.600000,0.000000,-1.900000,25.000000,0.000000 )
Airbus A321( LeftMain = -3, -19, 0, 1500, 0 )
Beech Baron 58( RightMain = -8.46, 6.45, 0.0, 71.0, 0.0 )
Maule M7 260C( LeftAux = -2.24, -11.4, 2.40, 15.0, 0.00 )
fuel_type One of:
1 = Avgas
2 = JetA
Airbus A321( fuel_type = 2 )
Beech Baron 58( fuel_type = 1 )
number_of_tank_selectors Number of fuel tank selectors (maximum 4 and should be less than or equal to the number of engines). Aircreation582SL( number_of_tank_selectors=1 )
Beech Baron 58( number_of_tank_selectors = 2 )
electric_pump Boolean that sets whether an electric boost pump is available, 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Airbus A321( electric_pump=0 )
Grumman Goose G21A( electric_pump = 1 )
fuel_dump_rate Percent of fuel that can be dumped per second. Airbus A321( fuel_dump_rate = 0.0167 )
engine_driven_pump Set to 0 if the pump is engine driven (1 is the default). Aircreation582SL( engine_driven_pump=0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( engine_driven_pump=1 )
manual_pump Set to 1 if there is a manual transfer pump. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( manual_transfer_pump=1 )
anemometer_pump Set to 1 if there is an anemometer pump. Vickers Vimy Transatlantic( anemometer_pump=1 )

[airplane_geometry]

This section has been added mainly for reference. Although you can edit these values by hand here in the aircraft.cfg file, modification of some of these variables will have little to no effect on airplane performance, as the flight model aerodynamic coefficients are all located in the .air file. 

Property
Description
Examples
wing_area Area of the top surface of the entire wing tip-to-tip (ft2). Airbus A321( wing_area = 1137.0 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_area= 150.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_area = 5825.0 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_area = 199.0 )
wing_span Wing span is the horizontal distance from wing-tip to wing-tip (feet). Airbus A321( wing_span = 94.75 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_span= 30.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_span = 211.4 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_span = 37.8 )
wing_root_chord Length of the wing chord (leading edge to trailing edge) at the intersection of the wing and the fuselage (feet). Airbus A321( wing_root_chord = 18.0 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_root_chord= 5.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_root_chord = 48.8 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_root_chord = 5.3 )
wing_dihedral When looking at the front of an aircraft, this is the angle between the wing leading edge and a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). Airbus A321( wing_dihedral = 6.2 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_dihedral= 7.998 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_dihedral = 7.0 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_dihedral = 6.9 )
wing_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the wing tip, this is the angle the mean wing chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground, (degrees). Note: this parameter is not used in the real-time aerodynamic calculations, as it is already factored into the lift and drag parameters. Airbus A321( wing_incidence = 1.0 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_incidence= 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_incidence = 2.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( wing_incidence = 1.5 )
wing_twist This is the difference in wing incidence from the root chord and the tip chord of the wing, (degrees). Also known as wash-out. Airbus A321( wing_twist = -0.5 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_twist= -1.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_twist = -1.0 )
Beech King Air 350( wing_twist = -1.5 )
oswald_efficiency_factor This is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. A theoretically perfect wing will have a factor of 1.0. Aircreation582SL( oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.750 )
Boeing 747-400( oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.68 )
Beech Baron 58( oswald_efficiency_factor= 0.7 )
wing_winglets_flag Boolean to indicate if the aircraft incorporates the use of winglets; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( wing_winglets_flag= 0 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_winglets_flag = 1 )
wing_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the wing leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage, (degrees). Airbus A321( wing_sweep = 25.0 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_sweep = 37.5 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_sweep = 0.0 )
wing_pos_apex_lon Longitudinal distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Airbus A321( wing_pos_apex_lon = 8.0 )
Aircreation582SL( wing_pos_apex_lon= 0.000 )
Boeing 747-400( wing_pos_apex_lon = -58.2 )
Beech Baron 58( wing_pos_apex_lon = -5.6 )
wing_pos_apex_vert Vertical distance of the wing apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Boeing 747-400( wing_pos_apex_vert = 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( wing_pos_apex_vert = -3.6 )
htail_area Area of the top surface of the entire horizontal tail (tip-to-tip) (ft2). Airbus A321( htail_area = 338.0 )
Aircreation582SL( htail_area= 28.000 )
Boeing 747-400( htail_area = 1470 )
Beech Baron 58( htail_area = 60.0 )
htail_span Horizontal tail span is the horizontal distance from horizontal tail-tip to horizontal tail -tip (feet). Airbus A321( htail_span = 41.7 )
Aircreation582SL( htail_span= 7.917 )
Boeing 747-400( htail_span = 72.8 )
Beech Baron 58( htail_span = 15.9 )
htail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Airbus A321( htail_pos_lon = -35.0 )
Aircreation582SL( htail_pos_lon= -11.417 )
Boeing 747-400( htail_pos_lon = -210.0 )
Beech Baron 58( htail_pos_lon = -20.1 )
htail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the horizontal tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Airbus A321( htail_pos_vert = 0.0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( htail_pos_vert = 12.7 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( htail_pos_vert = 0.9 )
htail_incidence When looking at the side of an aircraft from the horizontal tail tip, this is the angle the mean horizontal tail chord makes with a horizontal line parallel to the ground (degrees). Aircreation582SL( htail_incidence= 0.000 )
Beech Baron 58( htail_incidence = 0.5 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( htail_incidence = 4.0 )
htail_sweep When looking down on top of an aircraft, this is the angle the horizontal tail leading edge makes with a horizontal line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). Airbus A321( htail_sweep = 30.0 )
Boeing 747-400( htail_sweep = 37.5 )
Beech Baron 58( htail_sweep = 0.0 )
vtail_area Area of the surface of one side of the vertical tail (fuselage-to-tip) (ft2). Airbus A321( vtail_area = 224.0 )
Aircreation582SL( vtail_area= 7.000 )
Boeing 747-400( vtail_area = 1060 )
Beech Baron 58( vtail_area = 88.0 )
vtail_span Vertical tail span is the vertical distance from the vertical tail-fuselage intersection to the tip of the vertical tail (feet). Airbus A321( vtail_span = 20.0 )
Aircreation582SL( vtail_span= 3.017 )
Boeing 747-400( vtail_span = 37.1 )
Beech Baron 58( vtail_span = 10.7 )
vtail_sweep When looking at the side of the vertical tail, this is the angle the vertical tail leading edge makes with a vertical line perpendicular to the fuselage (degrees). Airbus A321( vtail_sweep = 35.0 )
Boeing 747-400( vtail_sweep = 45.0 )
Beech Baron 58( vtail_sweep = 0.0 )
vtail_pos_lon Longitudinal distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point, (feet). This distance is measured positive in the forward (out the aircraft nose) direction. Airbus A321( vtail_pos_lon = -35.8 )
Aircreation582SL( vtail_pos_lon= -11.417 )
Boeing 747-400( vtail_pos_lon = -198.5 )
Beech Baron 58( vtail_pos_lon = -22.9 )
vtail_pos_vert Vertical distance of the vertical tail apex (measured at centerline of aircraft) from defined reference point (feet). This distance is measured positive in the up direction. Airbus A321( vtail_pos_vert = 5.8 )
Aircreation582SL( vtail_pos_vert= 1.500 )
Boeing 747-400( vtail_pos_vert = 26.1 )
Beech Baron 58( vtail_pos_vert = 3.1 )
elevator_area Area of the top surface of the entire elevator (tip-to-tip) (ft2). Airbus A321( elevator_area = 70.5 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_area= 12.040 )
Boeing 747-400( elevator_area = 327 )
Beech Baron 58( elevator_area = 20.0 )
aileron_area Area of the top surface of all the ailerons on the wing (ft2). Airbus A321( aileron_area = 26.9 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_area= 15.000 )
Boeing 747-400( aileron_area = 225 )
Beech Baron 58( aileron_area = 11.3 )
rudder_area Area of the side surface of the entire rudder (ft2). Airbus A321( rudder_area = 56.2 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_area= 2.450 )
Boeing 747-400( rudder_area = 230 )
Beech Baron 58( rudder_area = 10.5 )
elevator_up_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected up (degrees). Airbus A321( elevator_up_limit = 22.5 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_up_limit= 27.502 )
Boeing 747-400( elevator_up_limit = 25 )
Beech Baron 58( elevator_up_limit = 17.0 )
elevator_down_limit Angular limit of the elevator when deflected down (degrees). Airbus A321( elevator_down_limit = 19.5 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_down_limit= 20.626 )
Boeing 747-400( elevator_down_limit = 15 )
Beech Baron 58( elevator_down_limit = 15.5 )
aileron_up_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected up (degrees). Airbus A321( aileron_up_limit = 20.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_up_limit= 19.481 )
Boeing 747-400( aileron_up_limit = 25 )
Beech Baron 58( aileron_up_limit = 18.0 )
aileron_down_limit Angular limit of the aileron when deflected down (degrees). Airbus A321( aileron_down_limit = 20.0 )
Aircreation582SL( aileron_down_limit= 14.897 )
Boeing 747-400( aileron_down_limit = 15 )
Beech Baron 58( aileron_down_limit = 18.0 )
rudder_limit Angular limit of the rudder deflection (degrees). Airbus A321( rudder_limit = 26.0 )
Aircreation582SL( rudder_limit= 23.491 )
Boeing 747-400( rudder_limit = 31.5 )
Beech Baron 58( rudder_limit = 30.0 )
elevator_trim_limit Angular limit of the elevator trim tab (degrees). Airbus A321( elevator_trim_limit = 20.0 )
Aircreation582SL( elevator_trim_limit= 20.000 )
Boeing 747-400( elevator_trim_limit = 20 )
Beech Baron 58( elevator_trim_limit = 15.0 )
spoiler_limit Angular limit of the wing spoilers on an aircraft, (degrees). If this limit is zero, no spoilers exist for the aircraft. Airbus A321( spoiler_limit = 60.0 )
Aircreation582SL( spoiler_limit= 59.989 )
Boeing 747-400( spoiler_limit = 45 )
Beech Baron 58( spoiler_limit = 0.0 )
spoiler_extension_time Spoiler extension time in seconds. Airbus A321( spoiler_extension_time = 2.0 )
Aircreation582SL( spoiler_extension_time=5.000000 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( spoiler_extension_time = 0.2 )
Sailplane( spoiler_extension_time = 1.0 )
spoilerons_available Boolean to indicate if the spoilers also behave as spoilerons for roll control (if spoilers are available): 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Airbus A321( spoilerons_available = 1 )
Aircreation582SL( spoilerons_available= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( spoilerons_available = 0 )
aileron_to_spoileron_gain If spoilerons are available, this value is the constant used in determining the amount of spoiler deflection per aileron deflection. Airbus A321( aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 3 )
Beech Baron 58( aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( aileron_to_spoileron_gain = 4.6 )
min_ailerons_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what aileron deflection the spoilers are become active for roll control, (degrees). Airbus A321( min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 10 )
Beech Baron 58( min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 0 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( min_ailerons_for_spoilerons = 5 )
min_flaps_for_spoilerons This value indicates at what minimum flap handle position the spoilerons become active. Bombardier CRJ 700( min_flaps_for_spoilerons= 0.0 )
auto_spoiler_available Set to 1 if auto spoiler is available. Airbus A321( auto_spoiler_available = 1 )
Beech Baron 58( auto_spoiler_available = 0 )
positive_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (flaps up). Airbus A321( positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 4.0 )
Beech Baron 58( positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 3.0 )
Sailplane( positive_g_limit_flaps_up = 5.5 )
positive_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (flaps down). Airbus A321( positive_g_limit_flaps_down= 3.0 )
Aircreation582SL( positive_g_limit_flaps_down=2.000000 )
Sailplane( positive_g_limit_flaps_down= 5.5 )
negative_g_limit_flaps_up Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps up). Airbus A321( negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -3.0 )
Beech Baron 58( negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -2.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( negative_g_limit_flaps_up = -1.5 )
negative_g_limit_flaps_down Design g load tolerance (negative, flaps down). Airbus A321( negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -2.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -1.5 )
Sailplane( negative_g_limit_flaps_down= -3.5 )
load_safety_factor Design g load safety factor. Airbus A321( load_safety_factor = 1.5 )
fly_by_wire Fly by wire system available. Airbus A321 (fly_by_wire = 1)
spoiler_handle_available Boolean that configures the airplane with manual control of the spoiler deflections. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Cessna Grand Caravan( spoiler_handle_available = 0 )
flap_to_aileron_scale Flaperons - deflection of ailerons due to flap deflection. DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( flap_to_aileron_scale = 0.3 )
Sailplane( flap_to_aileron_scale = 0.5 )
aileron_to_rudder_scale Link the rudder to aileron input. Wright Flyer( aileron_to_rudder_scale = 0.4 )

