failback: A failback operation. The process of returning production to its original location after a primary system failure or scheduled maintenance period.
failover: A backup operation that automatically switches to a standby database, server, or network if the primary system fails or is temporarily shut down for servicing. Failover is an important fault tolerance function of mission-critical systems that rely on constant accessibility.
To the user, failover automatically and transparently redirects requests from the failed or down system to the backup system that mimics the operations of the primary system.
A failover operation is always followed by a failback operation, which is the process of returning production to its original location.
failover cluster: A set of independent computers that work together to increase the availability of services and applications.
fast reconnect: A shortcut negotiation that capitalizes on information exchanged in the initial authentication to expedite the reestablishment of a session.
FAT: See file allocation table (FAT).
FAT file system: A file system used by MS-DOS and other Windows operating systems to organize and manage files. The file allocation table (FAT) is a data structure that the operating system creates when a volume is formatted by using FAT or FAT32 file systems. The operating system stores information about each file in the FAT so that it can retrieve the file later.
FAT32 file system: A derivative of the file allocation table (FAT) file system. FAT32 supports smaller cluster sizes and larger volumes than FAT, which results in more efficient space allocation on FAT32 volumes. FAT32 uses 32-bit addressing.
fault-tolerant: The ability of computer hardware or software to ensure data integrity when hardware failures occur. Fault-tolerant features appear in many server operating systems and include mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes. A fault-tolerant volume maintains more than one copy of the volume's data. In the event of disk failure, a copy of the data is still available.
fiber channel bus: A bus technology that uses optical fiber for communication.
Fid: A 16-bit value that the Server Message Block (SMB) server uses to represent an opened file, Named Pipe, printer, or device. A Fid is returned by an SMB server in response to a client request to open or create a file, Named Pipe, printer, or device. The SMB server guarantees that the Fid value returned is unique for a given SMB connection until the SMB connection is closed, at which time the Fid value may be reused. The Fid is used by the SMB client in subsequent SMB commands to identify the opened file, Named Pipe, printer, or device.
file: An entity of data in the file system that a user can access and manage. A file must have a unique name in its directory. It consists of one or more streams of bytes that hold a set of related data, plus a set of attributes (also called properties) that describe the file or the data within the file. The creation time of a file is an example of a file attribute.
file allocation table (FAT): A data structure that the operating system creates when a volume is formatted by using FAT or FAT32 file systems. The operating system stores information about each file in the FAT so that it can retrieve the file later.
file allocation units: Units of a specific size that are used by the file system to allocate space on a disk for the file system used by the volume.
file attribute: A 32-bit bitmask containing information on a file's properties. For instance, 0x00000001 is used for the read-only attribute.
file/directory attributes: The attributes of a file or a directory, as specified in [MS-FSCC].
file encryption key (FEK): The symmetric key that is used to encrypt the data in an Encrypting File System (EFS)-protected file. The FEK is further encrypted and stored in the file metadata such that only authorized users can access it.
file event time: The time at which a change to a file or folder is made. This may not be the same as the file create or last-write time. Restoring a file from a backup tape preserves the file create and last-write times, but the file event time is the time when the actual file restoration was performed.
file extension: The sequence of characters in a file's name between the end of the file's name and the last "." character. Vendors of applications choose such sequences for the applications to uniquely identify files that were created by those applications. This allows file management software to determine which application should be used to open a file.
file GUID: An identifying property of a file or folder in a replica tree. File Replication Service (FRS) creates and manages file GUIDs that, along with the replication version number and event time, are stored in the IDTable. Each file and folder stores its file GUID as part of its attributes; therefore, corresponding files and folders across all replica set members have the same file GUID.
FileId: (1) A 64-bit value used to represent a file. The value of a FileId is unique on a single volume of a local file system or a remote file server. A FileId is not guaranteed to be unique across volumes, but the file system on the server must guarantee that it is unique within a given volume if FileIds are supported. FileIds are not supported by all local file systems. On Windows, NTFS supports FileIds, but the file allocation table (FAT) file system does not support them.
(2) The FileLocation of a file at the time it was originally created. A file's FileId never changes.
FileInformation: Information that is maintained about a file, such as its FileId.
FileLinkInformation: Information about the file necessary to identify and locate a file, including the file's last known Universal Naming Convention (UNC) name, the MachineID of the computer on which the file was last known to be located, the last known FileLocation of the file, and the file's permanent FileID.
file property: See File Attribute.
file system: A system that enables applications to store and retrieve files on storage devices. Files are placed in a hierarchical structure. The file system specifies naming conventions for files and the format for specifying the path to a file in the tree structure. Each file system consists of one or more drivers and DLLs that define the data formats and features of the file system. File systems can exist on the following storage devices: diskettes, hard disks, jukeboxes, removable optical disks, and tape backup units.
file system control (FSCTL): A command issued to a file system to alter or query the behavior of the file system and/or set or query metadata associated with a particular file or the file system itself.
file system extension: The act of extending the file system on a volume to include more disk sectors. If the size of the volume is larger than the size of the file system for that volume, the file system may be extended to manage more of the volume's disk extensions.
file system flags: A set of values used by a file system to configure and report file system features and operations.
FileTable: Maps a FileLocation or FileID to a current FileLocation.
FILETIME: A 64-bit value representing a time, as specified in [MS-RPCE], Appendix A.
file version number: A property of a file and folder in a replica tree that is incremented each time the file or folder is updated. The file version number is used to resolve concurrent updates originating from more than one member of the replica set. The version number is incremented only by the member that originated the file update. Other members that propagate the update do not change the version number.
filter: (1) A setting that excludes subfolders (and their contents) or files from replication.
