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Constants (Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server)

SQL Server 2008 R2

This topic discusses the constants that are defined by the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server.

The constants listed on the PDO website are valid in the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server.

The following describe the Microsoft specific constants in the PDO_SQLSRV driver.

Transaction Isolation Level Constants

The TransactionIsolation key, which is used with PDO::__construct, accepts one of the following constants:

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_READ_UNCOMMITTED

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_READ_COMMITTED

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_REPEATABLE_READ

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_SNAPSHOT

  • PDO::SQLSRV_TXN_SERIALIZABLE

For more information about the TransactionIsolation key, see Connection Options.

Encoding Constants

The PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_ENCODING attribute can be passed to PDOStatement::setAttribute, PDO::setAttribute, PDO::prepare, PDOStatement::bindColumn, and PDOStatement::bindParam.

The available values to pass to PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_ENCODING are

PDO_SQLSRV driver constant

Description

PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_BINARY

Data is a raw byte stream from the server without performing encoding or translation.

Not valid for PDO::setAttribute.

PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_SYSTEM

Data is 8-bit characters as specified in the code page of the Windows locale that is set on the system. Any multi-byte characters or characters that do not map into this code page are substituted with a single byte question mark (?) character.

PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_UTF8

Data is in the UTF-8 encoding. This is the default encoding.

PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_DEFAULT

Uses PDO::SQLSRV_ENCODING_SYSTEM if specified during connection.

Use the connection’s encoding if specified in a prepare statement.

Query Timeout

The PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_QUERY_TIMEOUT attribute is any non-negative integer representing the timeout period, in seconds. Zero (0) is the default and means no timeout.

You can specify the PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_QUERY_TIMEOUT attribute with PDOStatement::setAttribute, PDO::setAttribute, and PDO::prepare.

Direct or Prepared Execution

You can select direct query execution or prepared statement execution with the PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY attribute. PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY can be set with PDO::prepare or PDO::setAttribute. For more information about PDO::SQLSRV_ATTR_DIRECT_QUERY, see Direct Statement Execution and Prepared Statement Execution in the PDO_SQLSRV Driver.

The following sections list the constants used by the SQLSRV driver.

ERR Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to specify if sqlsrv_errors returns errors, warnings, or both.

Value

Description

SQLSRV_ERR_ALL

Errors and warnings generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned. This is the default value.

SQLSRV_ERR_ERRORS

Errors generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned.

SQLSRV_ERR_WARNINGS

Warnings generated on the last sqlsrv function call are returned.

FETCH Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to specify the type of array returned by sqlsrv_fetch_array.

SQLSRV constant

Description

SQLSRV_FETCH_ASSOC

sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as an associative array.

SQLSRV_FETCH_BOTH

sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as an array with both numeric and associative keys. This is the default value.

SQLSRV_FETCH_NUMERIC

sqlsrv_fetch_array returns the next row of data as a numerically indexed array.

Logging Constants

This section lists the constants that are used to change the logging settings with sqlsrv_configure. For more information about logging activity, see Logging Activity.

The following table lists the constants that can be used as the value for the LogSubsystems setting:

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in paraentheses)

Description

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_ALL (-1)

Turns on logging of all subsystems.

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_CONN (2)

Turns on logging of connection activity.

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_INIT (1)

Turns on logging of initialization activity.

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_OFF (0)

Turns logging off.

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_STMT (4)

Turns on logging of statement activity.

SQLSRV_LOG_SYSTEM_UTIL (8)

Turns on logging of error functions activity (such as handle_error and handle_warning).

The following table lists the constants that can be used as the value for the LogSeverity setting:

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in paraentheses)

Description

SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_ALL (-1)

Specifies that errors, warnings, and notices will be logged.

SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_ERROR (1)

Specifies that errors will be logged.

SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_NOTICE (4)

Specifies that notices will be logged.

SQLSRV_LOG_SEVERITY_WARNING (2)

Specifies that warnings will be logged.

Nullable Constants

The following table lists the constants that you can use to determine whether or not a column is nullable or if this information is not available. You can compare the value of the Nullable key that is returned by sqlsrv_field_metadata to determine the column's nullable status.

SQLSRV constant (integer equivalent in paraentheses)

Description

SQLSRV_NULLABLE_YES (0)

The column is nullable.

SQLSRV_NULLABLE_NO (1)

The column is not nullable.

SQLSRV_NULLABLE_UNKNOWN (2)

It is not known if the column is nullable.

PARAM Constants

The following list contains the constants for specifying parameter direction when you call sqlsrv_query or sqlsrv_prepare.

SQLSRV constant

Description

SQLSRV_PARAM_IN

Indicates an input parameter.