[reference speeds]

The values given in this section are mainly for reference, as the performance of the aircraft is held in the .air file.

Property
Description
Examples
flaps_up_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Airbus A321( flaps_up_stall_speed = 142.0 )
Aircreation582SL( flaps_up_stall_speed= 24.000 )
Boeing 747-400( flaps_up_stall_speed = 140.0 )
Beech Baron 58( flaps_up_stall_speed = 84.0 )
full_flaps_stall_speed Stall speed of the aircraft in a dirty (flaps full down) configuration at standard sea level conditions, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Airbus A321( full_flaps_stall_speed = 113.0 )
Aircreation582SL( full_flaps_stall_speed= 24.000 )
Boeing 747-400( full_flaps_stall_speed = 112.0 )
Beech Baron 58( full_flaps_stall_speed = 75.0 )
cruise_speed Typical cruise speed of the aircraft in a clean (flaps up) configuration at a typical cruise altitude, (Knots True Airspeed, KTAS). Airbus A321( cruise_speed = 477.0 )
Aircreation582SL( cruise_speed= 84.560 )
Boeing 747-400( cruise_speed = 505.0 )
Beech Baron 58( cruise_speed = 180.0 )
max_mach Maximum design mach of the aircraft. This generally only applies to turbine airplanes. Airbus A321( max_mach = 0.82 )
Boeing 747-400( max_mach = 0.92 )
Beech King Air 350( max_mach = 0.58 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( max_mach = 0.83 )
max_indicated_speed Maximum design indicated airspeed. Also referred to as Never Exceed Speed or Red Line of the aircraft, (Knots Indicated Airspeed). Airbus A321( max_indicated_speed = 340 )
Aircreation582SL( max_indicated_speed=65.000000 )
Boeing 747-400( max_indicated_speed = 365.0 )
Beech Baron 58( max_indicated_speed = 223 )

[forcefeedback]

