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1.1 Glossary

The following terms are defined in [MS-GLOS]:

big-endian
little-endian
UUID

The following terms are specific to this document:

access point (AP): A device that connects wireless devices to form a wireless network.

Basic Service Set Identifier (BSSID): A Media Access Control (MAC) address that is used to identify an entity (such as the access point) in a wireless network.

broadcast: The sending of a frame to the Ethernet broadcast domain by an LLTD-capable station.

charge: A mechanism used to prevent Denial of Service (DoS) attacks, as described in section 1.3.5.

controller: A station that initiates a network test request.

cross-traffic analysis: A technique used by Quality of Service (QoS) applications to understand the nature of network activity, usually resulting in the identification of the hosts that are responsible for most of this activity.

cross-traffic analysis initiator: A station that initiates a cross-traffic analysis request.

Current Transmit Credit (CTC): The charge available at a responder.

enumerator: A station that seeks all LLTD–capable stations on the link by using quick discovery.

Ethernet broadcast domain: The portion of a network that can receive frames destined for the special broadcast MAC address (that is, consisting of all binary 1s).

flooding: A switch's sending of a frame to all segments to which it is connected. A switch will flood a frame containing a MAC address for which the switch does not know the corresponding segment.

friendly name: A human-readable name that identifies a network resource.

generation number: A number used by a mapper to generate fresh MAC addresses from a private range.

hub: A data link-layer network device that acts as a shared bus. All stations that are connected to a hub are on the same segment; therefore, each station that is connected to a hub sees all frames that are sent to or from all other stations on that hub. Compare this term with router and switch.

interrupt moderation: The process of delaying central processing unit (CPU) interrupts generated by a local network interface. Delaying interrupts improves system efficiency by only generating a single interrupt for multiple events instead of an individual interrupt per event. Although desirable for improved system performance, delaying interrupts impacts the measurement accuracy of timed events. The algorithm determining the length of delay is hardware specific, therefore, not in scope of this specification.

mapper: A station that initiates a topology discovery test.

Media Access Control (MAC) address: A unique link-layer address that identifies a network interface.

network test: Generic term to describe any technique (for example, probegap or timed probe) that is used to estimate the throughput of a network.

probegap: A probing experiment that involves sending one or more probe packets from the initiator to the sink and then back to the initiator. The intention is to gather a series of one-way delay (OWD) samples. This technique is used to estimate the available bandwidth of the network path between the initiator and sink devices. Probegap is synergistic to timed probe and packet pair in the sense that the available bandwidth is calculated relative to the bottleneck bandwidth; the former cannot be calculated without knowing the latter. For an example of how probegap can be used by an application, see [ProbeGap].

quick discovery: The process of discovering responders on a network.

real MAC address: A MAC address provided by the network interface vendor to uniquely identify the device on the network, as specified in [IEEE802.3].

RepeatBAND: A fast and scalable station enumeration algorithm as specified in section 3.5.6.2.

responder: An LLTD–capable station to which mappers and enumerators send LLTD commands.

router: A network-layer device that defines the limit of an Ethernet broadcast domain. Compare with hub and switch.

segment: A set of stations that see each others' link-layer frames without being changed by any device in the middle, such as a switch.

service set identifier (SSID): A unique identifier that is used to differentiate one wireless network from another.

session: A context for managing communication over LLTD among stations.

sink: A responder that is the target of a network testsession.

station: Any device that implements LLTD.

switch: A data link-layer device that propagates frames between segments and allows communication among stations on different segments. Stations that are connected through a switch see only those frames destined for their segments. Compare this term with hub and router.

timed probe: A network test used for packet pair. Packet pair is a probing experiment that involves sending two or more consecutive probe packets of highly entropic data from the initiator to the sink. This technique is used to estimate the bottleneck bandwidth of the network path between the initiator and sink devices. For an example of how packet pair can be used by an application, see [PacketPair].

topology discovery test: A test that an application or higher-layer protocol can use to facilitate discovering the link-layer topology of a single link in a network. That is, to facilitate discovering the set of segments and switches, and determining which responders are on which segments. Compare this term with quick discovery.

type-length-value (TLV): A property, as used in this protocol, of a network interface, so named because each property is composed of a Type field, a Length field, and a value. All LLTD attributes are TLVs, as specified in section 2.2.1.1.

UCS-2LE: A variation of the UCS-2 string encoding format. The specification of UCS-2 in [ISO/IEC-10646] represents each code point in big-endian format. In UCS-2LE, each code point is represented in little-endian format.

wireless band: A term used to identify an IEEE 802.11 protocol family. For example, 802.11a is a wireless band.

MAY, SHOULD, MUST, SHOULD NOT, MUST NOT: These terms (in all caps) are used as specified in [RFC2119]. All statements of optional behavior use either MAY, SHOULD, or SHOULD NOT.

 
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