(2) In the context of the Lightweight Directory Access (LDAP) protocol, the filter is one of the parameters in a search request. The filter specifies matching constraints for the candidate objects.
(3) A configuration on a network access server (NAS) that specifies the types of traffic that are acceptable for IP local host traffic. Filters can block or allow traffic by IP address, IP protocol, TCP port, or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) port.
Filter Max: The chunking algorithm used in remote differential compression (RDC) to split files into chunks. With Filter Max, chunk boundaries are determined by local maxima for a fixed horizon size h. The local maxima may be determined by comparing hash values summarizing a limited window of bytes around each file position.
finite state machine: A computer, or operating system, in which a set of inputs determines not only the set of outputs but also the internal state of a computer, so that processing is optimized.
firewall rule: A group of settings that specify which connections are allowed into and out of a client computer.
fixup: A location in a program image depending on an absolute address. Because Win32 programs must be able to run at any address, the linker writes a fixup table to the Preinstallation Environment (PE) file containing a list of all such locations in the program. Windows will process the fixup table when the program is loaded. RTTarget-32 performs this function in the locate process.
fix-up servers: See remediation server.
flags: A set of values used to configure or report options or settings.
flexible single master operation (FSMO): See FSMO Role, FSMO Role Owner, and FSMO Object.
flow: A TCP session or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) pseudo-session, identified by a 5-tuple (source and destination IP and ports, and protocol). By extension, a request/response Internet Control Message protocol (ICMP) exchange (for example, ICMP echo) is also a flow.
folder: A file system construct. File systems organize a volume's data by providing a hierarchy of objects known as folders or directories, which contain files.
folder redirection: The ability to change the location of certain pre- determined folders in a file system from their default location to another location on the same machine or to a network storage location.
foreign: A dynamic disk group that is not part of a machine's primary disk group. The term foreign denotes "foreign to this machine." Foreign disk and foreign disk groups are not online. This means that these disks may not be configured and no data input/output (I/O) to the disks or the volumes on the disks is permitted.
forest: (1) One or more domains that share a common schema and trust each other transitively. An organization can have multiple forests. A forest is the security and administrative boundary for all objects that reside within the forest. In contrast, a domain is the administrative boundary for managing objects, such as users, groups, and computers. In addition, each domain has individual security policies and trust relationships with other domains.
(2) In the Active Directory directory service, a forest is a set of naming contexts (NCs) consisting of one schema NC, one Config NC, and one or more domain NCs. Because a set of NCs can be arranged into a tree structure, a forest is also a set of one or several trees of naming contexts (NCs).
forest functional level: A specification of functionality available in a forest. Must be consistent with the Windows versions of the domain controllers (DCs) in the forest. The following table gives the constants and the specific operating systems on which they are supported.
|DS_BEHAVIOR_WIN2000||Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008|
|DS_BEHAVIOR_WIN2003_WITH_MIXED_DOMAINS||Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008|
|DS_BEHAVIOR_WIN2003||Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008|
|DS_BEHAVIOR_WIN2008||Windows Server 2008|
These values are specified in [MS-ADTS] section 22.214.171.124.
forest trust information: Information about namespaces, domain names, and security identifiers (SIDs) owned by a trusted forest.
format: When a volume is formatted, metadata is written to the disk, which is used by the file system to organize the data on the disk. A volume is formatted with a specific file system.
forward link attribute: An attribute whose values include object references (for example, an attribute of syntax Object(DS-DN)). The forward link values can be used to compute the values of a related attribute, a back link attribute, on other objects. If an object o refers to object r in forward link attribute f, and there exists a back link attribute b corresponding to f, then a back link value referring to o exists in attribute b on object r. The relationship between the forward and back link attributes is expressed using the linkId attribute on the attributeSchema objects representing the two attributes. The forward link's linkId is an even number, the back link's linkId is the forward link's linkId plus one. A forward link attribute can exist with no corresponding back link attribute, but not vice-versa. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].
forward link value: The value of a forward link attribute.
free space: Space on a disk not in use by any volumes, primary partitions, or logical drives.
FrontPage: The FrontPage Server Extensions. These extensions are used by some clients to manage resources/documents on Microsoft's Web servers. These extensions are a series of CGI and POSTs for server side processing.
FRS: See File Replication Service (FRS).
FSCTL: See file system control (FSCTL).
FSMO object: The object in the directory that represents a specific FSMO Role. This object is a member of the FSMO Role and contains the fSMORoleOwner attribute.
FSMO role: A set of objects that may be updated in only one naming context (NC) replica at any given time. For more information, see [MS-ADTS].
FSMO role abandon: A request to a domain controller (DC) "d". The effect is for d to request the current holder of a specified FSMO role to transfer the role to d. Abandon is typically initiated by the current role holder in anticipation of being unable to host the role, for example, because the DC is being decommissioned. Saying "DC x abandoned the y role" means that x, the current holder of role y, picked another domain controller (DC) "d" and made an FSMO role role y abandon request to d.
FSMO role transfer: A request to a domain controller (DC) "d". If d is the current holder of the specified FSMO Role, the effect is to transfer that role to the client; if d is not the current holder of the role, the effect is to update the client's role objects from d's replica, so that the client can try the request again on another DC.
full database synchronization: A mechanism for synchronizing an entire database record set on a particular replication partner.
full format: A format in which all data sectors for the volume are initialized at the time the file system metadata is created.
full NC replica: A naming context (NC) replica that contains all the attributes of the objects it contains. A full replica accepts originating updates.
full token: A token that consists of all administrator rights and privileges.
fully qualified domain name (FQDN): (1) In a domain naming system, an unambiguous domain name that specifies the node's position in the domain naming service tree hierarchy absolutely.