As detailed in the tables below, the parameters in this section of an aircraft.cfg file define the forces generated by that aircraft if the user is operating a force feedback joystick.
Stick shaker parameters
These parameters define the simulated stick shaker force felt in the stick or yoke when flying an aircraft equipped with a stick shaker (such as the Learjet 45).
Gear bump parameters
These parameters define the simulated forces transferred from the airframe and gear drag to the stick or yoke when the aircraft’s nose and main landing gear is raised or lowered (cycled). In fixed-gear aircraft this effect won't be felt because, by definition, the landing gear doesn't move. Different aircraft have different gear geometries that result in each of the gear mechanisms starting and ending its cycle at a different time. The timing deltas are brief, typically less than a second between the time that each gear starts and ends its cycle.
Ground bumps parameters
These parameters collectively define a composite force that simulates the forces felt through an aircraft's ground steering controls as the aircraft travels over an uneven surface. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct forces. The combination of the two forces define a composite force that is transferred to the stick or yoke. The two forces are both sinusoidal periodic forces, with frequencies determined by the following linear equation:
  • frequency = (ground_bumps_slope * aircraft_ground_speed) + ground_bumps_intercept
The ground_bumps_magnitude parameters set the magnitude of the force. The ground_bumps_angle parameters set the direction from which the force is felt.
Crash parameters
These parameters define the simulated forces felt in the stick or yoke when the aircraft crashes. The parameters are divided into two subgroups (numbered 1 and 2), and define the behavior of two distinct crash-induced forces. The first force is a constant force that lasts for 0.5 seconds. After 0.5 seconds, it stops and the second force starts. The second force is a periodic square wave force; its amplitude declines linearly to 0.
Property
Description
Examples
gear_bump_nose_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Airbus A321( gear_bump_nose_magnitude=3000 )
Aircreation582SL( gear_bump_nose_magnitude=6000 )
gear_bump_nose_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Airbus A321( gear_bump_nose_direction=18000 )
gear_bump_nose_duration Integer, microseconds. Airbus A321( gear_bump_nose_duration=250000 )
gear_bump_left_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Airbus A321( gear_bump_left_magnitude=2700 )
Aircreation582SL( gear_bump_left_magnitude=6000 )
gear_bump_left_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Airbus A321( gear_bump_left_direction=35500 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_bump_left_direction=9000 )
gear_bump_left_duration Integer, microseconds. Airbus A321( gear_bump_left_duration=250000 )
gear_bump_right_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Airbus A321( gear_bump_right_magnitude=2700 )
Aircreation582SL( gear_bump_right_magnitude=6000 )
gear_bump_right_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Airbus A321( gear_bump_right_direction=00500 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_bump_right_direction=27000 )
gear_bump_right_duration Integer, microseconds. Airbus A321( gear_bump_right_duration=250000 )
ground_bumps_magnitude1 Integer from 0 - 10000. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_magnitude1=1300 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_magnitude1=3250 )
Sailplane( ground_bumps_magnitude1=2500 )
Douglas DC-3( ground_bumps_magnitude1=2600 )
ground_bumps_angle1 Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_angle1=8900 )
ground_bumps_intercept1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_intercept1=3.0 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_intercept1=5.0 )
Sailplane( ground_bumps_intercept1=10.0 )
Extra 300S( ground_bumps_intercept1=4.0 )
ground_bumps_slope1 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_slope1=0.20 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_slope1=0.48 )
Sailplane( ground_bumps_slope1=0.300 )
Douglas DC-3( ground_bumps_slope1=0.6 )
ground_bumps_magnitude2 Integer from 0 - 10000. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_magnitude2=200 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_magnitude2=750 )
Sailplane( ground_bumps_magnitude2=350 )
Douglas DC-3( ground_bumps_magnitude2=1200 )
ground_bumps_angle2 0 - 35999 degrees. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_angle2=09100 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_angle2=9100 )
ground_bumps_intercept2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_intercept2=1.075 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_intercept2=0.075 )
Bombardier CRJ 700( ground_bumps_intercept2 =1.075 )
Douglas DC-3( ground_bumps_intercept2=0.085 )
ground_bumps_slope2 Floating point number, from 0 to 1,000,000 cycles per second. Airbus A321( ground_bumps_slope2=0.035 )
Aircreation582SL( ground_bumps_slope2=1.0 )
Douglas DC-3( ground_bumps_slope2=0.65 )
Extra 300S( ground_bumps_slope2=0.7 )
crash_magnitude1 Sets the magnitude of the first force, from 0 to 10000. Airbus A321( crash_magnitude1=10000 )
crash_direction1 Sets the direction from which first force is felt, from 0 to 35999. Airbus A321( crash_direction1=01000 )
crash_magnitude2 Sets the initial magnitude of the second force, from 0 to 10000. Airbus A321( crash_magnitude2=10000 )
crash_direction2 Sets the direction from which the second force is felt, from 0 to 35999. Airbus A321( crash_direction2=9000 )
crash_period2 Determines the frequency (frequency = 1/period) of the second crash force, in microseconds. Airbus A321( crash_period2=75000 )
crash_duration2 Sets the amount of time that the second crash force is felt, in microseconds. Airbus A321( crash_duration2=2500000 )
Douglas DC-3( crash_duration2=3500000 )
stick_shaker_magnitude Integer from 0 - 10000. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_magnitude=5000 )
stick_shaker_direction Integer from 0 - 35999 degrees. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_direction=0 )
stick_shaker_period In microseconds. Beech Baron 58( stick_shaker_period=111111 )

[stall_warning]

This section defines the stall warning system of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
type This flag determines the type of stall warning system, one of:
0 = None
1 = Suction
2 = Electric
Airbus A321( type=2 )
Aircreation582SL( type=0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( type=1 )
stick_shaker Set to 1 if the aircraft has a stick shaker. Airbus A321( stick_shaker=1 )
Aircreation582SL( stick_shaker=0 )

[deice_system]

This section defines the deice system of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
structural_deice_type Type of deicer, of one:
0 = None
1 = Heated Leading Edge
2 = Bleed Air Boots
3 = Eng Pump Boots.
Airbus A321( structural_deice_type=1 )
Aircreation582SL( structural_deice_type=0 )
Beech Baron 58( structural_deice_type=3 )
Beech King Air 350( structural_deice_type=2 )

[piston_engine]

A piston engine’s power can be determined through a series of equations that represent the Otto cycle of a four-stroke piston engine, multiplied by the number of pistons available. This section contains all the information needed to be able to determine how much power the engines are capable of producing. Power can also be scaled from the calculated values generated for piston engines with the “power_scalar” property.