SQLSRV_PARAM_INOUT

Indicates a bidirectional parameter.

SQLSRV_PARAM_OUT

Indicates an output parameter.

PHPTYPE Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to describe PHP data types. For information about PHP data types, see PHP Types.

SQLSRV constant

PHP data type

SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_INT

Integer

SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_DATETIME

Datetime

SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_FLOAT

Float

SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM(<encoding>1)

Stream

SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING(<encoding>1)

String

1. SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM and SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING accept a parameter that specifies the stream encoding. The following table contains the SQLSRV constants that are acceptable parameters, and a description of the corresponding encoding.

SQLSRV constant

Description

SQLSRV_ENC_BINARY

Data is returned as a raw byte stream from the server without performing encoding or translation.

SQLSRV_ENC_CHAR

Data is returned in 8-bit characters as specified in the code page of the Windows locale that is set on the system. Any multi-byte characters or characters that do not map into this code page are substituted with a single byte question mark (?) character.

This is the default encoding.

"UTF-8"

Data is returned in the UTF-8 encoding. This constant was added in version 1.1 of the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server. For more information about UTF-8 support, see How to: Send and Retrieve UTF-8 Data Using Built-In UTF-8 Support.

Note Note

When you use SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STREAM or SQLSRV_PHPTYPE_STRING, the encoding must be specified. If no parameter is supplied, an error will be returned.

For more information about these constants, see How to: Specify PHP Data Types, How to: Retrieve Character Data as a Stream Using the SQLSRV Driver.

SQLTYPE Constants

The following table lists the constants that are used to describe SQL Server data types. Some constants require parameters that correspond to precision, scale, and/or length. For information about SQL Server data types, see Data Types (Transact-SQL). For information about precision, scale, and length, see Precision, Scale, and Length (Transact-SQL).

SQLSRV constant

SQL Server data type

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BIGINT

bigint

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BINARY

binary

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BIT

bit

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_CHAR($charCount)

char

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATE

date4

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIME

datetime

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIME2

datetime24

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DATETIMEOFFSET

datetimeoffset4

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL($precision, $scale)

decimal

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_FLOAT

float

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_IMAGE

image1

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_INT

int

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_MONEY

money

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NCHAR($charCount)

nchar

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC($precision, $scale)

numeric

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR($charCount)

nvarchar

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR('max')

nvarchar(MAX)

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NTEXT

ntext2

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_REAL

real

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLDATETIME

smalldatetime

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLINT

smallint

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_SMALLMONEY

smallmoney

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TEXT

text3

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TIME

time4

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TIMESTAMP

timestamp

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_TINYINT

tinyint

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_UNIQUEIDENTIFIER

uniqueidentifier

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_UDT

UDT

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY($byteCount)

varbinary

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY('max')

varbinary(MAX)

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR($charCount)

varchar

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR('max')

varchar(MAX)

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_XML

xml

  1. This is a legacy type that maps to the varbinary(max) type.

  2. This is a legacy type that maps to the newer nvarchar type.

  3. This is a legacy type that maps to the newer varchar type.

  4. Support for this type was added in version 1.1 of the Microsoft Drivers for PHP for SQL Server. 

The following table lists the SQLTYPE constants that accept parameters and the range of values allowed for the parameter.

SQLTYPE

Parameter

Allowable range for parameter

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_CHAR,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARCHAR

charCount

1 - 8000

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NCHAR,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NVARCHAR

charCount

1 - 4000

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_BINARY,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_VARBINARY

byteCount

1 - 8000

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC

precision

1 - 38

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_DECIMAL,

SQLSRV_SQLTYPE_NUMERIC

scale

1 - precision

Transaction Isolation Level Constants

The TransactionIsolation key, which is used with sqlsrv_connect, accepts one of the following constants:

  • SQLSRV_TXN_READ_UNCOMMITTED

  • SQLSRV_TXN_READ_COMMITTED

  • SQLSRV_TXN_REPEATABLE_READ

  • SQLSRV_TXN_SNAPSHOT

  • SQLSRV_TXN_SERIALIZABLE

Cursor and Scrolling Constants

The following constants specify the kind of cursor that you can use in a result set:

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_FORWARD

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_STATIC

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_DYNAMIC

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_KEYSET

  • SQLSRV_CURSOR_CLIENT_BUFFERED

The following constants specify which row to select in the result set:

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_NEXT

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_PRIOR

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_FIRST

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_LAST

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_ABSOLUTE

  • SQLSRV_SCROLL_RELATIVE

For information on using these constants, see Specifying a Cursor Type and Selecting Rows.

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