Property
Description
Examples
detonation_onset The manifold pressure that if reached or exceeded will lead to the engine detonating. Extra 300S Paint1( detonation_onset = 36 )
P51 Racer( detonation_onset = 80 )
supercharged On/off. P51 Racer( supercharged=1 )
supercharger_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure if supercharger is engaged.. P51 Racer( supercharger_boost=1.20 )
supercharger_power_cost Percent of horsepower required to drive supercharger. P51 Racer( supercharger_power_cost=0.22 )
emergency_boost_duration Emergency boost duration in seconds. The emergency boost system was designed to model the systems used on WWII aircraft. The nitrous and supercharging systems are available for more modern aircraft. P51 Racer( emergency_boost_duration=0 )
max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. Beech Baron 58( max_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0 )
idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the mechanical efficiency of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the mechanical efficiency, decrease it to decrease the mechanical efficiency. Beech Baron 58( idle_rpm_mechanical_efficiency_scalar= 1.0 )
max_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at maximum rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction. Aircreation582SL( max_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 )
idle_rpm_friction_scalar Scalar value that can be modified to tune the internal friction of the engine at idle rpm. Increase this value to increase the friction, decrease it to decrease the friction, (can be used to tune the rpm at which the engine idles). Aircreation582SL( idle_rpm_friction_scalar=1.000 )
cylinder_displacement Cubic inches per cylinder displacement. Aircreation582SL( cylinder_displacement= 55.000 )
Beech Baron 58( cylinder_displacement= 91.7 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( cylinder_displacement= 90.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( cylinder_displacement= 109.4 )
two_stroke_cycle Two stroke engine. Aircreation582SL Blue( two_stroke_cycle = 1 )
compression_ratio Compression ratio of each cylinder. Aircreation582SL( compression_ratio= 11.500 )
Beech Baron 58( compression_ratio= 8.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( compression_ratio= 8.5 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( compression_ratio= 6.0 )
number_of_cylinders Integer value; number of cylinders in the engine. Aircreation582SL( number_of_cylinders= 2 )
Beech Baron 58( number_of_cylinders= 6 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( number_of_cylinders=4 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( number_of_cylinders=9 )
max_rated_rpm Maximum rated revolutions per minute (RPM) of the engine (red line). Aircreation582SL( max_rated_rpm= 5500.000 )
Beech Baron 58( max_rated_rpm= 2700.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( max_rated_rpm= 2700 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_rated_rpm= 2300 )
max_rated_hp Maximum rated brake horsepower output of the engine. Aircreation582SL( max_rated_hp= 53.600 )
Beech Baron 58( max_rated_hp= 300.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( max_rated_hp= 180 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_rated_hp= 450 )
fuel_metering_type Integer value indicating the fuel metering type, one of:
0 = Fuel Injected
1 = Gravity Carburetor,
2 = Aerobatic Carburetor.
Aircreation582SL( fuel_metering_type= 1 )
Beech Baron 58( fuel_metering_type= 0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( fuel_metering_type = 1 )
cooling_type Integer value indicating the method of engine cooling, one of:
0 = air cooled
1 = liquid cooled.
Aircreation582SL( cooling_type= 1 )
Beech Baron 58( cooling_type= 0 )
normalized_starter_torque This value can be modified to increase/decrease the torque supplied by the starter to get the prop turning. Increase this value for a greater torque effect, decrease it for a lower torque setting. Beech Baron 58( normalized_starter_torque= 0.3 )
turbocharged Boolean to indicate if the engine is turbocharged; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( turbocharged= 0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( turbocharged= 1 )
max_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the maximum design manifold pressure supplied by the turbocharger (inHg). Beech Baron 58( max_design_mp= 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( max_design_mp= 36.5 )
min_design_mp If a turbocharger is present, this value indicates the minimum design manifold pressure of the turbocharger (inHg). Beech Baron 58( min_design_mp= 1.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( min_design_mp= 10 )
critical_altitude Altitude to which the turbocharger, if present, will provide the maximum design manifold pressure (feet). Beech Baron 58( critical_altitude= 0.0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( critical_altitude= 5000 )
emergency_boost_type Integer value indicating the emergency boost type available, one of:
0 = None
1 = Water Injection
2 = Methanol/Water Injection
3 = War Emergency Power, (typically used in WWII combat aircraft).
Aircreation582SL( emergency_boost_type= 0 )
emergency_boost_mp_offset Additional manifold pressure supplied by emergency boost, if available. Aircreation582SL( emergency_boost_mp_offset= 0.000 )
emergency_boost_gain_offset Multiplier on manifold pressure due to emergency boost. Aircreation582SL( emergency_boost_gain_offset= 0.000 )
fuel_air_auto_mixture Boolean to indicate if automatic fuel-to-air mixture is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( fuel_air_auto_mixture= 0 )
auto_ignition Boolean to indicate if automatic ignition is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( auto_ignition= 0 )
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propellor shaft. Beech Baron 58( power_scalar = 1.0 )
bestpowerspecificfuelconsumption Specific fuel consumption at Best Power mixture ratio. Cessna Skyhawk 172SP Paint1( BestPowerSpecificFuelConsumption=0.49 )
magneto_order_left_right_both Sets the order of the magneto switch direction. Douglas DC-3( magneto_order_left_right_both = 1 )
number_of_magnetos Number of magnetos. Curtiss Jenny( number_of_magnetos = 1 )

[propeller]

The thrust generated by a given propeller is a function of the power delivered through the propeller shaft, rpm, blade angle, airplane speed, and ambient density.

Property
Description
Examples
propeller_type Integer that identifies what type of propeller is on the aircraft, one of:
0 = Constant Speed
1 = Fixed Pitch.
Aircreation582SL( propeller_type= 1 )
Beech Baron 58( propeller_type= 0 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_type = 0 )
propeller_diameter Diameter of propeller blades, tip to tip, in feet. Aircreation582SL( propeller_diameter= 5.000 )
Beech Baron 58( propeller_diameter= 6.4 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_diameter = 8.8 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( propeller_diameter= 6.3 )
propeller_blades Integer value indicating the number of blades on the propeller (2, 3 or 4). Aircreation582SL( propeller_blades= 2 )
Beech Baron 58( propeller_blades= 3 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_blades = 4 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( propeller_blades = 3 )
propeller_moi Propeller moment of inertia, (slug ft2). Aircreation582SL( propeller_moi= 3.000 )
Beech Baron 58( propeller_moi= 6.9 )
Beech King Air 350( propeller_moi = 24 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( propeller_moi= 5.0 )
beta_max Maximum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). Aircreation582SL( beta_max= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( beta_max= 45.0 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_max = 45 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( beta_max= 24.0 )
beta_min Minimum blade pitch angle for constant speed prop (degrees). (Not used if fixed pitch.). Aircreation582SL( beta_min= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( beta_min= 15.2 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_min = 15.2 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( beta_min = 15.6 )
min_gov_rpm The minimum rpm controlled by the governor for a constant speed prop. Aircreation582SL( min_gov_rpm= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( min_gov_rpm= 1100.0 )
Beech King Air 350( min_gov_rpm = 25520 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( min_gov_rpm= 800 )
prop_tc Time constant for prop. Aircreation582SL( prop_tc= 0.100 )
Beech Baron 58( prop_tc= 0.1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_tc = 0.004 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( prop_tc= 0 )
gear_reduction_ratio The reduction ratio from the engine output rpm to prop rpm. Aircreation582SL( gear_reduction_ratio= 1.000 )
Beech Baron 58( gear_reduction_ratio= 1.0 )
Beech King Air 350( gear_reduction_ratio = 17.6 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( gear_reduction_ratio = 17.4 )
fixed_pitch_beta Blade pitch angle for fixed pitch prop (degrees). (Not used if constant speed.). Aircreation582SL( fixed_pitch_beta= 28.000 )
Beech Baron 58( fixed_pitch_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( fixed_pitch_beta = 0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( fixed_pitch_beta= 20 )
low_speed_theory_limit The speed at which low-speed propeller theory gets blended into the high speed propeller theory, (feet/second). Aircreation582SL( low_speed_theory_limit= 80.000 )
Beech Baron 58( low_speed_theory_limit= 80.0 )
Beech King Air 350( low_speed_theory_limit = 80 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( low_speed_theory_limit= 80 )
prop_sync_available Boolean to indicate if propeller-sync is available (twin engine aircraft); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( prop_sync_available= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( prop_sync_available= 1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_sync_available = 1 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( prop_sync_available = 0 )
prop_deice_available Boolean to indicate if propeller de-icing is available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( prop_deice_available= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( prop_deice_available= 1 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_deice_available = 1 )
prop_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( prop_feathering_available= 0 )
Beech Baron 58( prop_feathering_available= 1 )
prop_auto_feathering_available Boolean to indicate if prop auto-feathering is available (constant speed prop only); 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( prop_auto_feathering_available= 0 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_auto_feathering_available= 1 )
min_rpm_for_feather Minimum rpm at which the prop will feather (if feathering is available). Beech Baron 58( min_rpm_for_feather= 700.0 )
Beech King Air 350( min_rpm_for_feather = 700 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( min_rpm_for_feather= 0 )
beta_feather Propeller pitch angle when feathered (degrees). Beech Baron 58( beta_feather= 82.5 )
Beech King Air 350( beta_feather = 79.3 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( beta_feather= 0 )
power_absorbed_cf Coefficient of friction power absorbed by propeller. Beech Baron 58( power_absorbed_cf= 0.9 )
Beech King Air 350( power_absorbed_cf = 0.9 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( power_absorbed_cf= 0 )
defeathering_accumulators_available Boolean to indicate if de-feathering accumulators are available; 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Aircreation582SL( defeathering_accumulators_available= 0 )
prop_reverse_available Specifies the scalar on the calculated propeller reverser effect. A value of 0 will cause no reverse thrust to be available. A value of 1.0 will cause the theoretical normal thrust to be available. Other values will scale the normal calculated value accordingly. Aircreation582SL( prop_reverse_available= 0 )
Beech King Air 350( prop_reverse_available = 1 )
minimum_on_ground_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the aircraft is on the ground (degrees). Aircreation582SL( minimum_on_ground_beta= 0.000 )
Beech Baron 58( minimum_on_ground_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( minimum_on_ground_beta = 1.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( minimum_on_ground_beta= 0 )
minimum_reverse_beta Minimum blade pitch angle when the propeller is in reverse (degrees). Aircreation582SL( minimum_reverse_beta= 0.000 )
Beech Baron 58( minimum_reverse_beta= 0.0 )
Beech King Air 350( minimum_reverse_beta = -14.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( minimum_reverse_beta= 0 )
thrust_scalar Parameter that scales the calculated thrust provided by the propeller. Aircreation582SL( thrust_scalar=1.000 )
Beech Baron 58( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )
Beech King Air 350( thrust_scalar = 1.0 )
feathering_switches Boolean indicating if feathering switches are available. 0 = FALSE, 1 = TRUE. Feathering switches (as found on the Douglas DC3), allow the pilot to automatically feather the propeller via a switch, regardless of the propeller lever position. Douglas DC-3( feathering_switches = 1 )
number_of_propellers The number of propellers driven per engine. The Wright Flyer
engine_map Set of flags that allows the propellers to be driven by a different engine. The Wright Flyer
propeller.0
to
propeller.1
This parameter allows for the propeller to be located at the specified offset (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) in feet from the engine that is driving it. The Wright Flyer

[magneticcompass]

This section defines the magnetic compass characteristics of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
compass.0 Set to 1 for a vertical compass (with no dip errors). Aircreation582SL( Compass.0 = 1 )

[gpws]

This section sepcifies the details of the ground proximity warning system.

Property
Description
Examples
max_warning_height The height below which a warning is activated. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( max_warning_height = 1000 )
sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent a warning is activated. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( sink_rate_fpm = -1500 )
excessive_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft exceeds this rate of descent an urgent warning is activated. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( excessive_sink_rate_fpm = -2000 )
climbout_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft starts to descend during takeoff, and exceeds this rate of descent, a warning is activated. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( climbout_sink_rate_fpm = -100 )
flap_and_gear_sink_rate_fpm If an aircraft is landing, and exceeds this rate of descent without flaps or gear extended, a warning is activated. Boeing 737-800 Paint1( flap_and_gear_sink_rate_fpm= -100 )

[cameradefinition.n]

This section shows the camera properties most used by aircraft. An aircraft can have multiple cameradefinition sections, which should be numbered from 0 to n. For a full definition of all the properties that can be set for a camera definition, refer to the Camera Configuration document. All of the properties described in that document can be used in an aircraft camera definition in an aircraft configuration file.

Property
Examples
title Boeing 747-400( Title = "Right Side Window" )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( Title = "Right Wing" )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Title = "Right Float" )
Extra 300S( Title = "Tail" )
guid Boeing 747-400( Guid = {54F54B8A-3EC2-2D4E-8D10-B8F9D0F16ACC} )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( Guid = {C690EAFD-223A-42d0-99E0-681ADF93BB59} )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Guid = {B0CA7E72-F3D9-F748-8BF5-108D197B2469} )
Extra 300S( Guid = {D8D67955-2E9B-4e75-9D8B-8EFFBBFAC64A} )
description Boeing 747-400( Description = "View of the right wing from the passenger cabin" )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( Description = "View from the right wing tip looking at the cockpit" )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( Description = "View from the aft end of the right float looking forward" )
Extra 300S( Description = "Looking forward from the tip of the vertical stabilizer" )
origin Boeing 747-400( Origin = Center )
Extra 300S( Origin = Virtual Cockpit )
snappbhadjust Boeing 747-400( SnapPbhAdjust = Swivel )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( SnapPbhAdjust = None )
snappbhreturn Boeing 747-400( SnapPbhReturn = FALSE )
panpbhadjust Boeing 747-400( PanPbhAdjust = Swivel )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( PanPbhAdjust = None )
panpbhreturn Boeing 747-400( PanPbhReturn = FALSE )
track Boeing 747-400( Track = None )
showaxis Boeing 747-400( ShowAxis = FALSE )
Extra 300S( ShowAxis = TRUE )
allowzoom Boeing 747-400( AllowZoom = TRUE )
Extra 300S( AllowZoom = FALSE )
initialzoom Boeing 747-400( InitialZoom = 1.0 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( InitialZoom = 0.75 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialZoom = .5 )
Extra 300S( InitialZoom = 0.4 )
showweather Boeing 747-400( ShowWeather = Yes )
initialxyz Boeing 747-400( InitialXyz = 5.5, 0.75, -13 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( InitialXyz = 7.5, 0.75, 0 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialXyz = 1.5, .5, -3.9 )
Extra 300S( InitialXyz = 0, 2.0, -3.9 )
initialpbh Boeing 747-400( InitialPbh = 0, 0, 95 )
Cessna Skyhawk 172SP( InitialPbh = 5, 0, 270 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( InitialPbh = 0, 0, 0 )
Extra 300S( InitialPbh = 10, 0, 0 )
xyzadjust Boeing 747-400( XyzAdjust = TRUE )
category Boeing 747-400( Category=Aircraft )
Extra 300S( Category = VC )
momentumeffect Boeing 747-400( MomentumEffect=TRUE )
Extra 300S( MomentumEffect = TRUE )
clipmode Boeing 747-400( ClipMode=Minimum )
zoompanscalar Extra 300S( ZoomPanScalar = 1.0 )
showlensflare Extra 300S( ShowLensFlare=FALSE )

[turboprop_engine]

The amount of power generated by an engine and the power required for a propeller to turn through the air determine the increase and decrease of the rpm.  A turboprop engine is really a combination of a turbine engine and a propeller.  The values in this section are included to modify values specific to the turboprop.

Property
Description
Examples
power_scalar Changing this value affects the amount of power delivered by the engine to the propellor shaft. Beech King Air 350( power_scalar = 1.0 )
Bell 206B JetRanger( power_scalar = 1.0 )
maximum_torque Maximum shaft-torque available from the engine (ft-lbs). Beech King Air 350( maximum_torque = 3270 )
Cessna Grand Caravan( maximum_torque = 1865 )
de Havilland Dash 8-100( maximum_torque = 7878 )
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption (turboprop only). Beech King Air 350 Paint1( PowerSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.55 )

[airspeed_indicators]

This section is used to define the characteristics of the airspeed indicators on the instrument panels.  The list of indicators should be listed in order: 0,1,2,…n.  These characteristics define the calibration between calibrated airspeed and indicated airspeed. 

Property
Description
Examples
airspeed_indicator.0
to
airspeed_indicator.n
The first parameter is a scalar on the calibrated airspeed, and the second is an offset in knots.  The offset is applied first, then the scalar.  The default value for the scalar is 1.0 and the default for the offset is 0.0, thus by default indicated airspeed is equal to calibrated airspeed. Cessna Grand Caravan( airspeed_indicator.0 = 1.183, -24.75 )
DeHavilland Beaver DHC2( airspeed_indicator.0 = 1, 0 )
Maule M7 260C( airspeed_indicator.0 = 1.3, -24.0 )

[pressurization]

This section defines the presssurization characteristics of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
design_cabin_pressure Cessna Grand Caravan( design_cabin_pressure = 0 )
max_pressure_differential Cessna Grand Caravan( max_pressure_differential = 0 )

[variometers]

This section defines the variometers characteristics of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
variometer.0 Sailplane( variometer.0=1 )

[yaw_string]

This section defines the yaw string characteristics of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
yaw_string_available Sailplane( yaw_string_available=1 )

[water ballast system]

This section defines the water ballast system of the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
tank.0 Front Fuselage. Sailplane( Tank.0 = 7.79, -2.75, 0.0, 0.0, 1 )
tank.1 Rear Fuselage. Sailplane( Tank.1 = 3.57, -3.28, 0.0, 0.0, 2 )
tank.2 Left Outboard. Sailplane( Tank.2 = 9.25, -0.60, -10.5, 0.0, 2 )
tank.3 Left Inboard. Sailplane( Tank.3 = 16.38, -0.66, -4.5, 0.0, 1 )
tank.4 Right Inboard. Sailplane( Tank.4 = 16.38, -0.66, 4.5, 0.0, 1 )
tank.5 Right Outboard. Sailplane( Tank.5 = 9.25, -0.60, 10.5, 0.0, 2 )
numberofreleasevalves Number of release valves. Sailplane( NumberOfReleaseValves = 2 )
dumprate Gallons per second. Sailplane( DumpRate = 0.18494 )

[smokesystem]

The section describes how to configure a smoke system for an aircraft. You can set multiple smoke points on an aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
smoke.0
to
smoke.n
The position relative to datum reference point of the smoke emitter and the smoke effect file name. Extra 300S( smoke.0=-10.00, -0.70, 0.0, fx_smoke_w )

[folding_wings]

This section describes the folding wing characteristics of the aircraft. Note that these are folding wings used to store an aircraft more compactly when on the ground, or on deck, and not the variable sweep wings used on some supersonic aircraft. Variable sweep wings are not supported.

Property
Description
Examples
wing_fold_system_type One of:
0: None (the default)
1: Manual
2: Pneumatic
3: Electrical
4: Hydraulic
FA-18 Hornet (wing_fold_system_type = 1 )
F4F-4 Wildcat (wing_fold_system_type = 4)
fold_rates Two values (for left and right), giving the percentage per second, to fully extend and retract. FA-18 Hornet (fold_rates = 0.25,0.20 )
F4F-4 Wildcat (fold_rates = 0.12,0.11)

[anemometers]

This section describes the positions of the anemometers in the aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
anemometer.0
to
anemometer.n
Position of the anemometer relative to datum reference point. Ryan NYP( anemometer.0 = -10.0, 0.0, 2.7 )
Vickers Vimy Transatlantic( anemometer.0 = 9.6, 0.0, -2.2 )

[realismconstants]

This section describes some realism constraints, dealing in particular with early aircraft. The values entered are used to make an aircraft more stable.

Property
Description
Examples
rollmomentfrombeta Scalar and offset applied to the roll moment from beta. Wright Flyer( RollMomentFromBeta = -0.5, 0 )
rollmomentfromailerons Scale and offset applied to the roll moment from the ailerons. Wright Flyer( RollMomentFromAilerons = 1.5, 0 )
pitchmomentzeroalpha Scale and offset applied to the zero angle of attack. Wright Flyer( PitchMomentZeroAlpha = 1.0, 0.002 )

[antidetonation system.n]

Property
Description
Examples
reservoir_size Gallons. P51 Racer( reservoir_size = 40 )
flow_rate Gallons per minute. P51 Racer( flow_rate = 3.8 )
reservoir_position Position relative to datum reference point . P51 Racer( reservoir_position = -1.8, 4.1, -1.8 )
max_mp_compensate Manifold pressure above which AntiDetonation system cannot compensate for. Units are inches of mercury. P51 Racer( max_mp_compensate = 135 )

[nitrous system.n]

Property
Description
Examples
reservoir_size Gallons Extra 300S Paint1( reservoir_size=10.0 )
flow_rate Gallons per minute Extra 300S Paint1( flow_rate=5.0 )
mp_boost Multiplier on manifold pressure Extra 300S Paint1( mp_boost=1.75 )

[tailhook]

If a tailhook entry is made, it will override the attachpt_tailhook_pivot and attachpt_tailhook_hook entries for the aircraft, if these attach points exist.

Property
Description
Examples
tailhook_length Length of tailhook in feet. FA-18 Hornet( tailhook_length = 4.5 )
tailhook_position Tailhook pivot point relative to datum reference point. FA-18 Hornet( tailhook_position = -49.0, 0, -2.5 )

[launch_assistance]

If a launch_assistance entry is made, it will override the attachpt_Launch_Bar_Pivot and attachpt_Launch_Bar_Lug entries for the aircraft, if these attach points exist.

Property
Description
Examples
launch_bar_pivot Launch bar pivot point relative to datum reference point. launch_bar_pivot = 5.0, 0.0, -1.0
launch_bar_lug Launch bar lug point relative to datum reference point. launch_bar_lug = 5.0, 0.0, -4.5

[voicealerts]

Property
Description
Examples
lowfuelpct Three values: Low Fuel limit (percent), check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds. FA-18 Hornet( LowFuelPct = 0.1, -1, 60 )
overglimit High G limit, check above (1) or below (-1), and check every N seconds. FA-18 Hornet( OverGLimit = 6.0, 1, 1 )

Helicopter Specific Sections

The following sections are specific to helicopters only. The implementation of the Bell 206 helicopter is a legacy implementation that cannot be configured by changing data in the configuration file. The [helicopter] section is the only helicopter-specific section that is used by the Bell 206. Other helicopter models do use the data in the configuration file to determine their aerodynamic performance, and utilize all the following helicopter-specific sections.

[helicopter]

Property
Description
Examples
lift_aero_center The longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the vertical aerodynamic center. Heavy lift helicopter( lift_aero_center = -34.0 )
low_realism_stability_scaleThis scales the stability of the Bell 206B helicopter to make the aircraft easier to fly. It has no effect on the other helicopters. The stability factor is broken down into three components: pitch, bank, and yaw damping.
The stability factor is scaled according to the pitch, bank, and yaw values set. For example, increasing the first value (pitch) to 1.1 increases the pitch-damping factor by 10 percent. Increasing these values excessively will result in excessive damping, making it hard to control the helicopter.
The stability factor is scaled by the General Flight Model Realism slider in the Realism Settings dialog box. At the highest realism setting, it is scaled to 0% (no additional damping); at the minimum setting, it is scaled to 100 percent. Changes to the stability factor in the .cfg have their largest effect when the Realism Setting is set to minimum, and have no effect when Realism Setting is set to maximum.
Bell 206B JetRanger( low_realism_stability_scale = 1.0, 1.0, 1.0 )
reference_lengthThe length of the helicopter, in feet. Robinson R22( reference_length = 21.58 )
reference_frontal_areaThe cross section area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from head on to the helicopter. Robinson R22( reference_frontal_area = 17.7 )
reference_side_areaTotal side area of the fuselage, in feet squared, as viewed from directly abeam of the helicopter. Robinson R22( reference_side_area = 44.5 )
side_aero_centerThe longitudinal position, in feet, from the datum of the helicopter that represents the lateral aerodynamic center. Robinson R22( side_aero_center = -12.5 )
right_trim_scalarScalar on the effect of the trim that counters dissymmetry of lift.  The trim normally induces a roll moment to the right, but a negative value will create a left moment. Robinson R22( right_trim_scalar = 1.0 )
correlator_availableThis flag determines if a collective/throttle correlator is configured on the helicopter. Robinson R22( correlator_available = 1 )
governed_pct_rpm_refDefines the percent rpm that the governor attempts to maintain.  1.0 = 100% of “rated” rpm, although a few percent above that is normal. Robinson R22( governed_pct_rpm_ref = 1.04 )
governor_pidProportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) feedback controller that works to maintain the reference rpm.  The series of numbers are:
proportional controller constant
integral controller constant
derivative controller constant
max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the integrator portion is active
max rpm error (where 1.0 = 100%) in which the derivative portion is active
Robinson R22( governor_pid = 0.4, 0, 0.1, 0, 0.2 )
rotor_brake_scalarScalar on the effect of the rotor brake. Robinson R22( rotor_brake_scalar = 1.0 )
torque_scalarScalar on the effect that the rotor has on the yawing moment of the helicopter. Robinson R22( torque_scalar = 1.0 )
cyclic_roll_control_scalarScalar on the amount of roll control authority from lateral movement of the cyclic. Robinson R22( cyclic_roll_control_scalar =1.0 )
cyclic_pitch_control_scalarScalar on the amount of pitch control authority from fore/aft movement of the cyclic. Robinson R22( cyclic_pitch_control_scalar =1.0 )
pedal_control_scalarScalar on the amount of yaw control authority from movement of the anti-torque pedals. Robinson R22( pedal_control_scalar =1.0 )
collective_on_rotor_torque_scalarScalar on the amount of torque exerted on the rotor system due to the collective pitch of the rotor blades.  Increasing this constant will result in the rotor rpm tending to decelerate more dramatically as collective is increased. Robinson R22( collective_on_rotor_torque_scalar = 1.0 )

[fuselage_aerodynamics]

Property
Description
Examples
drag_force_cf Coefficient of longitudinal drag. Robinson R22( drag_force_cf = 0.55 )
side_drag_force_cf Coefficient of lateral drag. Robinson R22( side_drag_force_cf = 10.0 )
pitch_damp_cf Pitch damping coefficient (resistance to pitch velocity). Robinson R22( pitch_damp_cf = -2.0 )
roll_damp_cf Roll damping coefficient (resistance to roll velocity). Robinson R22( roll_damp_cf = -2.0 )
yaw_damp_cf Yaw damping coefficient (resistance to yaw velocity). Robinson R22( yaw_damp_cf = -0.1 )
yaw_stability_cf Yaw stability coefficient. This is the weathervane effect. Robinson R22( yaw_stability_cf = 0.27 )

[mainrotor]

Property
Description
Examples
static_pitch_angle When the stick is centered, the pitch angle of the rotor disk, in degrees. Heavy lift helicopter( static_pitch_angle = 2 )
static_bank_angle When the stick is centered, the bank angle of the rotor disk, in degrees. Heavy lift helicopter( static_bank_angle = 0 )
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the main rotor. Robinson R22( Position = -8.5, 0, 4.91 )
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Robinson R22( Radius = 12.583 )
max_disc_angle The maximum absolute deflection angle up or down, in degrees, that the rotor disc can move with the cyclic. Robinson R22( max_disc_angle = 5.0 )
ratedrpm The rated rpm value for the main rotor. Robinson R22( RatedRpm = 510 )
number_of_blades The number of blades in the rotor. Robinson R22( Number_of_blades = 2 )
weight_per_blade Approximate weight, in pounds, of each rotor blade. Robinson R22( Weight_per_blade = 26.0 )
weight_to_moi_factor The constant used in calculating the moment of inertia of the rotor disc. The MOI algorithm is a function of the number of blades, their weight, and this constant. Increasing this constant will increase the inertia of the disc. Robinson R22( Weight_to_moi_factor = 0.58 )
inflow_vel_reference The reference inflow velocity of the air mass moving through the rotor disc. Increasing this value will result in more thrust being generated. Robinson R22( inflow_vel_reference = 34.0 )

[secondaryrotor]

Property
Description
Examples
position Position relative to datum reference point. This position should be the center of the secondary rotor. Heavy lift helicopter( Position = -67.6, -3.7, 11.6 )
Robinson R22( Position = -22.8, -0.74, 1.8 )
tailrotor This flag, if set to 1, configures the secondary rotor as a tail rotor, or anti-torque. Robinson R22( TailRotor = 1 )
radius The radius of the rotor, in feet. Heavy lift helicopter( Radius = 6.56 )
Robinson R22( Radius = 1.75 )

[sling.n]

There can be multiple sling positions on an aircraft, each with its own set of the following properties.

Property
Description
Examples
hoist_extend_rate Feet per second. Heavy lift helicopter( hoist_extend_rate = 5 )
hoist_retract_rate Feet per second. Heavy lift helicopter( hoist_retract_rate = -5 )
position Position relative to datum reference point. Heavy lift helicopter( position = -34.7, 6.7, 7.0 )
max_stretch Max stretch distance at ultimate load. Heavy lift helicopter( max_stretch = 2.0 )
damping_ratio 0 for no damping to 1.0 for critically damped. Heavy lift helicopter( damping_ratio = 0.6 )
rated_load Characteristics tension of cable in pounds. Heavy lift helicopter( rated_load = 600 )
ultimate_load Breaking force in pounds. This cannot exceed 10,000lb. Heavy lift helicopter( ultimate_load = 2250 )
tolerance_angle Angle, in degrees, used to determine lateral breaking force limit. Heavy lift helicopter( tolerance_angle=45 )
auto_pickup_range Max Range, in feet, for auto-pickup. Heavy lift helicopter( auto_pickup_range = 8 )
auto_pickup_max_speed Maximum speed (feet per second) for auto-pickup. Heavy lift helicopter( auto_pickup_max_speed = 8.5 )
hoist_payload_station Payload station in which the hoist will load in and out of. 1 is first station. Heavy lift helicopter( hoist_payload_station = 4 )
hoist_door Door associated with hoist. Must be open for use. Heavy lift helicopter( hoist_door=1 )

[turboshaft_engine]

A turboshaft engine on a helicopter is very similar to a turboprop engine on a fixed wing aircraft.

Property
Description
Examples
power_scalar Scalar on Turboprop power. Heavy lift helicopter( power_scalar = 1.0 )
maximum_torque Maximum torque available (ft-lbs). Heavy lift helicopter( maximum_torque = 1335 )
powerspecificfuelconsumption Brake power specific fuel consumption. Heavy lift helicopter( PowerSpecificFuelConsumption = 0.55 )

The Kneeboard, Model, Sound, Texture and Panel Files

The Kneeboard Content Files

All of the kneeboard content is presented in HTML files. The kneeboard includes six pages:

Briefing

Displays the briefing for the flight, if there is one. The text displayed on the Briefing page of the kneeboard is flight-specific, and is located in the corresponding subdirectory of the Flights directory.

Radio

Logs the last 10 Air Traffic Control radio transmissions to your aircraft. The text displayed on the Radio page of the kneeboard is automatically generated as you use the Air Traffic Control feature. The text cannot be modified.

Navigation Log

Provides a list of waypoints, headings, and other information for a flight plan created using the Flight Planner. The text displayed on the Navigation Log page of the kneeboard is automatically generated from an active flight plan. The text cannot be modified.

Key Commands

Provides a complete list of keyboard commands. The text displayed on the Key Commands tab of the kneeboard is located in the main Aircraft folder, and is named kneeboard_keys.htm.

Checklists

Lists step-by-step procedures for the aircraft you're flying that (when used in conjunction with the speeds on the Reference page) make for a more realistic experience. The text displayed on the Checklists page is aircraft-specific, and saved in an .htm file in the aircraft container (aircraft folder) associated with each aircraft. The file for the Checklists page is named aircraftname_check.htm where aircraftname is the name of the aircraft (e.g., extra300s_check.htm).

Reference

Lists recommended speeds for the aircraft you're flying: how fast to fly during each phase of flight, and what the limits are. The text displayed on the Reference page is aircraft-specific, and saved in an .htm file in the aircraft container (aircraft folder) associated with each aircraft. The file for the Reference page is named aircraftndame_ref.htm where aircraftname is the name of the aircraft (e.g., extra300s_ref.htm).
In order for the the Checklist and Reference pages to display, two lines must be present in the aircraft.cfg file, in the [fltsim.0] section at the top:
  • kb_checklists=aircraftname_check
  • kb_reference=aircraftname_ref
where aircraftname is the name of the aircraft (e.g., extra300s_check and extra_300s_ref). Note that no .htm extension is needed here.
Creating or modifying the Checklist and Reference pages
You can create or open kneeboard .htm files with NotePad or any other text editing program that can read and save files in text format, and edit them using HTML 4.0 conventions.
After you've made changes to any kneeboard .htm files, be sure to reload the page on the kneeboard: select a different page on the kneeboard, then return to the page you modified.

The panel.cfg File

The panel.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Panel folder, and defines the characteristics of the aircraft’s cockpit, including window settings, view settings, and gauges. For a full explanation of the structure of a panel.cfg file and instructions for editing it, see Panel Configuration Files.

The model.cfg File

The model.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Model folder, and specifies which visual models (.mdl files), exterior and interior, to render during normal flight and optionally after a crash. Some legacy implementations had the interior model included with the exterior model. If a legacy model exists with both interior and exterior models in the same .mdl file, the models will be rendered correctly with a single normal parameter. However this method of storing models is inefficient, as the interior model is only needed on aircraft that are being controlled by the user.

Note that if a user has created a full cockpit out of hardware add-ons, and does not wish to see the interior model at all, then the interior entry can be left blank. In this case the user will not be able to see the exterior parts of the aircraft that are visible from the interior, but will get a clear view forward, left, right, and so on, which may be a better experience.

[models]

Property
Description
Examples
normal External 3D model used under normal circumstances. Aircreation_582SL( normal=AirCreation_582SL )
B737_800( normal=B737_800 )
b747_400( normal=B747_400 )
beech_baron_58( normal=Beech_Baron_58 )
Beech_King_Air_350( normal=Beech_King_Air_350 )
Bombardier_CRJ_700( normal=Bombardier_CRJ_700 )
C172( normal=Cessna172SP )
C208B( normal=C208B )
interior Internal, virtual cockpit, model. Aircreation_582SL( interior=AirCreation_582SL_Interior )
B737_800( interior=B737_800_interior )
b747_400( interior=B747_400_interior )
beech_baron_58( interior=Beech_Baron_58_interior )
Beech_King_Air_350( interior=beech_king_air_350_interior )
Bombardier_CRJ_700( interior=Bombardier_CRJ_700_Interior )
C172( interior=cessna172sp_interior )
C208B( interior=c208b_interior )
crash 3D model used if aircraft crashes. No examples of crash models are available.

The sound.cfg File

The sound.cfg file is located in an aircraft’s Sound folder, and defines the sounds to use for that aircraft (such as the sound of the engine at various speeds, the sound of the landing gear going down, and so on). Refer to the Sound Configuration files document for more details.

The Texture Folder

An aircraft’s textures are defined by the .bmp files in the aircraft’s Texture folder, and are projected onto the aircraft’s parts as specified in the aircraft’s visual model (.mdl) file, located in the Model folder. Texture file names must correspond to the texture files that are referenced in the .mdl file. If the file names don't correspond, the textures will not be rendered.
Texture files are mipmapped.  A mipmapped texture consists of a sequence of images, each of which is a progressively lower resolution, prefiltered representation of the same image. Mipmapping is a computationally low-cost way of improving the quality of rendered textures. Each prefiltered image, or level, in the mipmap is a power of two smaller than the previous level. A high-resolution level is used for objects that are close to the viewer. Lower-resolution levels are used as the object moves farther away.
To edit a mipmapped texture, you’ll need to use Image Tool, an image editing application included with the SDK. Be sure to save a copy of the original file before attempting to modify it. A texture can also be edited using a simple graphics application such as Paint, though it will be saved as a standard .bmp file instead of a mipmapped .bmp. The simulator will automatically generate the mipmaps for a texture (if none exist), although these mipmaps may not be of as high a quality as mipmaps created using ImageTool (supplied with this SDK).

For more details on the texture configuration file, refer to the document Texturing Aircraft Models

Notes on using Aliasing

Aliasing allows multiple aircraft, or other objects such as vehicles or boats, to use the same files (panels, flight models, sounds, etc.). This saves disk space and makes file organization more efficient. You can alias an object ’s panel.cfg, model.cfg, and sound.cfg files from any other object. Whereas configuration sets allow objects within a single container to share components, aliasing allows objects in different containers to share components. To alias a panel.cfg, model.cfg, or sound.cfg file, simply change the aliasing object's configuration file to read:

[fltsim]
alias=objectname\panel
or
[fltsim]
alias=objectname\model
or
[fltsim]
alias=objectname\sound


Aliased files are searched for in the following order:

  1. Relative path from the object type folder (one of: Airplanes, Animals, Boats, GroundVehicles, Misc or Rotorcraft).
  2. Relative path from the Microsoft ESP/1.0/ folder.
An example

Let’s say you’ve imported a Boeing 757 aircraft from the Web into the simulation, but want to use the 737-400 panel when flying it. Instead of duplicating all the 737-400 panel files (Panel.cfg and .bmps) and putting them in the new 757 aircraft container, you can alias to them in their existing location from the 757 panel.cfg file. Just change the 757 panel.cfg file to read:


[fltsim]
alias=B737_400\panel


The 757 aircraft would then use the 737-400 panel.cfg file (and the associated .bmps). The syntax for aliasing model.cfg and sound.cfg files is identical.

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